Skip to content
This repository

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP

A framework for implementing the Window Driver testing pattern in Ruby. Sits on top of Capybara; works nicely with Cucumber, RSpec and probably most other testing libraries.

Fetching latest commit…

Octocat-spinner-32-eaf2f5

Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time

Octocat-spinner-32 lib
Octocat-spinner-32 spec
Octocat-spinner-32 .document
Octocat-spinner-32 .gitignore
Octocat-spinner-32 .rspec
Octocat-spinner-32 .travis.yml
Octocat-spinner-32 .yardopts
Octocat-spinner-32 Gemfile
Octocat-spinner-32 Gemfile.lock
Octocat-spinner-32 LICENSE.txt
Octocat-spinner-32 README.markdown
Octocat-spinner-32 Rakefile
Octocat-spinner-32 kookaburra.gemspec
README.markdown

Kookaburra

Kookaburra is a framework for implementing the Window Driver pattern in order to keep acceptance tests maintainable.

Requirements

Requires Ruby 1.9.3 or greater. Tested with both MRI and JRuby (note that you must run JRuby in 1.9 compatability mode.)

Installation

Kookaburra is available as a Rubygem and published on Rubygems.org, so installation is trivial:

gem install kookaburra

If you're using Bundler for your project, just add the following:

group :development, :test do
  gem 'kookaburra'
end

Setup

Kookaburra abstracts some common patterns for implementing the Window Driver testing pattern for web applications. You will need to tell Kookaburra which classes contain the specific Domain Driver implementations for your application as well as which driver to use for running the tests (currently only tested with Capybara).

Kookaburra is designed to run tests agains a remote web server (although that server could be running on the same machine, it doesn't need to be), and it is the responsibility of the test implementation to ensure that the server is running.

The fact that Kookaburra runs against a remote server means that it is not limited to testing only Ruby web applications. As long as your application exposes a web-service API for use by the GivenDriver and an HTML user interface for use by the UIDriver, you can use Kookaburra to test it. Also, as long as you're careful with both your application and test designs, you're not limited to running your tests only in an isolated testing environment; you could run the same test suite you use for development against your staging or production systems.

Testing an Application Running Locally

The fact that Kookaburra is designed to support running tests against a remote server does not, of course, mean that the application cannot be running locally. It is possible to have your test suite manage the process of starting and stopping your server for you. Examples of how to do so with a Rack application are presented below, but you should be able to take the same basic approach with other types of application servers.

Although Capybara is capable of starting a Rack application server on its own, the default setup only starts the server up on-demand when you call a method that requires the browser to interact with the web application. Because the APIDriver layer does not use Capybara, it is necessary to manage the server process on your own. Otherwise the server would not be guaranteed to be running when you call the APIDriver methods (particularly as these often appear in "Given" statements that are run before you start interacting with the web browser.)

Keep in mind that, even if your server is capable of being started up in another thread within the same Ruby process that is executing your test suite, you will want to avoid doing so unless you are using a Ruby interpreter that supports native threads. Otherwise, when the APIDriver makes an HTTP call to your application's API, it will block while waiting for a response, thus preventing your application from being able to respond to that request and resulting in a timeout error in your tests.

RSpec

The following examples depict how you might configure RSpec to run tests against an already running application server (e.g. a remote staging site) and a Rack application server that is managed by the test suite.

Testing an already running server

If you are running your tests against an already running server, you can simply add the following to spec/support/kookaburra_setup.rb:

require 'kookaburra/test_helpers'

# Change these to the files that define your custom GivenDriver and UIDriver
# implementations.
require 'my_app/kookaburra/given_driver'
require 'my_app/kookaburra/ui_driver'

# c.app_host below should be set to whatever the root URL of your running
# application is.
Kookaburra.configure do |c|
  c.given_driver_class = MyApp::Kookaburra::GivenDriver
  c.ui_driver_class = MyApp::Kookaburra::UIDriver
  c.app_host = 'http://my_app.example.com:1234'
  c.browser = Capybara::Session.new(:selenium)
  c.server_error_detection { |browser|
    browser.has_css?('head title', :text => 'Internal Server Error')
  }
end

RSpec.configure do |c|
  # Makes the #k, #given and #ui methods available to your specs
  # (See section on test implementation below)
  c.include(Kookaburra::TestHelpers, :type => :request)
end

