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README.md

README.md

Overview

Hi all, in this post I will be explaining the code of the Diablo Chess Engine which I made while learning about artificial intelligence and game bots. This post also serves as the documentation for the code of Diablo Chess Engine

I would recommend opening the code side by side to understand this documentation. In this explanation I will explain every file of the code of Diablo Chess Engine .

Files

I will go on describing each file and the functions in those files.

def.h

Define various enums and macros for easy indexing of all types of pieces.

//enumurating costants for later use in arrays
 
//enumurating costants for later use in arrays
 
enum {FALSE,TRUE};
 
enum {WHITE,BLACK,BOTH};
 
enum {EMPTY,wP,wN,wB,wR,wQ,wK,bP,bN,bB,bR,bQ,bK};
 
enum {FILE_A,FILE_B,FILE_C,FILE_D,FILE_E,FILE_F,FILE_G,FILE_H,FILE_NONE};
 
enum {RANK_1,RANK_2,RANK_3,RANK_4,RANK_5,RANK_6,RANK_7,RANK_8,RANK_NONE};
 
enum{
 
A1=21,B1,C1,D1,E1,F1,G1,H1,
 
A2=31,B2,C2,D2,E2,F2,G2,H2,
 
A3=41,B3,C3,D3,E3,F3,G3,H3,
 
A4=51,B4,C4,D4,E4,F4,G4,H4,
 
A5=61,B5,C5,D5,E5,F5,G5,H5,
 
A6=71,B6,C6,D6,E6,F6,G6,H6,
 
A7=81,B7,C7,D7,E7,F7,G7,H7,
 
A8=91,B8,C8,D8,E8,F8,G8,H8,NONE,OFF
 
};
enum {WKCA=1,WQCA=2,BKCA=4,BQCA=8};
 
//enum weather castleing is possible for the the four types or not...represeted using first 4 bits
Board

The board which we use is from 0 to 120 which is playable only from 21 to 98… which will be equivalent to 0 to 63 for a chess broad so we use the function and two arrays which inter-converts these boards, we then define the board structure with the contents as

int Pieces[SQNO]; //to know which type of piece is present at the respective index
 
 int Pieces[SQNO]; //to know which type of piece is present at the respective index 
 
 ULL Pawns[3]; //bitboards for white,black,both pawns
 
 int PceNum[13]; //number of each type of piece present on the board 
 
int BigPce[2]; //number of all pieces except pawns 
 
int MajPce[2]; //number of rooks and queens of white,black; 
 
int MinPce[2];//number of knights and bishops of white,black  
 
int KingPos[2];//position of white and black kings 
 
int ValPce[2]; //stores the total materialistic value for white and black sides
 
int Ply,HisPly;//number of half moves made and history to store previous plays 
 
int FiftyMov;
 
int EnPas; //check for EnPass move 
 
int Side; //to know which side has to move
 
int CastlePerm; //if the current king can castle or not rpresented by four bits for the above four enumrations 
 
ULL PosKey;  //unique PosKey generated for every move
 
UNDO History[MAXMOVES]; //this array stores all the previous game states with essential things which are stated in the undo 
 
//structure and also it helps us to check if a move is repeated or not,we can do so by using the 
 
//HisPly as the index and going back to all the states and see if the PosKey is repeated or not  
 
int PceList[13][10]; PVTABLE PvTable[1];//we keep one PVTABLE in the main structure for the current board position...in the form of  
 
// a pointer which is already given memeory... 
 
int PvArray[MAXDEPTH];//this array store the best line of moves upto certain depth...for the given position   
 
int SearchHistory[13][120];//this will be used for move ordering for beta cutoff  
 
int SearchKillers[2][MAXDEPTH];//this will also be only used for move ordering...basically these are the 
 
 //non capture moves which are causing the beta cutoff 

Undo

Then we define out UNDO structure to keep track of all the previous game moves so that we can crosscheck for 50moves and move repetition also we can undo back to any move we want to

