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README.md

Jig

“Programming should be interactive, as beautiful as possible, modular, and it should generate assets that are easy to use and learn.” – Michael O. Church

A jig

Jig is an application harness providing a beautifully interactive development experience for Clojure projects.

Releases and Dependency Information

Current Version

Features and benefits

Feedback is at the heart of all agile software development processes. If you can reduce the time between making a change and seeing the result, you can proceed faster, with more confidence and accuracy.

For the majority of developers, the impact of changing code cannot be determined until the entire system has been re-built and re-tested. While there are many advantages to frequent and thorough testing, for developers the wait is long enough for us to lose our concentration and focus.

Losing focus - attribution: http://xkcd.com/303/

Unless you have experienced a development environment that offers instant feedback upon change it is difficult to describe the impact it can have on your ability to solve difficult problems, produce reliable code quickly and make programming more enjoyable.

Addressing Clojure's code reloading quirks

Clojure, in the tradition of dynamic languages, comes very close to providing this kind of experience right out-of-the-box. In LISP, functions are bound to vars, which can be rebound, and when functions are applied, the latest binding of the function is used.

In practice, however, there are some minor quirks that impair the dependability of the code reloading : adding a new library dependency, redeclaring a defmulti or Clojure protocol, stale state referenced in defs and defonces are some examples. One of Jig's aims is to handle these incidentals for you, letting you concentrate more fully on your programming.

Jig builds upon Stuart Sierra's excellent reloaded workflow pattern. Therefore it's important that you're familiar with the general idea of this pattern: the developer invokes a 'reset' function at various intervals which causes a minimalist reloading of just the code that has changed since the last reset, and anything else that needs reloading as a result (Due to the intricacies of Clojure and the JVM, this is a non-trivial problem that Stuart has solved). Typically, the reset function is bound to a hotkey, Emacs keybinding (I use "C-c r") or something more exotic. The price of entry is that a developer has to ensure all application state is held in a single map (or record) called the system. Otherwise the pattern doesn't work but in practice this is a good architectural policy to establish regardless.

Jig extends Stuart's work by providing some optional extra features that can help in the development of large Clojure systems:

  • modularity through componentisation
  • configuration
  • support for multiple projects
  • a growing set of common re-usable infrastructure components.

Modularity

Stuart describes the System Constructor which creates the initial state of a system. Jig provides an implementation of the System Constructor that delegates the job of creating the system to components, each component having the same lifecycle interface as Stuart describes: init, start and stop. The System is created by threading it through all the components.

A reset stops and restarts all components. Components are initialized and started (in dependency order) and stopped (in reverse dependency order) allowing for a clean shutdown of resources.

Why?

There are many good reasons for dividing your System into separate components. One is that it gives you looser coupling between your components, which can make it easier to re-use them (among other benefits). Another is that it allows you flexibility and architectural options at deploy time.

For example, you can deploy all your components in a single JVM for a test environment, while in production you could distribute components across multiple JVMs, for scaleability. If you are forced to deploy lots of small JVMs, in all environments, this can be an inefficient use of precious memory. I prefer to run a smaller number of JVMs, each with more memory. Developing Clojure applications as monolithic systems works well to begin with but can reduce flexibility down the road.

I want the option of deploying early versions of new projects quickly, without the hassle of setting up a new server or incurring the cost of a dedicated JVM (200Mb is not an insignificant overhead when you have dozens of Clojure-based web applications). Jig lets me quickly hook up new web applications and services onto an existing Clojure deployment.

Here's an example of one of my component graphs.

Example component dependency graph

Separation of dev-workflow from application code

Rather than using a lein template to generate the project and the corresponding dev System, Jig separates these concerns. You can use Jig's workflow to develop on existing projects that don't have a built-in dev workflow.

You can also fork and improve Jig to your own requirements. The aim is to retain internal re-prgrammability to your development tooling.

One Jig project can be used against many different projects, even simultaneously (see Components)

I wrote Jig because I wanted to create new Clojure projects quickly without having to maintain the development harness for each one. As I make a small improvement to one development harness, I don't want the hassle of going through all my other projects to update them in the same way, but neither do I want dozens of development harnesses that differ from each other. I want one development harness, re-usable 'jig' that I can use against multiple Leiningen-based projects.

