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Training/test Tips

Training/test options

Please see options/ and options/ for the training flags; see options/ and options/ for the test flags. There are some model-specific flags as well, which are added in the model files, such as --lambda_A option in model/ The default values of these options are also adjusted in the model files.

CPU/GPU (default --gpu_ids 0)

Please set--gpu_ids -1 to use CPU mode; set --gpu_ids 0,1,2 for multi-GPU mode. You need a large batch size (e.g., --batch_size 32) to benefit from multiple GPUs.


During training, the current results can be viewed using two methods. First, if you set --display_id > 0, the results and loss plot will appear on a local graphics web server launched by visdom. To do this, you should have visdom installed and a server running by the command python -m visdom.server. The default server URL is http://localhost:8097. display_id corresponds to the window ID that is displayed on the visdom server. The visdom display functionality is turned on by default. To avoid the extra overhead of communicating with visdom set --display_id -1. Second, the intermediate results are saved to [opt.checkpoints_dir]/[]/web/ as an HTML file. To avoid this, set --no_html.


Images can be resized and cropped in different ways using --preprocess option. The default option 'resize_and_crop' resizes the image to be of size (opt.load_size, opt.load_size) and does a random crop of size (opt.crop_size, opt.crop_size). 'crop' skips the resizing step and only performs random cropping. 'scale_width' resizes the image to have width opt.crop_size while keeping the aspect ratio. 'scale_width_and_crop' first resizes the image to have width opt.load_size and then does random cropping of size (opt.crop_size, opt.crop_size). 'none' tries to skip all these preprocessing steps. However, if the image size is not a multiple of some number depending on the number of downsamplings of the generator, you will get an error because the size of the output image may be different from the size of the input image. Therefore, 'none' option still tries to adjust the image size to be a multiple of 4. You might need a bigger adjustment if you change the generator architecture. Please see data/ do see how all these were implemented.

Fine-tuning/resume training

To fine-tune a pre-trained model, or resume the previous training, use the --continue_train flag. The program will then load the model based on epoch. By default, the program will initialize the epoch count as 1. Set --epoch_count <int> to specify a different starting epoch count.

Prepare your own datasets for CycleGAN

You need to create two directories to host images from domain A /path/to/data/trainA and from domain B /path/to/data/trainB. Then you can train the model with the dataset flag --dataroot /path/to/data. Optionally, you can create hold-out test datasets at /path/to/data/testA and /path/to/data/testB to test your model on unseen images.

Prepare your own datasets for pix2pix

Pix2pix's training requires paired data. We provide a python script to generate training data in the form of pairs of images {A,B}, where A and B are two different depictions of the same underlying scene. For example, these might be pairs {label map, photo} or {bw image, color image}. Then we can learn to translate A to B or B to A:

Create folder /path/to/data with subdirectories A and B. A and B should each have their own subdirectories train, val, test, etc. In /path/to/data/A/train, put training images in style A. In /path/to/data/B/train, put the corresponding images in style B. Repeat same for other data splits (val, test, etc).

Corresponding images in a pair {A,B} must be the same size and have the same filename, e.g., /path/to/data/A/train/1.jpg is considered to correspond to /path/to/data/B/train/1.jpg.

Once the data is formatted this way, call:

python datasets/ --fold_A /path/to/data/A --fold_B /path/to/data/B --fold_AB /path/to/data

This will combine each pair of images (A,B) into a single image file, ready for training.

About image size

Since the generator architecture in CycleGAN involves a series of downsampling / upsampling operations, the size of the input and output image may not match if the input image size is not a multiple of 4. As a result, you may get a runtime error because the L1 identity loss cannot be enforced with images of different size. Therefore, we slightly resize the image to become multiples of 4 even with --preprocess none option. For the same reason, --crop_size needs to be a multiple of 4.