//this structures is to undo any move if we want to to go back to certain previous stage of the game
 
//this structures is to undo any move if we want to to go back to certain previous stage of the game 
 
typedef struct{
 ULL PosKey; 
 
int move; 
 
int EnPas;
 
 int FiftyMov;
 
 int CastlePerm; 
 
}UNDO;

Move

ClearBit(b,sq) this Macro unsets the bit at number sq from the bitboard SetBit(b,sq) this Macro sets the bit at number sq from the bitboard we also define all the global arrays and function with extern keyword so that the can be accessed globally

typedef struct{ 
 
int Move;
 
 int Score;
 
 }MOVE; //this structure stores the information about the move and in a very intresting wa of bitmasking

We can see that we any square on the playable board i.e 21 to 98 can be represented using a 7bit number because the max value is 64+32+4 which can be made by setting some bits in a 7 digit number so we can see that all the aspects of a move can be stored in a number which has 32 bit.

0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0111 1111 ->from (the masked value of first 7 bits will we be the index from where we start the move)
0000 0000 0000 0011 1111 1000 0000 ->to(the masked value of next 7 bits sotre the index where we want to go)
0000 0000 0011 1100 0000 0000 0000 ->captured(the masked value of next four bit ranges from 0 to 15 which will
												  give us the piece (wP to bK) or value (0 to 12) which is being captured)
0000 0000 0100 0000 0000 0000 0000 ->EnPas (seting of this bit will tell that this move is an EnPas move) 
0000 0000 1000 0000 0000 0000 0000 ->PawnSt(if this bit is set that means that this is a starting move of a pawn)
0000 1111 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 ->Promoted(these 4 bits indicate that this move can promote to a Knight,Bishop,Queen or Rook each for respective bit)
0001 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 ->Castle(setting of this bit tells us that the current move will be a castling move)

so as we can see we can easily store all the information about a move in just a single 32 bit number so as we can see we can easily store all the information about a move in just a single 32 bit number so we don’t need to maintain separate variables to store all these

//macros for simple shifting and anding to find the masked value which will give us the index of movement
 
//macros for simple shifting and anding to find the masked value which will give us the index of movement 
 
//and captured type index and promoted type index 
 
#define FromSq(m) (m & (0x7F)) 
 
#define ToSq(m) ((m>>7) &(0x7F)) 
 
#define Captured(m) ((m>>14) & (0xF)) 
 
#define Promoted(m) ((m>>20) & (0xF))
 //these macros are simply the values which we will & with our move to see if the corrsponding bits are set or not 
 
#define FlagEnPas 0x40000 
 
#define FlagPawnSt 0x80000 
 
#define FlagCastle 0x1000000
 //these flag are flag to see if the capturing is happening or not so for that we need to any one bit from  
 
//EnPas bit to 4 capyured bit must be on so the on coresponding hexadecimal number will be 0x7C000 
 
#define FlagCap 0x7C000
 
//to see if the promotion in this move promotion is hapenning or not so for that any of the 4 bits representing 
 
//the promotion must be on so the corresponding on bit structure in hexadecimal is 0xF00000 #define FlagPromoted 0xF00000 
 
//this structure is the entries which will be present in the PVTABLE...it is a simple pair of the PosKey and the 
 
//move which will be stored in our principal variation table 
 
typedef struct{
 
 ULL PosKey; 
 
int Move; }PVENTRY;
 
//this is the actual PVTABLE structure which simply stores the entries array...which is the hash array for this 
 
//PV hash table...and it contains the count of entries
 
 typedef struct{ 
 
PVENTRY PvEntries[131070];
 
 int Count; }PVTABLE; 
 
