JupyterHub provides single-user notebook servers to many users. For example, JupyterHub could serve notebooks to a class of students, a corporate workgroup, or a science research group.
Three main actors make up JupyterHub:
- multi-user Hub (tornado process)
- configurable http proxy (node-http-proxy)
- multiple single-user Jupyter notebook servers (Python/IPython/tornado)
JupyterHub's basic principles for operation are:
- Hub spawns a proxy
- Proxy forwards all requests to Hub by default
- Hub handles login, and spawns single-user servers on demand
- Hub configures proxy to forward url prefixes to the single-user servers
JupyterHub also provides a REST API for administration of the Hub and users.
Before installing JupyterHub, you need:
Python 3.3 or greater
An understanding of using
pipfor installing Python packages is recommended.
Install nodejs/npm, which is available from your package manager. For example, install on Linux (Debian/Ubuntu) using:
sudo apt-get install npm nodejs-legacy
nodejs-legacypackage installs the
nodeexecutable and is currently required for npm to work on Debian/Ubuntu.)
TLS certificate and key for HTTPS communication
Before running the single-user notebook servers (which may be on the same system as the Hub or not):
- Jupyter Notebook version 4 or greater
JupyterHub can be installed with
pip, and the proxy with
npm install -g configurable-http-proxy pip3 install jupyterhub
If you plan to run notebook servers locally, you will need to install the Jupyter notebook:
pip3 install --upgrade notebook
Running the Hub server
To start the Hub server, run the command:
https://localhost:8000 in your browser, and sign in with your unix credentials.
To allow multiple users to sign into the server, you will need to
jupyterhub command as a privileged user, such as root.
describes how to run the server as a less privileged user, which requires more
configuration of the system.
The getting started document contains the basics of configuring a JupyterHub deployment.
Generate a default configuration file
Generate a default config file:
Customize the configuration, authentication, and process spawning
Spawn the server on
10.0.1.2:443 with https:
jupyterhub --ip 10.0.1.2 --port 443 --ssl-key my_ssl.key --ssl-cert my_ssl.cert
The authentication and process spawning mechanisms can be replaced, which should allow plugging into a variety of authentication or process control environments. Some examples, meant as illustration and testing of this concept:
- Using GitHub OAuth instead of PAM with OAuthenticator
- Spawning single-user servers with Docker, using the DockerSpawner
A starter docker image for JupyterHub gives a baseline deployment of JupyterHub.
jupyterhub/jupyterhub image contains only the Hub itself, with no configuration. In general, one needs
to make a derivative image, with at least a
jupyterhub_config.py setting up an Authenticator and/or a Spawner. To run the
single-user servers, which may be on the same system as the Hub or not, Jupyter Notebook version 4 or greater must be installed.
Starting JupyterHub with docker
The JupyterHub docker image can be started with the following command:
docker run -d --name jupyterhub jupyterhub/jupyterhub jupyterhub
This command will create a container named
jupyterhub that you can stop and resume with
The Hub service will be listening on all interfaces at port 8000, which makes this a good choice for testing JupyterHub on your desktop or laptop.
If you want to run docker on a computer that has a public IP then you should (as in MUST) secure it with ssl by adding ssl options to your docker configuration or using a ssl enabled proxy.
Mounting volumes will allow you to store data outside the docker image (host system) so it will be persistent, even when you start a new image.
docker exec -it jupyterhub bash will spawn a root shell in your docker
container. You can use the root shell to create system users in the container. These accounts will be used for authentication
in JupyterHub's default configuration.
For a development install, clone the repository and then install from source:
git clone https://github.com/jupyterhub/jupyterhub cd jupyterhub pip3 install -r dev-requirements.txt -e .
pip3 install command fails and complains about
python3 setup.py js # fetch updated client-side js python3 setup.py css # recompile CSS from LESS sources
We use pytest for testing. To run tests:
We use a shared copyright model that enables all contributors to maintain the copyright on their contributions.
All code is licensed under the terms of the revised BSD license.