Skip to content


Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
branch: master
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

1476 lines (1167 sloc) 62.978 kb
\input texinfo.tex @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c %**start of header
@settitle Magit User Manual
@documentencoding utf-8
@c %**end of header
@macro magit{url, text}
@uref{\url\, \text\}
@end macro
@dircategory Emacs
* Magit: (magit). Using Git from Emacs with Magit.
@end direntry
Copyright @copyright{} 2008-2013 Magit contributors. (See the header
of magit.el for the lengthy list of Magit contributors.)
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
``GNU Free Documentation License''.
@end quotation
@end copying
@node Top
@top Magit User Manual
Magit is an interface to the version control system Git, implemented
as an Emacs extension.
Unlike Emacs's native Version Control package which strives to
provide a unified interface to various version control systems, Magit
only supports Git and can therefor better take advantage of its native
Magit supports GNU Emacs 23.2 or later; 24.1 or later is recommended.
Magit supports Git or later; 1.8.2 or later is recommended.
The minimal versions are those available in Debian oldstable.
When something breaks please see the curated list of
@magit{wiki/Known-Issues, known issues} and the @magit{wiki/FAQ, FAQ}.
If that doesn't help check the list of all open issues @magit{issues,
If everything else fails please open a new issue or ask for help on
the @uref{!forum/magit,
mailing list}.
* Introduction::
* Acknowledgments::
* Sections::
* Status::
* Untracked files::
* Staging and Committing::
* History::
* Reflogs::
* Commit Buffer::
* Diffing::
* Tagging::
* Resetting::
* Stashing::
* Branches and Remotes::
* Wazzup::
* Merging::
* Rebasing::
* Interactive Rebasing::
* Rewriting::
* Pushing and Pulling::
* Submodules::
* Bisecting::
* Finding commits not merged upstream::
* Using Magit Extensions::
* Using Git Directly::
* GNU Free Documentation License::
@end menu
@node Introduction
@chapter Introduction
With Magit, you can inspect and modify your Git repositories with
Emacs. You can review and commit the changes you have made to the
tracked files, for example, and you can browse the history of past
changes. There is support for cherry picking, reverting, merging,
rebasing, and other common Git operations.
Magit is not a complete interface to Git; it just aims to make the
most common Git operations convenient. Thus, Magit will likely not
save you from learning Git itself.
This manual provides a tour of many Magit features. It isn't an
introduction to version control in general, or to Git in particular.
The main entry point to Magit is @kbd{M-x magit-status}, which puts
you in Magit's status buffer. You will be using it frequently, so it
is probably a good idea to globally bind @code{magit-status} to a key
of your choice.
In addition to the status buffer, Magit will also create buffers that
show lists of commits, buffers with diffs, and other kinds of buffers.
All these buffers are in a mode derived from @code{magit-mode} and
have the similar key bindings. Not all commands make sense in all
contexts, but a given key will do the same thing in different Magit
Naturally, Magit runs the @code{git} command to do most of the work.
The @code{*magit-process*} buffer contains the transcript of the most
recent command. You can switch to it with @kbd{$}.
@node Acknowledgments
@chapter Acknowledgments
Our thank goes to all current and past contributors, Marius Vollmer
who started the project, and all retired and current maintainers,
Phil Jackson, Peter J. Weisberg, Rémi Vanicat, Nicolas Dudebout,
Yann Hodique, and Jonas Bernoulli.
For a full list of contributors, see the file at the
top-level directory of this distribution or at
@node Sections
@chapter Sections
All Magit buffers are structured into nested 'sections'. These
sections can be hidden and shown individually. When a section is
hidden, only its first line is shown and all its children are
completely invisible.
The most fine-grained way to control the visibility of sections is the
@kbd{TAB} key. It will to toggle the current section (the section
that contains point) between being hidden and being shown.
Typing @kbd{S-TAB} toggles the visibility of the children of the
current section. When all of them are shown, they will all be hidden.
Otherwise, when some or all are hidden, they will all be shown.
The digit keys @kbd{1}, @kbd{2}, @kbd{3}, and @kbd{4} control the
visibility of sections based on levels. Hitting @kbd{2}, for example,
will show sections on levels one and two, and will hide sections on
level 3. However, only sections that are a parent or child of the
current section are affected.
For example, when the current section is on level 3 and you hit
@kbd{1}, the grand-parent of the current section (which is on level
one) will be shown, and the parent of the current section (level 2)
will be hidden. The visibility of no other section will be changed.
This sounds a bit complicated, but you'll figure it out.
Using @kbd{M-1}, @kbd{M-2}, @kbd{M-3}, and @kbd{M-4} is similar to the
unmodified digits, but now all sections on the respective level are
affected, regardless of whether or not they are related to the current
For example, @kbd{M-1} will only show the first lines of the top-level
sections and will hide everything else. Typing @kbd{M-4} on the other
hand will show everything.