//this structure is simply for the use f GUI....when connecting it to arena 
 
typedef struct{
 
 int starttime;
 
 int stoptime;
 
 int depth;
 
 int depthset;
 
 int timeset;
 
 int movestogo;
 
 int infinite;
 
 long nodes;
 
 int quit;
 
 int stopped;
 
 float fh,fhf; }SEARCHINFO;

INIT.cpp

This file does all our initialisation tasks, which are : –

Convert()

This function inter converts the two types of boards using arrays sq120to64[120] and sq64to120[64]

InitHashKeys()

This function initializes our hashkey values from our arrays

ULL HashKey[13][120]; //to store a random 64bit no which states that that type of element is present on that sq no 
 
ULL SideKey; //to store a random number if it is the turn of white in the game 
 
ULL CastleKey[16]; //to store 64  random numbers which represent each possible type of castlepositions which are 0 to 15
 
//which are later xored according to the position of piece to generate a unique Hash Key value for current board condtion...repetition of a HashKey
 
//value 3 times in a games indicates 3xrepetition and the game is draw

InitializeFileAndRanks()

This function initialises our RankNo and FileNo array which for any given 12 based square as an index will give its rank and file uses the arrays

FileNo[] and RankNo[];

AllInit()

this function just act to call the renaming functions

#define rand_64 ((ULL)rand() | \
 
 (ULL)rand()<<15 | \
 
 (ULL)rand()<<30 | \
 
 ((ULL)rand()<<45 | \
 
 ((ULL)rand() &0xf)<<60)) 
 
//this is a modified rand function which generates 64 bit random numbers for our hashkey values&amp;amp;amp;nbsp;

Bitboard.cpp

Tis file is just about our pawn bitboards and has the functions this file is just about our pawn bitboards and has the functions :-

void PrintBitBoard(ULL b)

this function is simply printing out a bit board by representing set bits as ‘X’ and unset as ‘-‘ we print the ranks from 8 to 1 remember in our program we represent the ranks opposite to what the appear in a game so while printing we simply reverse them see the bitboard video for any confusion, keep in mind that all the calculation and working is done on the structure where ranks are 1 to 8 from tops down but only to show it to the user while printing we reverse the ranks,so that ranks become 8 to 1 as they appear in a normal chess board

int POP(ULL *bb)

return the first index of the set bit int the bit boards and sets it to 0 code taken from chessprogramming.wki and also the bitboard is used only for this function, we can also use the simple brute force method but it may be slower it use this table

const int BitTable[64] = {
63, 30, 3, 32, 25, 41, 22, 33,
 
15, 50, 42, 13, 11, 53, 19, 34,
 
61, 29, 2, 51, 21, 43, 45, 10,
 
18, 47, 1, 54, 9, 57, 0, 35,
 
62, 31, 40, 4, 49, 5, 52,26,
 
60, 6, 23, 44, 46, 27, 56, 16,
 
7, 39, 48, 24, 59, 14, 12, 55,
 
38, 28, 58, 20, 37, 17, 36, 8 };

int Count(ULL b)

counts the number of set bits in a a bitboard

hashkey.cpp

This file is just to generate the hashkeys this file is just to generate the hash keys

ULL GenerateHashKeys(const BOARD *board)

This function takes in the current board status and according to the positions of pieces,Side to play,CastlePerm and the EnPas position generates the unique PosKey value by xoring all the random 64 bit numbers for those states of piece for that board and returns it.

board.cpp

This file has all the necessary functions that concern our chess board…this file has all the necessary functions that concern our chess board.

void ResetBoard(BOARD *b)

this function resets the entire board by setting all positions to empty or off board and the count of all other this to 0 or their respective starting value in the board structure

int CalcFen(char *arr,BOARD *board)

this function is the most important one as it takes in a FEN notation character array, and a point er to BOARD structure and then process that FEN notation to initialise the members of board structure with respect to the configuration in the FEN array, except for PceList,and maj,min and Big pieces, because as we will so they are initialised in other function as they help us to initialise the PceList effectively.

