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// Copyright 2013 Julien Schmidt. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be found
// in the LICENSE file.
// Package httprouter is a trie based high performance HTTP request router.
//
// A trivial example is:
//
// package main
//
// import (
// "fmt"
// "github.com/julienschmidt/httprouter"
// "net/http"
// "log"
// )
//
// func Index(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, _ httprouter.Params) {
// fmt.Fprint(w, "Welcome!\n")
// }
//
// func Hello(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request, ps httprouter.Params) {
// fmt.Fprintf(w, "hello, %s!\n", ps.ByName("name"))
// }
//
// func main() {
// router := httprouter.New()
// router.GET("/", Index)
// router.GET("/hello/:name", Hello)
//
// log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":8080", router))
// }
//
// The router matches incoming requests by the request method and the path.
// If a handle is registered for this path and method, the router delegates the
// request to that function.
// For the methods GET, POST, PUT, PATCH and DELETE shortcut functions exist to
// register handles, for all other methods router.Handle can be used.
//
// The registered path, against which the router matches incoming requests, can
// contain two types of parameters:
// Syntax Type
// :name named parameter
// *name catch-all parameter
//
// Named parameters are dynamic path segments. They match anything until the
// next '/' or the path end:
// Path: /blog/:category/:post
//
// Requests:
// /blog/go/request-routers match: category="go", post="request-routers"
// /blog/go/request-routers/ no match, but the router would redirect
// /blog/go/ no match
// /blog/go/request-routers/comments no match
//
// Catch-all parameters match anything until the path end, including the
// directory index (the '/' before the catch-all). Since they match anything
// until the end, catch-all parameters must always be the final path element.
// Path: /files/*filepath
//
// Requests:
// /files/ match: filepath="/"
// /files/LICENSE match: filepath="/LICENSE"
// /files/templates/article.html match: filepath="/templates/article.html"
// /files no match, but the router would redirect
//
// The value of parameters is saved as a slice of the Param struct, consisting
// each of a key and a value. The slice is passed to the Handle func as a third
// parameter.
// There are two ways to retrieve the value of a parameter:
// // by the name of the parameter
// user := ps.ByName("user") // defined by :user or *user
//
// // by the index of the parameter. This way you can also get the name (key)
// thirdKey := ps[2].Key // the name of the 3rd parameter
// thirdValue := ps[2].Value // the value of the 3rd parameter
package httprouter
import (
"net/http"
)
// Handle is a function that can be registered to a route to handle HTTP
// requests. Like http.HandlerFunc, but has a third parameter for the values of
// wildcards (variables).
type Handle func(http.ResponseWriter, *http.Request, Params)
// Param is a single URL parameter, consisting of a key and a value.
type Param struct {
Key string
Value string
}
// Params is a Param-slice, as returned by the router.
// The slice is ordered, the first URL parameter is also the first slice value.
// It is therefore safe to read values by the index.
type Params []Param
// ByName returns the value of the first Param which key matches the given name.
// If no matching Param is found, an empty string is returned.
func (ps Params) ByName(name string) string {
for i := range ps {
if ps[i].Key == name {
return ps[i].Value
}
}
return ""
}
// Router is a http.Handler which can be used to dispatch requests to different
// handler functions via configurable routes
type Router struct {
trees map[string]*node
// Enables automatic redirection if the current route can't be matched but a
// handler for the path with (without) the trailing slash exists.
// For example if /foo/ is requested but a route only exists for /foo, the
// client is redirected to /foo with http status code 301 for GET requests
// and 307 for all other request methods.
RedirectTrailingSlash bool
// If enabled, the router tries to fix the current request path, if no
// handle is registered for it.
// First superfluous path elements like ../ or // are removed.
// Afterwards the router does a case-insensitive lookup of the cleaned path.
// If a handle can be found for this route, the router makes a redirection
// to the corrected path with status code 301 for GET requests and 307 for
// all other request methods.
// For example /FOO and /..//Foo could be redirected to /foo.