Because of the way the status buffer is set up, some changes to
section visibility are more common than others. Files are on level 2
and diff hunks are on level 4. Thus, you can type @kbd{2} to collapse
the diff of the current file, and @kbd{M-2} to collapse all files.
This returns the status buffer to its default setup and is a quick way
to unclutter it after drilling down into the modified files.
Because @kbd{2} and @kbd{M-2} are so common in the status buffer, they
are bound to additional, more mnemonic keys: @kbd{M-h} (hide) and
@kbd{M-H} (hide all). Likewise @kbd{4} and @kbd{M-4} are also
available as @kbd{M-s} (show) and @kbd{M-S} (show all).
In other buffers than the status buffer, @kbd{M-h}, @kbd{M-H},
@kbd{M-s}, and @kbd{M-S} might work on different levels than on 2 and
4, but they keep their general meaning: @kbd{M-H} hides all detail,
and @kbd{M-S} shows everything.
@node Status
@chapter Status
Running @kbd{M-x magit-status} displays the main interface of Magit,
the status buffer. You can have multiple status buffers active at the
same time, each associated with its own Git repository.
When invoking @kbd{M-x magit-status} from within a Git repository, it
will switch to the status buffer of that repository. Otherwise, it
will prompt for a directory. With a prefix argument, it will always
You can set @code{magit-repo-dirs} to customize how
@code{magit-status} asks for the repository to work on. When
@code{magit-repo-dirs} is nil, @code{magit-status} will simply ask for
a directory.
If you specify a directory that is not a Git repository, @kbd{M-x
magit-status} will offer to initialize it as one.
When @code{magit-repo-dirs} is not nil, it is treated as a list of
directory names, and @code{magit-status} will find all Git
repositories in those directories and offer them for completion.
(Magit will only look @code{magit-repo-dirs-depth} levels deep,
With two prefix arguments, @code{magit-status} will always prompt for
a raw directory.
Thus, you would normally set @code{magit-repo-dirs} to the places
where you keep most of your Git repositories and switch between them
with @kbd{C-u M-x magit-status}. If you want to go to a repository
outside of your normal working areas, or if you want to create a new
repository, you would use @kbd{C-u C-u M-x magit-status}.
You need to explicitly refresh the status buffer when you have made
changes to the repository from outside of Emacs. You can type @kbd{g}
in the status buffer itself, or just use @kbd{M-x magit-status}
instead of @kbd{C-x b} when switching to it. You also need to refresh
the status buffer in this way after saving a file in Emacs.
The header at the top of the status buffer shows a short summary of
the repository state: where it is located, which branch is checked
out, etc. Below the header are a number of sections that show details
about the working tree and the staging area. You can hide and show
them as described in the previous section.
The first section shows @emph{Untracked files}, if there are any. See
@ref{Untracked files} for more details.
The next two sections show your local changes. They are explained
fully in the next chapter, @ref{Staging and Committing}.
If the current branch is associated with a remote tracking branch, the
status buffer shows the differences between the current branch and the
tracking branch. See @ref{Pushing and Pulling} for more information.
During a history rewriting session, the status buffer shows the
@emph{Pending changes} and @emph{Pending commits} sections. See
@ref{Rewriting} for more details.
@node Untracked files
@chapter Untracked files
Untracked files are shown in the @emph{Untracked files} section.
You can add an untracked file to the staging area with @kbd{s}. If
point is on the @emph{Untracked files} section title when you hit
@kbd{s}, all untracked files are staged.
Typing @kbd{C-u S} anywhere will also stage all untracked files,
together with all changes to the tracked files.
You can instruct Git to ignore them by typing @kbd{i}. This will add
the filename to the @code{.gitignore} file. Typing @kbd{C-u i} will ask
you for the name of the file to ignore. This is useful to ignore whole
directories, for example. In this case, the minibuffer's future history
(accessible with @kbd{M-n}) contains predefined values (such as
wildcards) that might be of interest. If prefix argument is negative
(for example after typing @kbd{C-- i}), the prompt proposes wildcard by
default. The @kbd{I} command is similar to @kbd{i} but will add the
file to @code{.git/info/exclude} instead.
To delete an untracked file forever, use @kbd{k}. If point is on the
@emph{Untracked files} section title when you hit @kbd{k}, all
untracked files are deleted.
@node Staging and Committing
@chapter Staging and Committing
Committing with Git is a two step process: first you add the changes
you want to commit to a 'staging area' or 'index', and then you commit
them to the repository. This allows you to only commit a subset of
the changes in the working tree. If you are not familiar with this
concept yet, then you should change that as soon as possible using one
of the fine Git tutorials. If you don't, then Git and by extension
Magit will seem rather strange.