void PrintBoard(BOARD *board)

simply function that prints the board when it has been set up by an FEN notation, it uses

char PceChar[]=".PNBRQKpnbrqk";
 
char SideChar[]="wb-";
 
char RankChar[]="12345678";
 
char FileChar[]="abcdefgh";

these arrays for easy indexing and printing using the type of pieces in the ENUM as the indexes we can effectively print them

void UpdateMaterial(BOARD *board)

function to update the remaining items i.e PceList,MajPce,MinPce pawn bitboards etc; once we have the board structure ready. We can easily count the number of big,maj,min,material value of pieces by simply running a loop from 0 to 120…and store the position or counts, we use various Boolean array which are defined in data.cpp which fasten our approach to see what type of a piece the piece is

extern int CheckBoard(BOARD *board)

this function crosschecks everything we have done to our board so far with various assert statements…it ensure that what we have stored on the board structure is actually present in the board it is not that necessary if everything is correct but we need to be sure in such a big program, so we make a temporary arrays system which are same as those present in the board structure then using various value of board structure it cross checks other values in the board structure

data.cpp

This file contains all the data declarations needed for the program this file contains all the data declarations needed for the program

char PceChar[]=".PNBRQKpnbrqk";
 
char PceChar[]=".PNBRQKpnbrqk";
 
char SideChar[]="wb-";
 
char RankChar[]="12345678";
 
char FileChar[]="abcdefgh";
 
char Fen[]="rnbqkbnr/pppppppp/8/8/8/8/PPPPPPPP/RNBQKBNR w KQkq - 0 1";
 
int PceBig[13]={FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE};
 
int PceMaj[13]={FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,TRUE};
 
int PceMin[13]={FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE};
 
int PceVal[13]={0,100,325,325,550,1000,50000,100,325,325,550,1000,50000};
 
int PceCol[13]={BOTH,WHITE,WHITE,WHITE,WHITE,WHITE,WHITE,BLACK,BLACK,BLACK,BLACK,BLACK,BLACK};
 
int IsKnight[13];
 
int IsKing[13];
 
int IsRQ[13];
 
int IsBQ[13];
 
int IsSlide[13];

we have defined so many array as now when we use a type of piece say wN as in index to these arrays we will get the corresponding properties for that type of piece i.e whether it is a Big,Maj,Min piece ts printing value it colour ad its Material Value. Whether it is a knight,bishop,rook or a queen…so its very helpful to do so.

ghost.cpp

this is our main source file which will be executed and contains the main function it will call all the other remaining this is our main source file which will be executed and contains the main function .It will call all the other remaining functions and will be used for testing.

attack.cpp

int IsSqAttack(int sq,int side,BOARD *board)

this function here checks if the current given square is attacked by any side which is specified on the current board this is fairly easy we just need to set few arrays to mark the directions from this square from where certain types of pieces can attack such as diagonals,vertical,horizontal etc which are done by :-

const int KnDir[8] = {-8,-19,-21,-12,8,19,21,12 }; 
 
const int RkDir[4] = {-1,-10,1,10}; 
 
const int BiDir[4] = {-9,-11,11,9}; 
 
const int KiDir[8] = {-1,-10,1,10,-9,-11,11,9}

queen will take both the direction of the rook and bishop further these arrays make sure the whether the current piece is of the given type or not

extern int IsPawn[13];
 
 extern int IsKnight[13];
 
 extern int IsKing[13];
 
 extern int IsRQ[13];
 
 extern int IsBQ[13];
 
 extern int IsSlide[13];

io.cpp

void PrintSq(int sq)

a simple function to print the file and rank of a current square using the file and rank arrays

void PrintMove(int move)

simple function to print the from,to and promoted bit values of the move using file and ranks

void PrintMoveList(MOVELIST *MoveList)

again a simple function to print a move list for a given side

movegenerator.cpp

Note:- remember there are only 2 move lists for a each side and not individually for each piece