Managing startup and shutdown of a Rack application server

While developing, it can be helpful to run your integration specs against a locally-running server that is managed by your test suite. The setup is similar to that in the previous section, but it adds before and after hooks to launch and shut down a Rack application server. Just add the following to spec/support/kookaburra_setup.rb:

require 'kookaburra/test_helpers'
require 'kookaburra/rack_app_server'

# Change these to the files that define your custom GivenDriver and UIDriver
# implementations.
require 'my_app/kookaburra/given_driver'
require 'my_app/kookaburra/ui_driver'

# `MyApplication` below should be replaced with the object that
# implements the Rack `#call` interface for your application. For a
# Rails app, this would be along the lines of
# `MyAppName::Application`.
app_server = Kookaburra::RackAppServer.new do
  require 'path/to/my_application'
  MyApplication
end

# c.app_host below should be set to whatever the root URL of your
# running application is.
Kookaburra.configure do |c|
  c.given_driver_class = MyApp::Kookaburra::GivenDriver
  c.ui_driver_class = MyApp::Kookaburra::UIDriver
  c.app_host = 'http://localhost:%d' % app_server.port
  c.browser = Capybara::Session.new(:selenium)
  c.server_error_detection { |browser|
    browser.has_css?('head title', :text => 'Internal Server Error')
  }
end

RSpec.configure do |c|
  c.include(Kookaburra::TestHelpers, :type => :request)

  c.before(:all, :type => :request) do
    app_server.boot
  end

  c.after(:all, :type => :request) do
    app_server.shutdown
  end
end

Cucumber

The following examples depict how you might configure Cucumber to run tests against an already running application server (e.g. a remote staging site) and a Rack application server that is managed by the test suite.

Testing an already running server

If you are running your tests against an already running server, you can simply add the following to features/support/kookaburra_setup.rb:

require 'kookaburra/test_helpers'

# Change these to the files that define your custom GivenDriver and UIDriver
# implementations.
require 'my_app/kookaburra/given_driver'
require 'my_app/kookaburra/ui_driver'

# c.app_host below should be set to whatever the root URL of your running
# application is.
Kookaburra.configure do |c|
  c.given_driver_class = MyApp::Kookaburra::GivenDriver
  c.ui_driver_class = MyApp::Kookaburra::UIDriver
  c.app_host = 'http://my_app.example.com:1234'
  c.browser = Capybara::Session.new(:selenium)
  c.server_error_detection { |browser|
    browser.has_css?('head title', :text => 'Internal Server Error')
  }
end

World(Kookaburra::TestHelpers)

Managing startup and shutdown of a Rack application server

While developing, it can be helpful to run your acceptance tests against a locally-running server that is managed by your test suite. The setup is similar to that in the previous section, but it adds before and after hooks to launch and shut down a Rack application server. Just add the following to features/support/kookaburra_setup.rb:

require 'kookaburra/test_helpers'
require 'kookaburra/rack_app_server'

# Change these to the files that define your custom GivenDriver and UIDriver
# implementations.
require 'my_app/kookaburra/given_driver'
require 'my_app/kookaburra/ui_driver'

# `MyApplication` below should be replaced with the object that
# implements the Rack `#call` interface for your application. For a
# Rails app, this would be along the lines of
# `MyAppName::Application`.
app_server = Kookaburra::RackAppServer.new do
  require 'path/to/my_application'
  MyApplication
end

# c.app_host below should be set to whatever the root URL of your
# running application is.
Kookaburra.configure do |c|
  c.given_driver_class = MyApp::Kookaburra::GivenDriver
  c.ui_driver_class = MyApp::Kookaburra::UIDriver
  c.app_host = 'http://localhost:%d' % app_server.port
  c.browser = Capybara::Session.new(:selenium)
  c.server_error_detection { |browser|
    browser.has_css?('head title', :text => 'Internal Server Error')
  }
end

World(Kookaburra::TestHelpers)

app_server.boot

at_exit do
  app_server.shutdown
end

Defining Your Testing DSL

Kookaburra extracts some common patterns that make it easier to use the Window Driver pattern along with various Ruby testing frameworks, but you still need to define your own testing DSL. An acceptance testing stack using Kookaburra has the following layers:

  1. The Business Specification Language (Cucumber scenarios or other spcification documents)
  2. The Test Implementation (Cucumber step definitions, RSpec example blocks, etc.)
  3. The Domain Driver (Kookaburra::GivenDriver and Kookaburra::UIDriver)
  4. The Window Driver (Kookaburra::UIDriver::UIComponent)
  5. The Application Driver (Capybara and Kookaburra::APIDriver)

The Business Specification Language

The business specification language consists of the highest-level descriptions of a feature that are suitable for sharing with the non/less-technical stakeholders on a project.