Magit shows uncommitted changes in two sections, depending on whether
the changes have been staged yet. The @emph{Staged changes} section
shows the changes that will be included in the next commit, while the
@emph{Unstaged changes} section shows the changes that will be left
To move an unstaged hunk into the staging area, move point into the
hunk and type @kbd{s}. Likewise, to unstage a hunk, move point into
it and type @kbd{u}. If point is in a diff header when you type
@kbd{s} or @kbd{u}, all hunks belonging to that diff are moved at the
same time.
Currently it is only possible to stage from the status buffer.
Staging and unstaging from diff buffers that show unstaged and staged
changes is not possible yet.
If the region is active when you type @kbd{s} or @kbd{u}, only the
changes in the region are staged or unstaged. (This works line by
line: if the beginning of a line is in the region it is included in
the changes, otherwise it is not.)
To change the size of the hunks, you can type @kbd{+} or @kbd{-} to
increase and decrease, respectively. Typing @kbd{0} will
reset the hunk size to the default.
Typing @kbd{C-u s} will ask you for a name of a file to be staged, for
example to stage files that are hidden.
To move all hunks of all diffs into the staging area in one go, type
@kbd{S}. To unstage everything, type @kbd{U}.
Typing @kbd{C-u S} will stage all untracked files in addition to the
changes to tracked files.
You can discard uncommitted changes by moving point into a hunk and
typing @kbd{k}. The changes to discard are selected as with @kbd{s}
and @kbd{u}.
Before committing, you should write a short description of the
Type @kbd{c c} to pop up a buffer where you can write your change
description. Once you are happy with the description, type @kbd{C-c
C-c} in that buffer to perform the commit.
If you want to write changes in a @file{ChangeLog} file, you can use
@kbd{C-x 4 a} on a diff hunk.
Typing @kbd{c c} when the staging area is unused is a special
situation. Normally, the next commit would be empty, but you can
configure Magit to do something more useful by customizing the
@code{magit-commit-all-when-nothing-staged} variable. One choice is
to instruct the subsequent @kbd{C-c C-c} to commit all changes.
Another choice is stage everything at the time of hitting @kbd{c c}.
Typing @kbd{M-n} or @kbd{M-p} will cycle through the
@code{log-edit-comment-ring}, which will have your previous log
messages. This is particularly useful if you have a hook that
occasionally causes git to refuse your commit.
To abort a commit use @kbd{C-c C-k}. The commit message is saved and
can later be retrieved in the commit message buffer using @kbd{M-n}
and @kbd{M-p}.
Typing @kbd{C} will also pop up the change description buffer, but in
addition, it will try to insert a ChangeLog-style entry for the change
that point is in.
@node History
@chapter History
To show the repository history of your current head, type @kbd{l l}. A
new buffer will be shown that displays the history in a terse form.
The first paragraph of each commit message is displayed, next to a
representation of the relationships between commits.
To show the repository history between two branches or between any two
points of the history, type @kbd{l r l}. You will be prompted to enter
references for starting point and ending point of the history range; you
can use auto-completion to specify them. A typical use case for ranged
history log display would be @kbd{l r l master RET new-feature RET} that
will display commits on the new-feature branch that are not in master;
these commits can then be inspected and cherry-picked, for example.
More thorough filtering can be done by supplying @kbd{l} with one or
more suffix arguments, as displayed in its popup. @kbd{=g} ('Grep')
for example, limits the output to commits of which the log message
matches a specific string/regex.
Typing @kbd{l L} (or @kbd{l C-u L}) will show the log in a more verbose
Magit will show only @code{magit-log-cutoff-length} entries. @kbd{e}
will show twice as many entries. @kbd{C-u e} will show all entries,
and given a numeric prefix argument, @kbd{e} will add this number of
You can move point to a commit and then cause various things to happen
with it. (The following commands work in any list of commits, such as
the one shown in the @emph{Unpushed commits} section.)
Typing @kbd{RET} will pop up more information about the current commit
and move point into the new buffer. @xref{Commit Buffer}. Typing
@kbd{SPC} and @kbd{DEL} will also show the information, but will
scroll the new buffer up or down (respectively) when typed again.
Typing @kbd{a} will apply the current commit to your current branch.
This is useful when you are browsing the history of some other branch
and you want to `cherry-pick' some changes from it. A typical
situation is applying selected bug fixes from the development version
of a program to a release branch. The cherry-picked changes will not
be committed automatically; you need to do that explicitly.
Typing @kbd{A} will cherry-pick the current commit and will also
commit the changes automatically when there have not been any
Typing @kbd{v} will revert the current commit. Thus, it will apply
the changes made by that commit in reverse. This is obviously useful
to cleanly undo changes that turned out to be wrong. As with @kbd{a},
you need to commit the changes explicitly.
Typing @kbd{C-w} will copy the sha1 of the current commit into the
kill ring.
Typing @kbd{=} will show the differences from the current commit to
the @dfn{marked} commit.
You can mark the current commit by typing @kbd{.}. When the current
commit is already marked, typing @kbd{.} will unmark it. To unmark
the marked commit no matter where point is, use @kbd{C-u .}.
