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## MicroBlaze Simple Linux (MBSL)
## Jan Viktorin <>
## GNU GPLv3

# Introduction

This small distribution of OS Linux is intended to be used in
embedded systems on (Xilinx) FPGA using soft processor MicroBlaze.
It should automate many tasks that are necessary to do before
the OS image is ready to be deployed.

The main covered features are:

* downloading of necessary source code and tools from the Internet
  (Linux kernel sources, MicroBlaze toolchain, ...)
* generating DTS from system.mhs and system.mss files
* configurating Linux kernel and the used software
* compiling of all software for the embedded device
* creating initramfs for Linux
* building Linux image to be downloaded to the chip
* calling Xilinx tools to download the design to FPGA and to boot
  Linux over JTAG (or using other possibilities)

# Contents

The distribution consists of few directories:

* pkgs      - contains packages' descriptions
* util      - utilities that the build system can use or the simplifies
               some common issues
* config    - location with Linux kernel and BusyBox (or other) configuration
* dts       - location for DTS files
* design    - location with design files (bit)
* initramfs - static contents of the builtin ramdisk (configuration, scripts, ...)
* patchs    - patchs of the software
* src       - location where the downloaded sources are placed
* tools     - location where the tools (eg. toolchain) are placed
* tmp       - cache of downloaded archives
* gen-ramfs - generated ramdisk structure for the image

The whole process is driven by Makefile that is divided to smaller pieces
that implement the targets:

* Makefile           - top level Makefile with the main targets
* default.cfg        - user configuration file (can have different name)
* Makefile.default   - default configuration settings
*      - contains general help
* Makefile.version
* Makefile.configure - configuration of the software (eg. Linux kernel config)
* Makefile.install   - target install fills the initramfs with user applications
* Makefile.clean
* Makefile.distclean
* Makefile.initramfs - implements generating of static part of initramfs
* Makefile.patch
* Makefile.path      - setting cosntant paths to different resources
* Makefile.pkgs      - includes packages to the Makefile
* Makefile.xilinx    - targets to use Xilinx tools

# Getting started

Most common (without considering possible issues that may happen) way to
use MBSL:

1) create configuration file like example.cfg

   * select packages, toolchain
   * select Linux kernel and BusyBox version
   * setup Board/FPGA specific info

2) download the sources

   $ make CONFIG=example download

3) configure the software

   $ make CONFIG=example configure

   To change Linux kernel or BusyBox configuration using ncurses menuconfig you can use:

     $ make CONFIG=example configure KERNEL_CONFIGURE=menuconfig BUSYBOX_CONFIGURE=menuconfig
     $ make CONFIG=example KCONFIG_NEW=example BBCONFIG_NEW=example kconfig-save bbconfig-save

   (see `make help` and Makefile.configure)

4) build the software

   $ make CONFIG=example build

   For parallel build -jX use:

     $ make CONFIG=example build BUILD_PARALLEL=X

5) install software to initramfs and build the image

   $ make CONFIg=example install

6) boot design and image

   $ make CONFIG=example DESIGN_DIR=<path> DESIGN=<name> boot

You can see that there is a configuration file example.cfg that can hold a lot
of preconfigured variables (even KCONFIG_NEW, BUILD_PARALLEL, etc.).

# Package description

Package description consists of variables, constants, targets (with recipes) and
connections of targets with MBSL target chains.

It is possible to describe packages in any way but MBSL suggests some rules to make the
distribution consistent. These rules should apply to most cases.

## Package targets and chaining

The build system consists of some general chains of targets. That means eg. (see Makefile):

  build: build-init build-body build-fini

When user calls `make build` the targets in the chain are called sequentialy: init, body, fini.
Each packages that requires to be build then declares eg.:
  	make ...
  build-body: build-<package-name>

It is up to the package which target chains will it use. Most common targets are:

* download  (download-body chain)
* configure (consifure-body chain)
* build     (build-body chain)
* install   (install-body chain)
* clean     (clean-body chain)
* distclean (distclean-body chain)
* help      (help-addon chain)

Internal targets' names should be unique in MBSL. They should contain name of the package
in their names. Suggestion:

  	do something...
When using this convention one can call:

  $ make build-myapp

to compile only one part of the system (otherwise a lot of output and lot of applications and scripts
are executed for nothing...).

## Target helpers

To solve common issues there are Makefile functions that simplifies
writing the recipes eg. (see some packages in pkgs/ or specific Makefile.* file):

  $(call common-build,<BASE>)
  $(call common-clean,<BASE>)

## Package variables and constants

Each package (mostly for consistency) contains several variables (or constants). Their names
are written in upper case and consist of:

* <BASE>   which should be unique in whole MBSL and should be equivalent to the package name
* <SUFFIX> the variable discriminator


Each package should declare at least <BASE>_NAME constant.
Eg. package kernel-org declares:


To change kernel version you can only specify KERNEL_ORG_VERSION := x.y in your configuration
file and the system will download the selected sources from web. How MBSL knows the URL?

  KERNEL_ORG_URL     := ...

There are some constant/variable names that can be treated as standard (they are used by
some MBSL helping routines):

* <BASE>_NAME       ... name of source directory (where the compilation occures)
  Required by: download, unpack, common-install, common-patch

* <BASE>_AR         ... archive suffix that is to be downloaded and unpacked
  Required by: download, unpack

* <BASE>_URL        ... URL of the source archive
  Required by: download

* <BASE>_PATH       ... absolute path to the source directory (should consist of <BASE>_NAME)
  Required by: unpack, common-build, common-install, common-clean/distclean, common-patch

* <BASE>_ORIG       ... directory name contained in the downloaded archive (handy when
                        it is different from <BASE>_NAME)
  Required by: unpack

* <BASE>_BUILD_OPTS ... options passed when building
                        eg.: $(MAKE) -C $(<BASE>_PATH) $(<BASE>_BUILD_OPTS)
  Used by: common-build

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