Gherkin is the external DSL used by Cucumber for this purpose, and you might have the following scenario defined for an e-commerce application:

# purchase_items_in_cart.feature

Feature: Purchase Items in Cart

  Scenario: Using Existing Billing and Shipping Information

    Given I have an existing account
    And I have previously specified default payment options
    And I have previously specified default shipping options
    And I have an item in my shopping cart

    When I sign in to my account
    And I choose to check out

    Then I see my order summary
    And I see that my default payment options will be used
    And I see that my default shipping options will be used

Note that the scenario is focused on business concepts versus interface details, i.e. you "choose to check out" rather than "click on the checkout button". If for some reason your e-commerce system was going to be a terminal application rather than a web application, you would not need to change this scenario at all, because the actual business concepts described would not change (and although Kookaburra's focus is on testing web applications, it could likely be adapted to other environments.)

The Test Implementation

The Test Implementation layer exists as the line in between the Business Specification Language and the Domain Driver, and it includes Cucumber step definitions, RSpec example blocks, Test::Unit tests, etc. At this layer, your code orchestrates calls into the Domain Driver to mimic user interactions under various conditions and make assertions about the results.

Test assertions always belong within the test implementation layer. Some testing frameworks such as RSpec add methods like #should to Object, which has the effect of poisoning the entire Ruby namespace with these methods---if you are using RSpec, you can call #should anywhere in your code and it will work when RSpec is loaded. Do not be tempted to call a testing library's Object decorators anywhere outside of your test implementation (such as within UIDriver or UIComponent subclasses.) Doing so will tightly couple your Domain Driver and/or Window Driver implementation to a specific testing library.

Kookaburra::UIDriver::UIComponent provides an #assert method for use inside your own UIComponents. This method exists to verify preconditions and provide more informative error messages; it is not intended to be used for test verifications.

Kookaburra::TestHelpers provides a convenient way to make assertions about the mental model. If you are using Test::Unit, see Kookaburra::TestHelpers#assert_mental_model_of; for RSpec, see Kookaburra::TestHelpers#match_mental_model_of.

Given the Cucumber scenario above, here is how the test implementation layer might look:

# step_definitions/various_steps.rb

Given "I have an existing account" do
  given.existing_account
end

Given "I have previously specified default payment options" do
  given.default_payment_options_specified
end

Given "I have previously specified default shipping options" do
  given.default_shipping_options_specified
end

Given "I have an item in my shopping cart" do
  given.an_item_in_my_shopping_cart
end

When "I sign in to my account" do
  ui.sign_in
end

When "I choose to check out" do
  ui.choose_to_check_out
end

Then "I see my order summary" do
  ui.order_summary.should be_visible
end

Then "I see that my default payment options will be used" do
  ui.order_summary.payment_options.should match_mental_model_of(:default_payment_options)
  # Or if you prefer Test::Unit style assertions...
  # assert_mental_model_matches(:default_payment_options, ui.order_summary.payment_options)
end

Then "I see that my default shipping options will be used" do
  ui.order_summary.shipping_options.should match_mental_model_of(:default_shipping_options)
end

The step definitions contain neither explicitly shared state (instance variables) nor any logic branches; they are simply wrappers around calls into the Domain Driver layer. There are a couple of advantages to this approach.

First, because step definitions are so simple, it isn't necessary to force Very Specific Wording on the business analyst/product owner who is writing the specs. For instance, if she writes "I see a summary of my order" in another scenario, it's not a big deal to have the following in your step definitions (as long as the author of the spec confirms that they really mean the same thing):

Then "I see my order summary" do
  ui.order_summary.should be_visible
end

Then "I see a summary of my order" do
  ui.order_summary.should be_visible
end

The step definitions are nothing more than a natural language reference to an action in the Domain Driver; there is no overwhelming maintenance cost to the slight duplication, and it opens up the capacity for more readable Gherkin specs. The fewer false road blocks you put between your product owner and a written specification, the easier it becomes to ensure her participation in this process.