Configuration

Jig lets you specify configuration for your components in a single configuration file. However, components can source their own configuration if desired.

Injection of the System into the web request context.

Jig does not have opinions as to how you should build your applications. However, if does provide good support for writing Ring and Pedestal services should you wish to keep using Jig in your deployment. More details can be found below.

Automatic provision of url-for for URI generation

Pedestal boasts bidirectional routes, so that URIs can be generated from route definitions rather than determined some other way. Jig provides a url-for function in the Pedestal context, and defaults the app-name and request to make it easy to generate paths that make sense in the context of the page on which the link is placed.

Portable web applications

It can be cost-effective for multiple web applications to share the same JVM. Jig allows you to host web applications under contextual URI prefixes. This is a feature made possible by the provision of the url-for function, since 'portable' web applications can use this to generate URIs for web links in their content, without resorting to hard-coding URI paths.

Component failure recovery

Errors thrown from components that fail during initialization or start-up do not cause the entire system to fail. This reduces the number of times that you have to reboot the JVM. Only components that are successfully initialized are started, and only those that are successfully started are stopped. Any failures are indicated in the REPL, with full details and stack traces written to the log file..

Usage

Normally you'll be used to creating with a project with lein new, cd'ing to the newly created directory, perhaps adding some plugins to its project.clj file, and running lein. Working with Jig is different, in that you run lein from the Jig project directory and 'point' the configuration at one (or more) of your existing Leiningen projects.

Clone the Jig repository as you would any other Clojure project.

$ git clone https://github.com/juxt/jig

Configure Jig by copying in a config file into the config/config.edn. You can skip this step if you want to see Jig running in its default configuration which includes examples.

If you're using Emacs, load up Jig's project.clj and

M-x nrepl-jack-in

(that's usually bound to 'Control-c, Meta-j')

In the *nrepl* buffer that (eventually) appears, type

user> (go)

Alternatively, on the command line, type

lein repl

and then

user> (go)

Sync the application by calling reset

user> (reset)

Resetting the application will cause namespaces to reload (thanks to Stuart's work in org.clojure/tools.namespace) such that the application will be back in sync with the code-base. This is the feature that makes development fast and interactive, and it's all thanks to Stuart's hard work.

You should find yourself typing (reset) rather a lot, and soon even that becomes burdensome. Here's some Emacs code you can paste into your $HOME/.emacs.d/init.el to provide a shortcut.

(defun nrepl-reset ()
  (interactive)
  (save-some-buffers)
  (set-buffer "*nrepl*")
  (goto-char (point-max))
  (insert "(user/reset)")
  (nrepl-return))

(global-set-key (kbd "C-c r") 'nrepl-reset)

or, if you are using cider:

(defun cider-repl-reset ()
  (interactive)
  (save-some-buffers)
  (with-current-buffer (cider-current-repl-buffer)
    (goto-char (point-max))
    (insert "(user/reset)")
    (cider-repl-return)))

(global-set-key (kbd "C-c r") 'cider-repl-reset)

After re-evaluating (or restarting Emacs) you'll be able to reset the application using 'Control-c r'.

Configuration

A configuration specifies :

  • which components you want to include in your system
  • where to find these components (the Leiningen project) and
  • the configuration settings they will get

Usually you've have one configuration file per project per environment (e.g. dev, uat, prod).

By default, Jig looks for a config/config.edn file, but you can override this by placing a config file in $HOME/.jig/config.edn (where $HOME is your home directory). If a configuration file can't be found, a default will be used.

A configuration is a map which usually contains a :jig/components key listing the components in a map (each key in the map is the component's label). You can get a good idea of the format by looking at the config/default.edn file.

Includes

It's also possible to link to other configuration files, which are merged into a single config :

{
 :jig/include ["/home/malcolm/src/octopus/config.clj" "/home/malcolm/src/juxtweb/config.clj"]
 }

Formats

While .edn files are preferred, you can use .clj if you want to evaluate Clojure expressions, such as calculations.

Important: To avoid injection attacks, never use the .clj suffix for configuration you don't entirely control, including user submitted configuration.

Dealing with multiple diverging configurations

A very useful trick is to use Clojure's #= reader macro in the $HOME/.jig/config.clj (you can't use an .edn file for this trick). A useful pattern is to load in the default configuration and make tweaks to it for the environment you're running Jig in. This helps to prevent a proliferation of diveraging configuration files, which is a common problem with multiple environments in any configuration system. Each configuration can inherit from the defaults and use a Clojure program to derive a modified version. What better language than Clojure to tweak a map?