Some commands, such as @kbd{=}, will use the current commit and the
marked commit as implicit arguments. Other commands will offer the
marked commit as a default when prompting for their arguments.
@node Reflogs
@chapter Reflogs
You can use @kbd{l h} and @kbd{l H} to browse your @emph{reflog}, the
local history of changes made to your repository heads. Typing
@kbd{H} will ask for a head, while @kbd{l h} will show the reflog of
The resulting buffer is just like the buffer produced by @kbd{l l} and
@kbd{l L} that shows the commit history.
@node Commit Buffer
@chapter Commit Buffer
When you view a commit (perhaps by selecting it in the log buffer,
@ref{History}), the ``commit buffer'' is displayed, showing you
information about the commit and letting you interact with it.
By placing your cursor within the diff or hunk and typing @kbd{a}, you
can apply the same patch to your working copy. This is useful when
you want to copy a change from another branch, but don't necessarily
want to cherry-pick the whole commit.
By typing @kbd{v} you can apply the patch in reverse, removing all the
lines that were added and adding all the lines that were removed.
This is a convenient way to remove a change after determining that it
introduced a bug.
If the commit message refers to any other commits in the repository by
their unique hash, the hash will be highlighted and you will be able
to visit the referenced commit either by clicking on it or by moving
your cursor onto it and pressing @kbd{RET}.
The commit buffer maintains a history of the commits it has shown.
After visiting a referenced commit you can type @kbd{C-c C-b} to get
back to where you came from. To go forward in the history, type
@kbd{C-c C-f}. There are also @code{[back]} and @code{[forward]}
buttons at the bottom of the buffer.
@node Diffing
@chapter Diffing
Magit typically shows diffs in the ``unified'' format.
In any buffer that shows a diff, you can type @kbd{e} anywhere within
the diff to show the two versions of the file in Ediff. If the diff
is of a file in the status buffer that needs to be merged, you will be
able to use Ediff as an interactive merge tool. Otherwise, Ediff will
simply show the two versions of the file.
To show the changes from your working tree to another revision, type
@kbd{d}. To show the changes between two arbitrary revisions, type
You can use @kbd{a} within the diff output to apply the changes to
your working tree. As usual when point is in a diff header for a
file, all changes for that file are applied, and when it is in a hunk,
only that hunk is. When the region is active, the applied changes are
restricted to that region.
Typing @kbd{v} will apply the selected changes in reverse.
@node Tagging
@chapter Tagging
Typing @kbd{t t} will make a lightweight tag. Typing @kbd{t - a t} will
make an annotated tag. It will put you in the normal
@code{*magit-log-edit} buffer for writing commit messages, but typing
@kbd{C-c C-c} in it will make the tag instead. This is controlled by
the @code{Tag} field that will be added to the @code{*magit-log-edit*}
buffer. You can edit it, if you like.
@node Resetting
@chapter Resetting
Once you have added a commit to your local repository, you can not
change that commit anymore in any way. But you can reset your current
head to an earlier commit and start over.
If you have published your history already, rewriting it in this way
can be confusing and should be avoided. However, rewriting your local
history is fine and it is often cleaner to fix mistakes this way than
by reverting commits (with @kbd{v}, for example).
Typing @kbd{x} will ask for a revision and reset your current head to
it. No changes will be made to your working tree and staging area.
Thus, the @emph{Staged changes} section in the status buffer will show
the changes that you have removed from your commit history. You can
commit the changes again as if you had just made them, thus rewriting
Typing @kbd{x} while point is in a line that describes a commit will
offer this commit as the default revision to reset to. Thus, you can
move point to one of the commits in the @emph{Unpushed commits}
section and hit @kbd{x RET} to reset your current head to it.
Type @kbd{X} to reset your working tree and staging area to the most
recently committed state. This will discard your local modifications,
so be careful.
You can give a prefix to @kbd{x} if you want to reset both the current
head and your working tree to a given commit. This is the same as
first using an unprefixed @kbd{x} to reset only the head, and then
using @kbd{X}.
@node Stashing
@chapter Stashing
You can create a new stash with @kbd{z z}. Your stashes will be listed
in the status buffer, and you can apply them with @kbd{a} and pop them
with @kbd{A}. To drop a stash, use @kbd{k}.
With a prefix argument, both @kbd{a} and @kbd{A} will attempt to
reinstate the index as well as the working tree from the stash.
Typing @kbd{z -k z} will create a stash just like @kbd{z z}, but will
leave the changes in your working tree and index. This makes it easier
to, for example, test multiple variations of the same change.
If you just want to make quick snapshots in between edits, you can use
@kbd{z s}, which automatically enters a timestamp as description, and
keeps your working tree and index intact by default.
