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This software performs the simulations for the paper: Extrapolating weak selection in evolutionary games, by Bin Wu, Julian Garcia, Christoph Hauert and Arne Traulsen. Journal link.

A good place to start is the included IPython notebook viewable on-line here

Included files

  • estimates the number of rank changes and changes of the most abundant strategy in the stationary distribution associated to an imitation process in random games of a given size and distribution. It samples, counts and writes the results to the hard disk. Please see the paper for technical details and read further for computational details.

  • Contains a function to plot abundance curves (using matplotlib).

  • contains unit tests

  • notebook.ipynb: is an interactive IPython notebook that describes the details of the estimation procedure.

  • LICENSE: MIT License

  • README.MD: This file

Dependencies was tested using numpy version 1.7.1 and python 2.7.5.

notebook.ipynb was created with IPython version 1.0. uses matplotlib version 1.3

Running the software

The program should be invoked as:


DISTRIBUTION_TYPE is 0 for uniformly distributed games, or 1 for sampling from a Gaussian distribution.

For example

python 8902 5 1000 0

will generate 1000 uniformly distributed random games of size 5, and count the number of rank changes and changes in the most abundant strategy for every game.

These counts are stored in a dictionary that has the number of changes as keys, and the number of occurrences of such changes as values. In this particular case, the two dictionaries are stored in the hard disk in files n_5_dist_0_seed_8902_count.pickle for changes in raking, and ma_n_5_dist_0_seed_8902_count.pickle for changes in the most abundant strategy.


For unit tests please run



See LICENSE for details.