Here's an example.

#=(eval
  (->
    ;; Start with the original configuration, stored in the git repo
    (clojure.core/read-string (slurp (str (System/getProperty "user.home") "/src/my-proj/config.clj")))

    ;; Add a 'private' component
    (assoc-in [:jig/components :firefox-reloader]
      {:jig/component 'jig.web.firefox-reload/Component
                  :jig/dependencies [:service :cljs-server]
                  :jig.web.firefox-reload/host "localhost"
                  :jig.web.firefox-reload/port 32000
                  })

    ;; Oh dear, some tricky path munging. We have to change lots of paths!
    ;; Let's walk the tree.
    ;; Due to symlinks not working well on Dropbox mounts,
    ;; replace all instances of relative paths with absolute ones
    ((partial clojure.walk/postwalk
      (fn [x]
        (if-let
          [path (and (string? x)
                     (second (re-matches #"\.\./my-proj(.*)" x)))]
                (str "/home/malcolm/another-path/src/my-proj" path)
                x))))))

Components

You can write your own components by defining a type or record. At the very least it needs to implement the jig.Lifecycle protocol.

(:ns org.example.core
  (:import (jig Lifecycle)))

(deftype Component [config]
  Lifecycle
  (init [_ system] system)
  (start [_ system] system)
  (stop [_ system] system))

In Stuart's reloaded workflow, the init function is responsible for creating the System. In Jig's component model, the system map is threaded through each component's init function, giving it a chance to add stuff. Likewise for the start and stop functions. The minimum you need to do is return the original system, for the next component in the chain.

Once you have declared your component, you need to reference it in the config file config/config.edn. Jig needs to know which components you want activated. If this file doesn't already exist, copy over the contents from config/sample.config.edn. If you need to evaluate Clojure expressions in your config, use a .clj suffix, e.g. config/config.clj

For example...

{:jig/components
  {:hello-app {:jig/component org.example.core/Component}}}

Components will be instantiated with a single argument: the component's configuration value as specified in the config file. So if you want to pass configuration to your component, an easy option is to add it to the component's entry in the config/config.edn file.

If you want to see the state of the system at any time, it's available from the REPL

user> system

It's nicer if you have pretty printing enabled at the REPL.

M-x cust-var<RET>nrepl-use-pretty-printing

Alternatively, you can be explicit.

user> (pprint system)

Dependencies

Sometimes a component will rely on the existence of another. Dependencies can be specified in the component configuration under the :jig/dependencies key, where the value is a vector of keys to other components in the configuration.

For example, let's suppose component Y is dependent on component X.

{:jig/components
  {"X" {:jig/component org.example.core/X}
   "Y" {:jig/component org.example.core/Y
        :jig/dependencies ["X"]}}}

You can also view the component dependency graph from the REPL :-

user> (graph)

Component dependency between X and Y

Persisting state across resets

There are some situations where you want state to survive across resets. Values that are stored in the system anywhere under the :jig/safe branch will not be purged. In the vast majority of cases you should prefer state to be reinitialised on a reset.

Built-in components

Jig comes with its own components, providing useful functionality and demonstrate how components are written. Each component is configurable. If you need a component which isn't in this list, I am happy to provide it.

jig.web.ring/Jetty

Provides a Jetty service that can be used by Ring applications.

jig.web.ring/Compojure

Amalgamates Compojure routes contributed by other components into a single handler.

jig.git/GitPull

Pulls the latest code from a remote git repository. This can be useful as part of an automatic continuous delivery mechanism.

jig.jmx/JmxMBean

Provides a reload capability, invokable as a JMX operation.

jig.web.stencil/StencilLoader

Clears out the stencil cache to ensure stale Mustache templates do not survive a system reset.

jig.nginx/Purge

Purges an nginx reverse proxy to ensure cached pages do not survive a system reset.

jig.nrepl/Server

Provides an nREPL server, useful if the system isn't started with lein repl but an nREPL service is still desired.

jig.web.firefox-reload/Component

A trigger to get Firefox to reload the current page upon every rest. Requires the Remote Control addon)is installed and enabled (the icon should be green).

jig.web.server/Component

Provides a Pedestal service on a Tomcat or Jetty listener, and ensures that the System is made available to each Pedestal handler. This unifies Stuart's approach with the Pedestal framework, allowing you to enjoy Stuart's rapid development workflow while writing Pedestal services.