#define MkMove(f,t,cap,prom,flag) (f|(t<<7)|(cap<<14)|(prom<<20)|flag) 
 
//a macro define to reduce our task to type every time to make a move from the values

void AddMove(BOARD *board, int Move,MOVELIST *MoveList)

function that takes in a move list say for WHITE and a possible move and add its to the move list of WHITE it takes in all the three types of moves CaptureMove,SimpleMove and special EnPas move for pawns

void GenMoves(BOARD *board,MOVELIST MoveList)

generates all the the possible moves to be added to a particular side whose turn it is first it checks if its white sideif it isit starts adding by pawn moves now to add moves from pawns there can be 4 types

  • Simple one square ahead move for wP it is +10 s check if its empty and in board if it is then add wp move is called because it can lead to a promotion if a wP is present on rank 6.
  • Starting move if the sq+20 is empty and the pawn is at rank2 then we also add a PawnSt flag.
  • Diagonal moves if it is a capture move then we check sq+9 and sq+11 it can also lead to promotion so we call the addwpMove instead of normal Addmove because it takes care of promotions
  • the last one is that it can be an EnPAs move if that square on the board is marked as EnPas then we add flag with EnPas in it.

void AddwPMove(BOARD *board ,int from,int to,int cap,int flag,MOVELIST *MoveList)

adds moves of white pawns using the add move function it takes into account that if the from of any pawn is from rank 2 then in its next simple or capturing move it will promote else it will not

void AddbPMove(BOARD *board ,int from,int to,int cap,int flag,MOVELIST *MoveList)

similar function for black pawns….just the promotion rank check change to rank7

//these arrays easily help us to generate moves for sliding pieces of both sides as they define the starting 
 
//index of white and black sliding pieces and when we reach a 0 we have completed one sides sliding pieces 
 
int SlidePce[]={ wB,wR,wQ ,0,bB,bR,bQ,0}; int SlideIndex[]={0,4};
 
//similar arrays for non sliding pieces... 
 
int NonSlidePce[]={wN,wK, &nbsp;0 , bN,bK,0}; 
 
int NonSlideIndex[]={0,3};
 //these store the direction for each piece which need to be added to the current square...to get all the squares 
 
//where a type of piece indexed by rows can move; 
 
int PceDir[13][8] = { 
 
{ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 },
 
 { 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 }, 
 
{ -8, -19, -21, -12, 8, 19, 21, 12 },
 
 { -9, -11, 11, 9, 0, 0, 0, 0 },
 
 { -1, -10, 1, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0 }, 
 
{ -1, -10, 1, 10, -9, -11, 11, 9 },
 
 { -1, -10, 1, 10, -9, -11, 11, 9 }, 
 
{ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 },
 
 { -8, -19, -21, -12, 8, 19, 21, 12 }, 
 
{ -9, -11, 11, 9, 0, 0, 0, 0 }, 
 
{ -1, -10, 1, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0 }, 
 
{ -1, -10, 1, 10, -9, -11, 11, 9 }, 
 
{ -1, -10, 1, 10, -9, -11, 11, 9 } };
 
 //these are the number of directions for each piece type for queen=8,bishp and rook=4 
 
int NumDir[13] = { 0, 0, 8, 4, 4, 8, 8, 0, 8, 4, 4, 8, 8 };

for sliding and non sliding pieces we add move in 2 parts.