The second advantage is that by pushing all of the complexity down into the Domain Driver, it's now trivial to reuse the exact same code in developer-centric integration tests. This ensures you have parity between the way the automated acceptance tests run and any additional testing that the development team needs to add in.

Using RSpec, the test implementation would be as follows:

# spec/integration/purchase_items_in_cart_spec.rb

describe "Purchase Items in Cart" do
  example "Using Existing Billing and Shipping Information" do
    given.existing_account(:my_account)
    given.default_payment_options_specified_for(:my_account)
    given.default_shipping_options_specified_for(:my_account)
    given.an_item_in_my_shopping_cart(:my_account)

    ui.sign_in(:my_account)
    ui.choose_to_check_out

    ui.order_summary.should be_visible
    ui.order_summary.payment_options.should == k.get_data(:default_payment_options)[:my_account]
    ui.order_summary.shipping_options.should == k.get_data(:default_shipping_options)[:my_account]
  end
end

The Domain Driver

The Domain Driver layer is where you build up an internal DSL that describes the business concepts of your application at a fairly high level. It consists of two top-level drivers: the GivenDriver (available via #given) used to set up state for your tests and the UIDriver (available via #ui) for describing the tasks that a user can accomplish with the application.

Mental Model

Kookaburra::MentalModel is the component via which the GivenDriver and the UIDriver share information, and it is intended to represent your application user's mental picture of the data they are working with. For instance, if you create a user account via the GivenDriver, you would store the login credentials for that account in the MentalModel instance, so the UIDriver knows what to use when you tell it to #sign_in. This is what allows the Cucumber step definitions to remain free from explicitly shared state.

Kookaburra automatically configures your GivenDriver and your UIDriver to share a MentalModel instance, which is available to both of them via their #mental_model method.

The MentalModel instance will return a MentalModel::Collection for any method called on the object. The MentalModel::Collection object behaves like a Hash for the most part; however, it will raise a Kookaburra::UnknownKeyError if you try to access a key that has not yet been assigned a value.

Deletions (via #delete or #delete_if) will actually remove the key/value pair from the collection, but add it to a sub-collection (available at MentalModel::Collection#deleted). This reflects the fact that the user's mental model of the dataset would also include any intentional exceptions - the user will, for example, want to verify that an item they deleted does not appear to be available in the system.

Here's an example of MentalModel behavior:

mental_model = MentalModel.new

mental_model.widgets[:widget_a] = {'name' => 'Widget A'}

mental_model.widgets[:widget_a]
#=> {'name' => 'Widget A'}

# this will raise a Kookaburra::UnknownKeyError
mental_model.widgets[:widget_b]

mental_model.widgets.delete(:widget_a)
#=> {'name' => 'Widget A'}

# this will now also raise a Kookaburra::UnknownKeyError...
mental_model.widgets[:widget_a]

# ...but the pair is now available here:
mental_model.widgets.deleted[:widget_a]
#=> {'name' => 'Widget A'}

Given Driver

The Kookaburra::GivenDriver is used to create a particular "preexisting" state within your application's data and ensure you have a handle to that data (when needed) prior to interacting with the UI. You will create a subclass of Kookaburra::GivenDriver in which you will create part of the Domain Driver DSL for your application:

# lib/my_app/kookaburra/given_driver.rb

class MyApp::Kookaburra::GivenDriver < Kookaburra::GivenDriver
  # Specify the APIDriver to use
  def api
    @api ||= MyApp::Kookaburra::APIDriver.new(configuration)
  end

  def existing_account(nickname)
    account_data = {'display_name' => 'John Doe', 'password' => 'a password'}
    account_data['username'] = "test-user-#{`uuidgen`.strip}"

    # use the API to create the account in the application
    result = api.create_account(account_data)

    # merge in the password, since API (hopefully!) doesn't return it, and
    # store details in the MentalModel instance
    result.merge!('password' => account_data['password'])
    mental_model.accounts[nickname] = account_details
  end
end

Although there is nothing that actually prevents you from interacting with the UI in the GivenDriver, you should avoid doing so. The GivenDriver's purpose is to describe state that exists before the user interaction that is being tested. Although this state may be the result of a previous user interaction, your tests will be much, much faster if you create this state via API calls rather than driving a web browser.