One of the major benefits of Pedestal over Ring is the support for bi-directionality between routes and handlers. For me, this is a stand-out feature because of the importance of hyperlinks, both in web pages and RESTful web applications.

Asking the library to generate URLs for you, rather than hard-coding them in your application, reduces the risk of broken links and maintenance cost. Jig injects a useful function into the Pedestal context, under the :url-for key, that lets you generate URLs relative to request you are processing. By default, URLs are generated to handler within the same application, but you can specify :app-name to target other applications hosted in the same JVM.

Look at the use of url-for in the example below. See how easy it is to generate URLs to target other Pedestal handlers. Nice.

(defhandler my-index-page [request]
  {:status 200
   :headers {"Content-Type" "text/plain"}
   :body "Hello World!})

(defbefore my-root-page [{:keys [url-for] :as context}]
  (assoc context :response
    (ring.util.response/redirect
      ;; Look, no nasty hard-coded URLs!
      (url-for ::my-index-page))))

jig.web.app/Component

Provides a web application abstraction on top of jig.web.server/Component. Other components can add Pedestal routes to a web application component. These are then combined to form a complete Pedestal route table.

Applications can share the same jig.web.server/Component, allowing for 'virtual hosts'. Applications can specify a different host, scheme or be rooted at a sub-context. This are really useful for hosting different Clojure-powered websites on the same JVM.

These examples assume a little knowledge about Pedestal, see http://pedestal.io/documentation/service-routing/ for more details.

jig.cljs/Builder

Adding a step to compile ClojureScript on every reset can be accomplished with this component.

:cljs-builder
{:jig/component jig.cljs/Builder
 :jig/project "../myproj/project.clj"
 :output-dir "../myproj/target/js"
 :output-to "../myproj/target/js/main.js"
 :source-map "../myproj/target/js/main.js.map"
 :optimizations :none
 :clean-build false
 }

Setting :clean-build to true will cause the output directory to be deleted on every reset, otherwise an incremental build will be performed. The compiler environment is stored under the :jig/safe branch to make incremental builds possible. Incremental builds are a lot faster and are therefore enabled by default.

You may want to configure different builder components for different pages, or for different optimizations. Multiple builds can be achieved by adding multiple instances of this component to your configuration.

jig.cljs/FileServer

Once the JavaScript and source-map files have been generated, it is often useful to be able to serve it from a web server. A minimum of two dependencies must be specified, one should be a jig.cljs/Builder component instance, the other should be the a jig.web.app/Component component instance. A web context should be specified, under which resources will be available.

:cljs-server
{:jig/component jig.cljs/FileServer
 :jig/dependencies [:cljs-builder :web]
 :jig.web/context "/js"
}

Projects

You point Jig at your own projects by specifying a :jig/project configuration entry which specifies the project containing the component you wish to include.

:juxtweb/service {:jig/component pro.juxt.website.core/Component
                  :jig/dependencies [:juxtweb/web]
                  :jig.web/app-name :juxtweb/web
                  :jig/project "../juxtweb/project.clj"}

Leiningen dependencies that are added to a project during development are automatically can be added to the classpath, so you don't have to restart the JVM if you are simply adding a dependency to a project.

Deployment

You can run Jig in production the same way as you run in development. If you are using a single project which depends on Jig (or at least one Jig extension) you can uberjar your project.

uberjar

Create a main.clj or other similar namespace with the following content.

(ns main (:gen-class))

(defn -main [& args] (user/go))

In your project.clj, add the following

:main main :aot [main]

Or see https://github.com/mastodonc/kixi.hecuba for an example of a project which deploys this way.

Caveats

The Lifecycle protocol

I don't see any reason why others couldn't create their own 'jigs' (a jig is a separate Leiningen project after all). Although this project is named eponymously, there can be others customized for specialist contexts (either new projects, or forks of this one).

If that happens and there's a need to share components between jigs (for reasons of component portability) then it will make sense to promote the Lifecycle protocol (and maybe others) to a common library that different jigs can use.