  • For non sliding pieces….we first get the boar->Side in the variable Side…then with that side we get the starting index for non sliding pieces which will be 0 when side i white and 4 when side is black and then we run a wile loop till we get and EMPTY(0) piece which tells us that non sliding pieces for the current side are over we loop each of them and inside this loop we loop till the number of direction of that piece and then we test each direction by adding that may squares if the new square is not off board we check if it is empty if it is then it is a normal move else if its not empty and has a piece of opposite side (which we simply check by xoring with that pieces colour) then it is a capture move we do this for all direction for all non sliding pieces.
  • all is same for sliding pieces just wile checking directions we run an inside loop to move to all possible squares in that direction (sliding) until we reach an opposite colour square or which will be capture move or and EMPTY move which will be normal move or we get off board after that we test the next direction and do this for all the sliding pieces of that colour.

int MoveExists(BOARD *board,int Move)

it simply checks if a given move is possible on the board or not

int VictimScore[13]={0,100,200,300,400,500,600,100,200,300,400,500,600}; 
 
static int MvvLvaScores[13][13]={0};

these arrays are for the move ordering method of most valuable victim least valuable attacker like a pawn captures queen we initially assign everything to zero so that the score of non capture moves remain zero

void InitMvvLva()

this function is the actual function to initialise the MvvLvaScores array for every combination of 2 pieces

void GenCapMoves(BOARD *board,MOVELIST *MoveList)

this is 95% same function as GenMove…but it only generates the capture move which are required in the Quiescence search function

makemove.cpp

extern void RemovePiece(BOARD *board,int sq)

change the values of the board structure when a piece is removed

extern void AddPiece(BOARD *board,int sq,int Pce)

opposite to removePiece

extern void MovePiece(BOARD *board,int from,int to)

call first remove the addpiece for the given squares

extern int MakeMove(BOARD *board,int Move)

now this function is the most important one it makes actual changes to the board structure and actually makes a move to do so we us our history array which stored the unique information about all our previous moves when we make a move we firstly store all the unique values to the history structure indexed by HisPly.

board->History[board->HisPly].Move=Move;
 
 board->History[board->HisPly].PosKey=board->PosKey;
 
 board->History[board->HisPly].EnPas=board->EnPas;
 
 board->History[board->HisPly].FiftyMove=board->FiftyMove;
 
 board->History[board->HisPly].CastlePerm=board->CastlePerm;

we then increment the hisply and ply as the move has been made so we need to increase the index

now we first check if the moves are special moves like EnPas or castling if so we remove the pawns of other color from the respective position or if it is castling we move the rooks to the respective position decided by the move to where they are going if there is any EnPas position it should now be removed so we unhash it from the hashkey and also the castlePerm we unhash it it may remain same or get changed we then update the castlepem and hash it back and we marks EnPas as NONE we use the array CastlePerm for the updation.

const int CastlePerm[120] = {
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 13, 15, 15, 15, 12, 15, 15, 14, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 7, 15, 15, 15, 3, 15, 15, 11, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15,
 
15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15 };

now if it is a capturing move we need to remove the captured piece and increase the fifty moves counter

now we check if it was a starting move for a pawn if it was then we need to add the enpas position for that pawns and also hash it back to the position key

after this we see if there was a promotion if so then we remove the piece moved from the previous step and add the promoted piece finally we change the side and hash it to the unique key now only we check if this move has made the king into check position if so we take back the move as it will be illegal and return false stating that this move cannot be made

so if the king is in a mate the entire move list will be traversed but every move will be taken back and returned false if even after that move king still remains in mate so only those moves will be evaluated in which either the king moves or any other piece blocks the mate

extern void TakeMove()

this function is the exact mirror of the the make move function and we firstly restore all the unique value back from the history array after decreasing its size

board->EnPas=board->History[board->HisPly].EnPas;
 
 board->CastlePerm=board->History[board->HisPly].CastlePerm;
 
 board->FiftyMove=board->History[board->HisPly].FiftyMove;

we the nreverse the sides if it was an EnPas capture we add back the respective pawn pieces to their places or the rooks back to their original position we finally move back the piece from (to 2 from). We update the kingpos and see if it was a capture move if it was we add the captured piece back to the board if the pieces was promoted we remove theat promoted piece which is now standing at the from square with and add a pawn of the same colour over there