Training/Testing with high res images

CycleGAN is quite memory-intensive as four networks (two generators and two discriminators) need to be loaded on one GPU, so a large image cannot be entirely loaded. In this case, we recommend training with cropped images. For example, to generate 1024px results, you can train with --preprocess scale_width_and_crop --load_size 1024 --crop_size 360, and test with --preprocess scale_width --load_size 1024. This way makes sure the training and test will be at the same scale. At test time, you can afford higher resolution because you don’t need to load all networks.

Training/Testing with rectangular images

Both pix2pix and CycleGAN can work for rectangular images. To make them work, you need to use different preprocessing flags. Let's say that you are working with 360x256 images. During training, you can specify --preprocess crop and --crop_size 256. This will allow your model to be trained on randomly cropped 256x256 images during training time. During test time, you can apply the model on 360x256 images with the flag --preprocess none.

There are practical restrictions regarding image sizes for each generator architecture. For unet256, it only supports images whose width and height are divisible by 256. For unet128, the width and height need to be divisible by 128. For resnet_6blocks and resnet_9blocks, the width and height need to be divisible by 4.

About loss curve

Unfortunately, the loss curve does not reveal much information in training GANs, and CycleGAN is no exception. To check whether the training has converged or not, we recommend periodically generating a few samples and looking at them.

About batch size

For all experiments in the paper, we set the batch size to be 1. If there is room for memory, you can use higher batch size with batch norm or instance norm. (Note that the default batchnorm does not work well with multi-GPU training. You may consider using synchronized batchnorm instead). But please be aware that it can impact the training. In particular, even with Instance Normalization, different batch sizes can lead to different results. Moreover, increasing --crop_size may be a good alternative to increasing the batch size.

Notes on Colorization

No need to run for colorization. Instead, you need to prepare natural images and set --dataset_mode colorization and --model colorization in the script. The program will automatically convert each RGB image into Lab color space, and create L -> ab image pair during the training. Also set --input_nc 1 and --output_nc 2. The training and test directory should be organized as /your/data/train and your/data/test. See example scripts scripts/ and scripts/test_colorization for more details.

Notes on Extracting Edges

We provide python and Matlab scripts to extract coarse edges from photos. Run scripts/edges/ to compute HED edges. Run scripts/edges/PostprocessHED.m to simplify edges with additional post-processing steps. Check the code documentation for more details.

Evaluating Labels2Photos on Cityscapes

We provide scripts for running the evaluation of the Labels2Photos task on the Cityscapes validation set. We assume that you have installed caffe (and pycaffe) in your system. If not, see the official website for installation instructions. Once caffe is successfully installed, download the pre-trained FCN-8s semantic segmentation model (512MB) by running

bash ./scripts/eval_cityscapes/

Then make sure ./scripts/eval_cityscapes/ is in your system's python path. If not, run the following command to add it

export PYTHONPATH=${PYTHONPATH}:./scripts/eval_cityscapes/

Now you can run the following command to evaluate your predictions:

python ./scripts/eval_cityscapes/ --cityscapes_dir /path/to/original/cityscapes/dataset/ --result_dir /path/to/your/predictions/ --output_dir /path/to/output/directory/

Images stored under --result_dir should contain your model predictions on the Cityscapes validation split, and have the original Cityscapes naming convention (e.g., frankfurt_000001_038418_leftImg8bit.png). The script will output a text file under --output_dir containing the metric.

Further notes: Our pre-trained FCN model is not supposed to work on Cityscapes in the original resolution (1024x2048) as it was trained on 256x256 images that are then upsampled to 1024x2048 during training. The purpose of the resizing during training was to 1) keep the label maps in the original high resolution untouched and 2) avoid the need of changing the standard FCN training code and the architecture for Cityscapes. During test time, you need to synthesize 256x256 results. Our test code will automatically upsample your results to 1024x2048 before feeding them to the pre-trained FCN model. The output is at 1024x2048 resolution and will be compared to 1024x2048 ground truth labels. You do not need to resize the ground truth labels. The best way to verify whether everything is correct is to reproduce the numbers for real images in the paper first. To achieve it, you need to resize the original/real Cityscapes images (not labels) to 256x256 and feed them to the evaluation code.