EDN data readers

If an external project depends on a third-party jar which isn't on Jig's own classpath, then it will not have been visible to Clojure when clojure.core is first loaded. This means that any data readers declared in /data_readers.clj will not work. If you use the edn/read-string in these projects you cannot assume the *data-readers* dynamic var will contain the data readers declared in the third-party jar. The workaround is to use the 2-arg form of edn/read edn/read-string and supply the readers explicitly in the option map.

For example, when loading Datomic data from a file, you would use the following form :

(edn/read-string
   {:readers {'db/id datomic.db/id-literal
              'db/fn datomic.function/construct
              'base64 datomic.codec/base-64-literal}}
   "my-data.edn")

user.clj

If a project has a /user.clj file in one of its source directories, then it will be loaded on a reset and override Jig's user namespace. Jig will then stop working. The current workaround is to ensure such a file isn't visible to Jig, either by renaming it or by removing the source directory containing it in the project's project.clj file. It is hoped that future versions of Jig will avoid this issue by disabling the loading of such files by tools.namespace.

FAQ

Clojure already does code reloading! Why do I need all this stuff?

Clojure, being a LISP, allows you to reload functions at will. But Stuart's pattern (which Jig builds on) extends this to state, compile-time macros, protocols/types/records and multi-methods. Experienced Clojure developers know when to reload some namespaces and when to restart the JVM. It seems better to raise the abstraction so you don't have to think about these technicalities all the time, just 'reset' each time you want consistency while you develop.

See this comment for a better explanation: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=5819912

Jig is trying to provide you with a better development experience, while nudging you towards a modular architecture that will help you when your system grows to a certain size.

Where can I find examples of projects using Jig?

Mastodon C's Hecuba project uses Jig for development, deploying using lein uberjar.

JUXT Accounting is a full application that is developed with Jig 1.0.x.

JUXT's website also uses Jig 1.0.x, for both development and deployment.

What's the relationship between Jig and Up?

Up is deprecated, Jig replaces it (and has stolen all the worthy bits).

The main difference between Up and Jig is that Up added config to the Leiningen project and the dependency relation between projects and infrastructure has been reversed. In due course Jig will add a protocol that components can extend to communicate with other components over a System bus (core.async channel), and will then provide a superset of Up's functionality. Jig is better.

Troubleshooting

Look at the system

Don't forget the system is available in the REPL, as user/system. That's useful for testing what functions are returning.

You can check what's in the system by outputting it to the console. (keys user/system) is often useful if the system gets very large and you need to navigate it.

Log files

By default, Jig configures logback and logs are written to $HOME/.jig/logs. Events such as component init, startup and shutdown, and exceptions that occur during these phases, are written to here. When the REPL tells you to check the log files, this is where you should look.

Common errors in a component's init, start and stop functions

You should return the system value, modified if necessary, from each component function. If you don't return any value, Jig will detect this and throw an error.

Make sure that you do modify the system, but then return using the symbol representing the unmodified system. That's a common mistake. Jig won't detect that you have returned the same system it gave you, because that's normal behaviour.

'No implementation of method' when compiling components

java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: No implementation of method: :init of protocol: #'jig/Lifecycle found for class

Ensure you require jig before importing the jig/Lifecycle protocol.

Console

By default, a console is provided at http://localhost:8001.

Currently this supports the following (limited) functionality:

  • This README
  • A system map browser
  • Dynamically served Codox API documentation
  • A list of TODOs
  • Triggering a reload

Security advisory: Since this console allows remote reloads, ensure that you disable this console if you are intending to run production applications on Jig, or secure access to whatever port you run it on.

Examples

Sudoku

Many people have asked for a demonstration of how to configure a simple Ring application. This is provided as a Sudoku example in the examples/ directory. It is incorporated in the default configuration and the website is accessible at http://localhost:8091/sudoku.html

MQTT broker

This is a network service built on Netty. It shows how easy it is to use Java service libraries directly using only Clojure and Jig. Please refer to the README.md in examples/mqtt-broker for more details.

Copyright and License

Copyright © 2013 JUXT. All rights reserved.

The use and distribution terms for this software are covered by the Eclipse Public License 1.0 which can be found in the file epl-v10.html at the root of this distribution. By using this software in any fashion, you are agreeing to be bound by the terms of this license. You must not remove this notice, or any other, from this software.