// RedirectTrailingSlash is independent of this option.
RedirectFixedPath bool
// If enabled, the router checks if another method is allowed for the
// current route, if the current request can not be routed.
// If this is the case, the request is answered with 'Method Not Allowed'
// and HTTP status code 405.
// If no other Method is allowed, the request is delegated to the NotFound
// handler.
HandleMethodNotAllowed bool
// If enabled, the router automatically replies to OPTIONS requests.
// Custom OPTIONS handlers take priority over automatic replies.
HandleOPTIONS bool
// Configurable http.Handler which is called when no matching route is
// found. If it is not set, http.NotFound is used.
NotFound http.Handler
// Configurable http.Handler which is called when a request
// cannot be routed and HandleMethodNotAllowed is true.
// If it is not set, http.Error with http.StatusMethodNotAllowed is used.
// The "Allow" header with allowed request methods is set before the handler
// is called.
MethodNotAllowed http.Handler
// Function to handle panics recovered from http handlers.
// It should be used to generate a error page and return the http error code
// 500 (Internal Server Error).
// The handler can be used to keep your server from crashing because of
// unrecovered panics.
PanicHandler func(http.ResponseWriter, *http.Request, interface{})
}
// Make sure the Router conforms with the http.Handler interface
var _ http.Handler = New()
// New returns a new initialized Router.
// Path auto-correction, including trailing slashes, is enabled by default.
func New() *Router {
return &Router{
RedirectTrailingSlash: true,
RedirectFixedPath: true,
HandleMethodNotAllowed: true,
HandleOPTIONS: true,
}
}
// GET is a shortcut for router.Handle("GET", path, handle)
func (r *Router) GET(path string, handle Handle) {
r.Handle("GET", path, handle)
}
// HEAD is a shortcut for router.Handle("HEAD", path, handle)
func (r *Router) HEAD(path string, handle Handle) {
r.Handle("HEAD", path, handle)
}
// OPTIONS is a shortcut for router.Handle("OPTIONS", path, handle)
func (r *Router) OPTIONS(path string, handle Handle) {
r.Handle("OPTIONS", path, handle)
}
// POST is a shortcut for router.Handle("POST", path, handle)
func (r *Router) POST(path string, handle Handle) {
r.Handle("POST", path, handle)
}
// PUT is a shortcut for router.Handle("PUT", path, handle)
func (r *Router) PUT(path string, handle Handle) {
r.Handle("PUT", path, handle)
}
// PATCH is a shortcut for router.Handle("PATCH", path, handle)
func (r *Router) PATCH(path string, handle Handle) {
r.Handle("PATCH", path, handle)
}
// DELETE is a shortcut for router.Handle("DELETE", path, handle)
func (r *Router) DELETE(path string, handle Handle) {
r.Handle("DELETE", path, handle)
}
// Handle registers a new request handle with the given path and method.
//
// For GET, POST, PUT, PATCH and DELETE requests the respective shortcut
// functions can be used.
//
// This function is intended for bulk loading and to allow the usage of less
// frequently used, non-standardized or custom methods (e.g. for internal
// communication with a proxy).
func (r *Router) Handle(method, path string, handle Handle) {
if path[0] != '/' {
panic("path must begin with '/' in path '" + path + "'")
}
if r.trees == nil {
r.trees = make(map[string]*node)
}
root := r.trees[method]
if root == nil {
root = new(node)
r.trees[method] = root
}
root.addRoute(path, handle)
}
// HandlerFunc is an adapter which allows the usage of an http.HandlerFunc as a
// request handle.
func (r *Router) HandlerFunc(method, path string, handler http.HandlerFunc) {
r.Handler(method, path, handler)
}
// ServeFiles serves files from the given file system root.
// The path must end with "/*filepath", files are then served from the local
// path /defined/root/dir/*filepath.
// For example if root is "/etc" and *filepath is "passwd", the local file
// "/etc/passwd" would be served.