You can visit and show stashes in the usual way: Typing @kbd{SPC} and
@kbd{DEL} will pop up a buffer with the description of the stash and
scroll it, typing @kbd{RET} will move point into that buffer. Using
@kbd{C-u RET} will move point into that buffer in other window.
@node Branches and Remotes
@chapter Branches and Remotes
The current branch is indicated in the header of the status buffer. If
this branch is tracking a remote branch, the latter is also indicated.
Branches and remotes can be manipulated directly with a popup menu or
through the branch manager. Using the popup menu allows you to quickly
make changes from any magit buffer. The branch manager is a separate
buffer called @code{*magit-branches*}. It displays information about
branches and remotes and offers a local key map for shorter key
bindings. The two interaction methods are described in more details
* Branches Popup::
* Remotes Popup::
* Branches in the Branch Manager::
* Remotes in the Branch Manager::
@end menu
@node Branches Popup
@section Branches Popup
Typing @kbd{b} will display a popup menu to manipulate branches.
You can switch to a different branch by typing @kbd{b b}. This will
immediately checkout the branch into your working copy, so you
shouldn't have any local modifications when switching branches.
If you try to switch to a remote branch, Magit will offer to create a
local tracking branch for it instead. This way, you can easily start
working on new branches that have appeared in a remote repository.
Typing @kbd{b b} while point is at a commit description will offer
that commit as the default to switch to. This will result in a
detached head.
To create a new branch and switch to it immediately, type @kbd{b c}.
To delete a branch, type @kbd{b k}. If you're currently on that
branch, Magit will offer to switch to the 'master' branch.
Typing @kbd{b r} will let you rename a branch. Unless a branch with the same
name already exists, obviously...
Deleting a branch is only possible if it's already fully merged into
HEAD or its upstream branch. Unless you type @kbd{b C-u k}, that is.
Here be dragons...
Typing @kbd{b v} will launch the branch manager.
@node Remotes Popup
@section Remotes Popup
Typing @kbd{M} will display a popup menu to manipulate remotes.
To add a new remote, type @kbd{M a}.
To delete a remote type @kbd{M k}.
Typing @kbd{M r} will let you rename a remote.
@node Branches in the Branch Manager
@section Branches in the Branch Manager
In the branch manager, each branch is displayed on a separate line. The
current local branch is marked by a ``*'' in front of the name. Remote
branches are grouped by the remote they come from.
If a local branch tracks a remote branch some extra information is
printed on the branch line. The format is the following: ``<branch>
[<remote-branch> @ <remote>: ahead <a>, behind <b>]''.
``<remote-branch>'' is omitted if it is identical to ``<branch>''.
``ahead'' and ``behind'' information are only displayed if necessary.
To check out a branch, move your cursor to the desired branch and
press @kbd{RET}.
Typing @kbd{c} will create a new branch.
Typing @kbd{k} will delete the branch in the current line, and
@kbd{C-u k} deletes it even if it hasn't been merged into the current
local branch. Deleting works for both local and remote branches.
Typing @kbd{r} on a branch will rename it.
Typing @kbd{T} on a local branch, changes which remote branch it
@node Remotes in the Branch Manager
@section Remotes in the Branch Manager
In the branch manager, each remote is displayed on a separate line. The
format is the following ``<remote> (<url>, <push-url>)''. ``<push-url>''
is omitted if it is not set. The associated branches are listed under
this line.
Typing @kbd{a} will add a new remote.
Typing @kbd{k} will delete the remote in the current line.
Typing @kbd{r} on a remote will rename it.
@node Wazzup
@chapter Wazzup
Typing @kbd{w} will show a summary of how your other branches relate
to the current branch.
For each branch, you will get a section that lists the commits in that
branch that are not in the current branch. The sections are initially
collapsed; you need to explicitly open them with @kbd{TAB} (or
similar) to show the lists of commits.
When point is on a @emph{N unmerged commits in ...} title, the
corresponding branch will be offered as the default for a merge.
Hitting @kbd{i} on a branch title will ignore this branch in the
wazzup view. You can use @kbd{C-u w} to show all branches, including
the ignored ones. Hitting @kbd{i} on an already ignored branch in
that view will unignore it.
@node Merging
@chapter Merging
Magit offers two ways to merge branches: manual and automatic. A
manual merge will apply all changes to your working tree and staging
area, but will not commit them, while an automatic merge will go ahead
and commit them immediately.
Type @kbd{m m} to initiate merge.
After initiating a merge, the header of the status buffer might remind
you that the next commit will be a merge commit (with more than one
parent). If you want to abort a manual merge, just do a hard reset to
HEAD with @kbd{X}.
Merges can fail if the two branches you want to merge introduce
conflicting changes. In that case, the automatic merge stops before the
commit, essentially falling back to a manual merge. You need to resolve
the conflicts for example with @kbd{e} and stage the resolved files, for
example with @kbd{S}.