finally we restore back the unique PosKey value….we do it at the last because if we did it before then the AddPieceand RemovePiece functions would have altered its value which we didn’t wanted either we can do that or we can let it be and and get back to its history value by manually xoring and with the help of add and remove functions

perftest.cpp

void PerftTest(int depth, BOARD *pos)

this function is basically backtracking to a given depth to calculate all the valid move that can be made from a given board position it first makes one move the generate a new move list for that position and then again makes a move and makes a new list and so on till depth is 0 then it comes back one step and makes the second moves and goes on just like dfs and count the number of leaf nodes in the moves tree

void Perft(int depth,BOARD *board)

this is just a helper function for the above function

misc.cpp

this file contains all the misc functions this file contains all the misc functions if running the program in windows them WIN32 is defined and we get the time buy the library windows.h else if running on linux then we include sys/time.h to get the time

#ifdef WIN32
 
 #include "windows.h" 
 
#else
 
 #include "sys/time.h" 
 
#endif 

int GetTime()

This function return the value of current time….it does not matter which system it is linux or windows we will use this when we enable the engine with the gui then it will sent us a stop interrupt then we stop the searching and make the move

pvtable.cpp

this file has all the functions for our principal variation tablethis file has all the functions for our principal variation table

the pvtable is represented using two structure

  • A structure used as hashing element it has a PosKey and a best move to be hashed for that PosKey
  • The table structure which which has the array of above structure
typedef struct{ 
 
ULL PosKey;
 
 int Move; }PVENTRY; 
 
typedef struct{ 
 
PVENTRY PvEntries[131070];
 
 int Count; }PVTABLE;

void ClearPvTable(PVTABLE *PvTable)

this function is used to reset the Pvtable by setting everything to 0 and the clear the pvtable for use before the next search is applied

void InitPvTable(PVTABLE *PvTable)

this function is to initialise the count

void StorePvMove(BOARD *board,int Move)

to store a move in the pvtable using hashing function as poskey%count

int ProbePvMove(BOARD *board)

retrieve the move if it is present for that given current poskey in the board WORKING– it serves two purpose

  • everytime we search a given depth it may happen that a certain position has already been reached by some other way in the same ongoing search before so when we again encounter the same position we have a best move for this position stored which will most likey give us the best pv line from there on

  • now at the end of the search we have a caching of moves saved called the Pv line which is the best possible moves upto a given depth how do we get this after the search we get the best move for the current position then we make that move and get the next position and we repeat the same step until we reach the max depth of we reach a none move the the pvtable may get change multiple times for the same position whenever we reach an alpha cuttoff indicating we have a better move from this position so we hash this new move tho that position but at the end of the search we get the best move for all the index that are filled

why do we clear it every time when we have the best moves for a given position which may occur after some time in the game the we do not need to search again?

no, we will search for every move…because although we may get a best move say for a position at a depth 6 in the last search and after several moves say we reach that position but now if we use this previous value then we only get the result which is one length deep because remember we got back after 6 depth so no further level analysis was done for the 6th depth so we need to clear the pvtable every time before a search but if in an ongoing search a position is repeated then we can use it because now we only need the first best move as w e may get maximum beta cutoff and the best pvline staring form this move

int GetPvLine(BOARD *board,int depth)

as the name suggest we get the best pvline stored in the PvArray for a given depth but we may also get an answer greater than the depth

evaluate.cpp

this file gives us the the score which a given move makes by calculating the sum of values values which every pieces get at a given position for WHITE and the subtracting it with BLACK it also takes in the material value of the sides

if the side is white it return a +ve score else for black side it return a -ve score it is because it is alpha beta with negamax…so we need to return the score with the sides point of view.

this if when white makes a move and then we get the evaluation value of the current board state.