// Internally a http.FileServer is used, therefore http.NotFound is used instead
// of the Router's NotFound handler.
// To use the operating system's file system implementation,
// use http.Dir:
// router.ServeFiles("/src/*filepath", http.Dir("/var/www"))
func (r *Router) ServeFiles(path string, root http.FileSystem) {
if len(path) < 10 || path[len(path)-10:] != "/*filepath" {
panic("path must end with /*filepath in path '" + path + "'")
}
fileServer := http.FileServer(root)
r.GET(path, func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request, ps Params) {
req.URL.Path = ps.ByName("filepath")
fileServer.ServeHTTP(w, req)
})
}
func (r *Router) recv(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
if rcv := recover(); rcv != nil {
r.PanicHandler(w, req, rcv)
}
}
// Lookup allows the manual lookup of a method + path combo.
// This is e.g. useful to build a framework around this router.
// If the path was found, it returns the handle function and the path parameter
// values. Otherwise the third return value indicates whether a redirection to
// the same path with an extra / without the trailing slash should be performed.
func (r *Router) Lookup(method, path string) (Handle, Params, bool) {
if root := r.trees[method]; root != nil {
return root.getValue(path)
}
return nil, nil, false
}
func (r *Router) allowed(path, reqMethod string) (allow string) {
if path == "*" { // server-wide
for method := range r.trees {
if method == "OPTIONS" {
continue
}
// add request method to list of allowed methods
if len(allow) == 0 {
allow = method
} else {
allow += ", " + method
}
}
} else { // specific path
for method := range r.trees {
// Skip the requested method - we already tried this one
if method == reqMethod || method == "OPTIONS" {
continue
}
handle, _, _ := r.trees[method].getValue(path)
if handle != nil {
// add request method to list of allowed methods
if len(allow) == 0 {
allow = method
} else {
allow += ", " + method
}
}
}
}
if len(allow) > 0 {
allow += ", OPTIONS"
}
return
}
// ServeHTTP makes the router implement the http.Handler interface.
func (r *Router) ServeHTTP(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
if r.PanicHandler != nil {
defer r.recv(w, req)
}
path := req.URL.Path
if root := r.trees[req.Method]; root != nil {
if handle, ps, tsr := root.getValue(path); handle != nil {
handle(w, req, ps)
return
} else if req.Method != "CONNECT" && path != "/" {
code := 301 // Permanent redirect, request with GET method
if req.Method != "GET" {
// Temporary redirect, request with same method
// As of Go 1.3, Go does not support status code 308.
code = 307
}
if tsr && r.RedirectTrailingSlash {
if len(path) > 1 && path[len(path)-1] == '/' {
req.URL.Path = path[:len(path)-1]
} else {
req.URL.Path = path + "/"
}
http.Redirect(w, req, req.URL.String(), code)
return
}
// Try to fix the request path
if r.RedirectFixedPath {
fixedPath, found := root.findCaseInsensitivePath(
CleanPath(path),
r.RedirectTrailingSlash,
)
if found {
req.URL.Path = string(fixedPath)
http.Redirect(w, req, req.URL.String(), code)
return
}
}
}
}
if req.Method == "OPTIONS" && r.HandleOPTIONS {
// Handle OPTIONS requests
if allow := r.allowed(path, req.Method); len(allow) > 0 {
w.Header().Set("Allow", allow)
return
}
} else {
// Handle 405
if r.HandleMethodNotAllowed {
if allow := r.allowed(path, req.Method); len(allow) > 0 {
w.Header().Set("Allow", allow)
if r.MethodNotAllowed != nil {
r.MethodNotAllowed.ServeHTTP(w, req)
} else {
http.Error(w,
http.StatusText(http.StatusMethodNotAllowed),
http.StatusMethodNotAllowed,
)
}
return
}
}
}
// Handle 404
if r.NotFound != nil {
r.NotFound.ServeHTTP(w, req)
} else {
http.NotFound(w, req)
}
}
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