You can not stage individual hunks one by one as you resolve them, you
can only stage whole files once all conflicts in them have been
@node Rebasing
@chapter Rebasing
Typing @kbd{R} in the status buffer will initiate a rebase or, if one
is already in progress, ask you how to continue.
When a rebase is stopped in the middle because of a conflict, the
header of the status buffer will indicate how far along you are in the
series of commits that are being replayed. When that happens, you
should resolve the conflicts and stage everything and hit @kbd{R c} to
continue the rebase. Alternatively, hitting @kbd{c} or @kbd{C} while
in the middle of a rebase will also ask you whether to continue the
Of course, you can initiate a rebase in any number of ways, by
configuring @code{git pull} to rebase instead of merge, for example.
Such a rebase can be finished with @kbd{R} as well.
@node Interactive Rebasing
@chapter Interactive Rebasing
Typing @kbd{E} in the status buffer will initiate an interactive
rebase. This is equivalent to running @code{git rebase --interactive}
at the command line. The @file{git-rebase-todo} file will be opened in
an Emacs buffer for you to edit. This file is opened using
@code{emacsclient}, so just edit this file as you normally would, then
call the @code{server-edit} function (typically bound to @kbd{C-x #})
to tell Emacs you are finished editing, and the rebase will proceed as
If you have loaded @file{rebase-mode.el} (which is included in the
Magit distribution), the @file{git-rebase-todo} buffer will be in
@code{rebase-mode}. This mode disables normal text editing but instead
provides single-key commands (shown in the buffer) to perform all the
edits that you would normally do manually, including changing the
operation to be performed each commit (``pick'', ``squash'', etc.),
deleting (commenting out) commits from the list, and reordering
commits. You can finish editing the buffer and proceed with the rebase
by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}, which is bound to @code{server-edit} in
this mode, and you can abort the rebase with @kbd{C-c C-k}, just like
when editing a commit message in Magit.
@node Rewriting
@chapter Rewriting
As hinted at earlier, you can rewrite your commit history. For
example, you can reset the current head to an earlier commit with
@kbd{x}. This leaves the working tree unchanged, and the status
buffer will show all the changes that have been made since that new
value of the current head. You can commit these changes again,
possibly splitting them into multiple commits as you go along.
Amending your last commit is a common special case of rewriting
history like this.
Another common way to rewrite history is to reset the head to an
earlier commit, and then to cherry pick the previous commits in a
different order. You could pick them from the reflog, for example.
Magit has several commands that can simplify the book keeping
associated with rewriting. These commands all start with the @kbd{r}
prefix key.
(Unless you already do so, we recommend that you don't use the
functionality described here. It is semi-deprecated and will be
removed once its unique features have been ported to the @code{git
rebase --interactive} workflow. Even now the latter is almost always
the better option.)
Typing @kbd{r b} will start a rewrite operation. You will be prompted
for a @emph{base} commit. This commit and all subsequent commits up
until the current head are then put in a list of @emph{Pending
commits}, after which the current head will be reset to the
@emph{parent} of the base commit. This can be configured to behave
like @code{git rebase}, i.e. exclude the selected base commit from the
rewrite operation, with the @code{magit-rewrite-inclusive} variable.
You would then typically use @kbd{a} and @kbd{A} to cherry pick
commits from the list of pending commits in the desired order, until
all have been applied. Magit shows which commits have been applied by
changing their marker from @code{*} to @code{.}.
Using @kbd{A} will immediately commit the commit (as usual). If you
want to combine multiple previous commits into a single new one, use
@kbd{a} to apply them all to your working tree, and then commit them
Magit has no explicit support for rewriting merge commits. It will
happily include merge commits in the list of pending commits, but
there is no way of replaying them automatically. You have to redo the
merge explicitly.
You can also use @kbd{v} to revert a commit when you have changed your
mind. This will change the @code{.} mark back to @code{*}.
Once you are done with the rewrite, type @kbd{r s} to remove the book
keeping information from the status buffer.
If you rather wish to start over, type @kbd{r a}. This will abort the
rewriting, resetting the current head back to the value it had before
the rewrite was started with @kbd{r b}.
Typing @kbd{r f} will @emph{finish} the rewrite: it will apply all
unused commits one after the other, as if you would use @kbd{A} with
all of them.
You can change the @kbd{*} and @kbd{.} marks of a pending commit
explicitly with @kbd{r *} and @kbd{r .}.
In addition to a list of pending commits, the status buffer will show
the @emph{Pending changes}. This section shows the diff between the
original head and the current head. You can use it to review the
changes that you still need to rewrite, and you can apply hunks from
it, like from any other diff.
@node Pushing and Pulling
@chapter Pushing and Pulling
Magit will run @code{git push} when you type @kbd{P P}. If you give
a prefix argument to @kbd{P P}, you will be prompted for the repository
to push to. When no default remote repository has been configured yet
for the current branch, you will be prompted as well. Typing @kbd{P P}
will only push the current branch to the remote. In other words, it
will run @code{git push <remote> <branch>}. The branch will be created
in the remote if it doesn't exist already. The local branch will be
configured so that it pulls from the new remote branch. If you give
a double prefix argument to @kbd{P P}, you will be prompted in addition
for the target branch to push to. In other words, it will run @code{git
push <remote> <branch>:<target>}.