/*
 
 * we are getting the -score from the evaluation function because we want to see the score we gets from the&nbsp;
 
 * points sides of view in the alpha beta pruning ...so lets say from the starting position we mak a move 
 
* from a2 to a4 of a pawn....then as soon as we make the move the side is changed..in the makemove function 
 
* so now when we evaluate the current position we will get the value from blacks point of view and that is 
 
* what we want...because the second node was the node for black or the min node so we want the &nbsp;value&nbsp; 
 
* from the mins point of view or blacks point of view...and as now black makes a move further in the alpha 
 
* beta search the sides again gets changed...and now we reach a max node...so we &nbsp;need to evaluate the&nbsp; 
 
* board from whites point of view and so on.... 
 
*/

see it this way say white has three options which gives the score of

10 20 50

but these values will be returned from blacks point of view giving

-10 -20 -50

but the -sign during the calling of the alphabeta function again reverse it and takes the max score which will be 50

now say in the next depth black makes a move and now the the side is change to white..and in the evaluation function we check the change side so from whites point of view the pints are 10 20 30

again the -ve sign at the call of the function will change them to

-10 -20 -30

and now black returns the maximum value which will be -10

and further back when the final return occurs for alpha this value again change to 10 by the function call by that node

so we get a final value of 10 by this path which is correct as black minimises and white tries to maximise

search.cpp

the actual search function for iterative deepening and alpha beta and quiescence search the actual search function for iterative deepening and alpha beta and quiescence search

#define INF 30000

#define MATE 29000

int IsRepeat(BOARD *board)

this functions return true if a certain board position is repeated and of course if a pawn is moved or a piece is captured then the fifty moves resets because we cannot move a pawn back or bring back the captured piece so from there on we all the positions before that cannot be repeated so we start the loop from the last time when the fifty moves was reset

static void ClearForSearch(BOARD *board, SEARCHINFO *info)

this functions clears all the previous data beforn starting a search it clears our searchkillers for beta cutoff and searchjistory for alphacutoff also it clears the pvtalbe

void SearchPos(BOARD *board,SEARCHINFO *info)

this function is out iterative deepening function iterative deepening has an advantage that we already have a best move even if the time runs ou because searching for the current depth we have already searched and updated the table for the previous depth search and we have stored the best move for that depth which will now help us in our pvmove cutoff discussed before which will cutoff the maximum node and lead us to the best pvline

static int AlphaBeta(int Alpha,int Beta,int Depth,BOARD *board,SEARCHINFO *info,int Flag);

this is the final alphabeta function in negamax fashion to get the best pvline inside this we sort our moves in decreasing order of their score this is called move ordering and is a crucial part of alphabeta search as it cutoffs the maximum nodes inside this we update our pvtable every time whenever alpha is improved say in one path alpha was 10 but from the second path the score returned was 20 so the new best moves has change to that path an we need to update it in the pvtable

if we get a mate we send a very large value so that this path is taken above all that is there is no other legal move for the other side we are getting a mate so we have to take this path so we send a large negative value added with ply which gives us after how many moves we can get a mate

for eg say white can give a mate to black after 1 move then it must take this path say we move this path now the side is changed now it s blacks turn since it is a mate black has now legal moves so it return say -2900 value which gets change to 2900 which is the maximum score white will ever get so it will follow this path

now say white is getting a mate after 3 steps so it must avoid this path at all cost so at the last depth when white also return -2900 value to the black nod it gets changed to 2900 since it is negamax fashion we always take the maximum fro all the nodes both alpha and beta and it automatically gets minimised for beta and maximised for alpha but in this case when maximised black get the value of 2900 so it return the value of -2900 value to the first alpha node…so it knows that it must not take this path whereas if it takes this path now black has the value 2900 stored for this position which tell it to take this path so its correct

static int Quiescence(int Alpha,int Beta,BOARD *board,SEARCHINFO *info)

this search is added to improve the way the engine plays to improve its game

Screenshots

Here are a few screenshots when the AI is attached to Arena(A chess GUI that follows UCI protocols)