API Driver

The Kookaburra::APIDriver is used to interact with an application's external web services API. You tell Kookaburra about your API by creating a subclass of Kookaburra::APIDriver for your application, specifying how requests should be encoded and decoded, and specifying any headers that should be present on every request.

# lib/my_app/kookaburra/api_driver.rb

class MyApp::Kookaburra::APIDriver < Kookaburra::APIDriver
  encode_with { |data| JSON.dump(data) }
  decode_with { |data| JSON.parse(data) }
  header 'Content-Type', 'application/json'
  header 'Accept', 'application/json'

  def create_account(account_data)
    post '/api/accounts', account_data
  end

  def get_account(id)
    get '/api/accounts/%d' % id
  end
end

The content of your application's APIDriver should consist mainly of mappings between discrete actions and HTTP requests to the specified URL paths.

UI Driver

Kookaburra::UIDriver provides the necessary tools for driving your application's user interface with the Window Driver pattern. You will subclass Kookaburra::UIDriver for your application and implement your testing DSL within your subclass:

# lib/my_app/kookaburra/ui_driver.rb

class MyApp::Kookaburra::UIDriver < Kookaburra::UIDriver
  # makes an instance of MyApp::Kookaburra::UIDriver::SignInScreen
  # available via the instance method #sign_in_screen
  ui_component :sign_in_screen, SignInScreen

  def sign_in(account_nickname)
    account = mental_model.accounts[account_nickname]
    address_bar.go_to(sign_in_screen)
    sign_in_screen.submit_login(account['username'], account['password'])
  end
end

The Window Driver Layer

While your GivenDriver and UIDriver provide a DSL that represents actions your users can perform in your application, the Window Driver layer describes the individual user interface components that the user interacts with to perform these tasks. By describing each interface component using an OOP approach, it is much easier to maintain your acceptance/integration tests, because the implementation details of each component are captured in a single place. For example, if/when the implementation of your application's sign in screen changes, you can fix every single test that needs to log a user into the system just by updating the SignInScreen class.

You describe the various user interface components by sub-classing Kookaburra::UIDriver::UIComponent:

# lib/my_app/ui_driver/sign_in_screen.rb

class MyApp::Kookaburra::UIDriver::SignInScreen < Kookaburra::UIDriver::UIComponent
  def component_locator
    '#new_user_session'
  end

  def component_path
    '/session/new'
  end

  def username
    find('#session_username').value
  end

  def username=(new_value)
    fill_in '#session_username', :with => new_value
  end

  def password
    find('#session_password').value
  end

  def password=(new_value)
    fill_in '#session_password', :with => new_value
  end

  def submit
    click_on('Sign In')
  end

  def submit_login(username, password)
    self.username = username
    self.password = password
    submit
  end
end

The Application Driver Layer

Kookaburra::APIDriver, Kookaburra::UIDriver and Kookaburra::UIDriver::UIComponent rely on the Application Driver layer to interact with your application. In the case of the APIDriver, Kookaburra uses the RestClient library to send HTTP requests to your application. The UIDriver and UIComponent rely on whatever is passed to Kookaburra.new as the :browser option. Presently, we have only used Capybara as the application driver for Kookaburra.

It's possible that something other than Capybara could be passed in, as long as that something presented the same API. In reality, using something other than Capybara is likely to require some changes to Kookaburra itself. If you have a particular interest in making this work, please feel free to fork the project and send us a GitHub pull request with your changes.

Contributing to kookaburra

  • Check out the latest master to make sure the feature hasn't been implemented or the bug hasn't been fixed yet
  • Check out the issue tracker to make sure someone already hasn't requested it and/or contributed it
  • Fork the project
  • Start a feature/bugfix branch
  • Commit and push until you are happy with your contribution
  • Make sure to add tests for it. This is important so I don't break it in a future version unintentionally.
  • Please try not to mess with the Rakefile, version, or history. If you want to have your own version, or is otherwise necessary, that is fine, but please isolate to its own commit so I can cherry-pick around it.
  • Send us a pull request

Copyright

Copyright © 2011 John Wilger. See LICENSE.txt for further details.

Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.