Typing @kbd{f f} will run @code{git fetch}. It will prompt for the name
of the remote to update if there is no default one. Typing @kbd{f o}
will always prompt for the remote. Typing @kbd{F F} will run @code{git
pull}. When you don't have a default branch configured to be pulled
into the current one, you will be asked for it.
If there is a default remote repository for the current branch, Magit
will show that repository in the status buffer header.
In this case, the status buffer will also have a @emph{Unpushed
commits} section that shows the commits on your current head that are
not in the branch named @code{<remote>/<branch>}. This section works
just like the history buffer: you can see details about a commit with
@kbd{RET}, compare two of them with @kbd{.} and @kbd{=}, and you can
reset your current head to one of them with @kbd{x}, for example. If
you want to push the changes then type @kbd{P P}.
When the remote branch has changes that are not in the current branch,
Magit shows them in a section called @emph{Unpulled changes}. Typing
@kbd{F F} will fetch and merge them into the current branch.
@node Submodules
@chapter Submodules
@table @kbd
@item o u
Update the submodules, with a prefix argument it will also initialize them.
@item o i
Initialize the submodules.
@item o b
Update and initialize the submodules in one go (same as C-u o u).
@item o s
Synchronizes submodules' remote URL configuration setting to the value
specified in .gitmodules.
@end table
@node Bisecting
@chapter Bisecting
Magit supports bisecting by showing how many revisions and steps are
left to be tested in the status buffer. You can control the bisect
session from both the status and from log buffers with the @kbd{B} key
Typing @kbd{B s} will start a bisect session. You will be prompted
for a revision that is known to be bad (defaults to @emph{HEAD}) and
for a revision that is known to be good (defaults to the revision at
point if there is one). git will select a revision for you to test,
and Magit will update its status buffer accordingly.
You can tell git that the current revision is good with @kbd{B g},
that it is bad with @kbd{B b} or that git should skip it with @kbd{B
k}. You can also tell git to go into full automatic mode by giving it
the name of a script to run for each revision to test with @kbd{B u}.
The current status can be shown as a log with @kbd{B l}. It contains
the revisions that have already been tested and your decisions about
their state.
The revisions left to test can be visualized in gitk with @kbd{B v}.
When you're finished bisecting you have to reset the session with
@kbd{B r}.
@node Finding commits not merged upstream
@chapter Finding commits not merged upstream
One of the comforts of git is that it can tell you which commits have
been merged upstream but not locally and vice versa. Git's
sub-command for this is @code{cherry} (not to be confused with
@code{cherry-pick}). Magit has support for this by invoking
@code{magit-cherry} which is bound to @kbd{y} by default.
Magit will then ask you first for the upstream revision (which
defaults to the currently tracked remote branch if any) and the head
revision (which defaults to the current branch) to use in the
comparison. You will then see a new buffer in which all commits are
listed with a directional marker, their revision and the commit
message's first line. The directional marker is either @code{+}
indicating a commit that's present in upstream but not in head or
@code{-} which indicates a commit present in head but not in upstream.
From this list you can use the usual key bindings for cherry-picking
individual commits (@kbd{a} for cherry-picking without committing and
@kbd{A} for the same plus the automatic commit). The buffer is
refreshed automatically after each cherry-pick.
@node Using Magit Extensions
@chapter Magit Extensions
* Activating extensions::
* Interfacing with Subversion::
* Interfacing with Topgit::
* Interfacing with StGit::
@end menu
@node Activating extensions
@section Activating extensions
Magit comes with a couple of shipped extensions that allow interaction
with @code{git-svn}, @code{topgit} and @code{stgit}. See following
sections for specific details on how to use them.
Extensions can be activated globally or on a per-repository basis. Since
those extensions are implemented as minor modes, one can use for example
@kbd{M-x magit-topgit-mode} to toggle the @code{topgit} extension,
making the corresponding section and commands (un)available.
In order to do that automatically (and for every repository), one can
use for example:
(add-hook 'magit-mode-hook 'turn-on-magit-topgit)
@end example
Magit also allows configuring different extensions, based on the git
repository configuration.
(add-hook 'magit-mode-hook 'magit-load-config-extensions)
@end example
This will read git configuration variables and activate the
relevant extensions.
For example, after running the following commands, the @code{topgit}
extension will be loaded for every repository, while the @code{svn} one
will be loaded only for the current one.
$ git config --global --add magit.extension topgit
$ git config --add magit.extension svn
@end example
Note the @code{--add} flag, which means that each extension gets its own
line in the @code{config} file.
@node Interfacing with Subversion
@section Interfacing with Subversion
Typing @kbd{N r} runs @code{git svn rebase}, typing @kbd{N c} runs
@code{git svn dcommit} and typing @kbd{N f} runs @code{git svn fetch}.
@kbd{N s} will prompt you for a (numeric, Subversion) revision and
then search for a corresponding Git sha1 for the commit. This is
limited to the path of the remote Subversion repository. With a prefix
(@kbd{C-u N s} the user will also be prompted for a branch to search
@node Interfacing with Topgit
@section Interfacing with Topgit
@uref{, Topgit} is a patch queue manager
that aims at being close as possible to raw Git, which makes it easy
to use with Magit. In particular, it does not require to use a
different set of commands for ``commit'', ``update'', and other
@file{magit-topgit.el} provides basic integration with Magit, mostly by
providing a ``Topics'' section.
Topgit branches can be created the regular way, by using a ``t/'' prefix
by convention. So, creating a ``t/foo'' branch will actually populate
the ``Topics'' section with one more branch after committing
@file{.topdeps} and @file{.topmsg}.
Also, the way we pull (see @ref{Pushing and Pulling}) such a branch is
slightly different, since it requires updating the various dependencies
of that branch. This should be mostly transparent, except in case
of conflicts.
@node Interfacing with StGit
@section Interfacing with StGit
@uref{, StGit} is a Python application
providing similar functionality to Quilt (i.e. pushing/popping patches
to/from a stack) on top of Git. These operations are performed using
Git commands and the patches are stored as Git commit objects,
allowing easy merging of the StGit patches into other repositories
using standard Git functionality.
@file{magit-stgit.el} provides basic integration with Magit, mostly by
providing a ``Series'' section, whose patches can be seen as regular
commits through the ``visit'' action.
You can change the current patch in a series with the ``apply'' action,
as well as you can delete them using the ``discard'' action.
Additionally, the @code{magit-stgit-refresh} and
@code{magit-stgit-rebase} commands let you perform the respective StGit
@node Using Git Directly
@chapter Using Git Directly
For situations when Magit doesn't do everything you need, you can run
raw Git commands using @kbd{:}. This will prompt for a Git command, run
it, and refresh the status buffer. The output can be viewed by typing
@node GNU Free Documentation License
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License
@center Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright @copyright{} 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display
@enumerate 0
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document @dfn{free} in the sense of freedom: to
assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
work under the conditions stated herein. The ``Document'', below,
refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
licensee, and is addressed as ``you''. You accept the license if you
copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
under copyright law.
A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
modifications and/or translated into another language.
A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section
of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in
part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
Sections then there are none.
The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the
general public, that is suitable for revising the document
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
of text. A copy that is not ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque''.
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
@sc{ascii} without markup, Texinfo input format, La@TeX{} input
format, @acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} using a publicly available
@acronym{DTD}, and standard-conforming simple @acronym{HTML},
PostScript or @acronym{PDF} designed for human modification. Examples
of transparent image formats include @acronym{PNG}, @acronym{XCF} and
@acronym{JPG}. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be
read and edited only by proprietary word processors, @acronym{SGML} or
@acronym{XML} for which the @acronym{DTD} and/or processing tools are
not generally available, and the machine-generated @acronym{HTML},
PostScript or @acronym{PDF} produced by some word processors for
output purposes only.
The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title Page'' means
the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
A section ``Entitled XYZ'' means a named subunit of the Document whose
title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
specific section name mentioned below, such as ``Acknowledgements'',
``Dedications'', ``Endorsements'', or ``History''.) To ``Preserve the Title''
of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
section ``Entitled XYZ'' according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
no effect on the meaning of this License.
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
you may publicly display copies.
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
a computer-network location from which the general network-using
public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
@enumerate A
Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
unless they release you from this requirement.
State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
Modified Version, as the publisher.
Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
adjacent to the other copyright notices.
Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
Include an unaltered copy of this License.
Preserve the section Entitled ``History'', Preserve its Title, and add
to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
there is no section Entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.
Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
it was based on. These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
For any section Entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedications'', Preserve
the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the
substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
dedications given therein.
Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
Delete any section Entitled ``Endorsements''. Such a section
may not be included in the Modified Version.
Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ``Endorsements'' or
to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
@end enumerate
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it contains
nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
parties---for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ``History''
in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
``History''; likewise combine any sections Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
and any sections Entitled ``Dedications''. You must delete all
sections Entitled ``Endorsements.''
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an ``aggregate'' if the copyright
resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions
of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
``Dedications'', or ``History'', the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
@end enumerate
@heading ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and
license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (C) @var{year} @var{your name}.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
Free Documentation License''.
@end group
@end smallexample
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the ``with@dots{}Texts.'' line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being @var{list their titles}, with
the Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}, and with the Back-Cover Texts
being @var{list}.
@end group
@end smallexample
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
to permit their use in free software.
Jump to Line
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.