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README.md

OPA Kubernetes validation and mutation testing environment

OPA Logo

This project makes easy to develop deny rules and patches mutations. In this repository, you will find a main.rego file which is in charge of generating the expected Kubernetes API json response in the validation and mutation stage along with a set of basic deny rules and it's tests + mocks.

Build Status

TL;DR

$ opa test -v .
[angel@elitebook opa-k8s-development]$ opa test -v .
data.kubernetes.admission.test_create_ingress_existing_in_other_namespace: PASS (719.34µs)
data.kubernetes.admission.test_create_client_valid_ingress: PASS (503.277µs)
data.system.test_default_response: PASS (495.764µs)
data.kubernetes.admission.test_invalid_client_pod_priorityclass: PASS (527.651µs)
data.kubernetes.admission.test_valid_client_pod_priorityclass: PASS (472.089µs)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PASS: 5/5

OPA Webhooks

OPA and Kubernetes has to be configured registering a validation and mutation webhook into the Kubernetes API. This topic is out of the scope of this project but you can read more about it in the official OPA documentation.

But, you have to keep in your mind the following diagram:

Kubernetes Request FLOW

The important thing here is to know that the mutation phase is triggered before the validation one.

Project structure

This repository contains three different types of rego files to make it easy to extend this environment:

  • [KIND].rego: This file contains the deny or patches rules to validate or mutate a request.
  • [KIND]-test.rego: This one contains a set of tests related to the testing kind specified in its name.
  • [KIND]-mocks.rego: This file contains a series of Kubernetes requests to use as mocked requests in the tests.

There are also a couple of special rego files:

  • main.rego and main-test.rego: It contains the structures to build the kubernetes api responses used to validate and mutate the incoming requests.

main.rego

package system

import data.kubernetes.admission

main = {
	"apiVersion": "admission.k8s.io/v1beta1",
	"kind": "AdmissionReview",
	"response": response,
}

default response = {"allowed": true}

response = {
	"allowed": false,
	"status": {"reason": reason},
} {
	reason := concat(", ", admission.deny)
	reason != ""
}

response = {
	"allowed": true,
	"patchType": "JSONPatch",
	"patch": patch_bytes,
} {
	reason := concat(", ", admission.deny)
	reason == ""
	patch := {xw | xw := admission.patches[_][_]}
	patch_json := json.marshal(patch)
	patch_bytes := base64.encode(patch_json)
}

Let's review this important file. The main structure contains the common part of a validate and mutate response. In the main structure it's present a response attribute. This attribute will get three different values depending of the rules (deny and patches) applied to the incoming requests:

  • If no deny and no patches applied to the incoming request, it will use the default response.
  • If not deny rules applied, reason == "", the response will be "patchType": "JSONPatch", with the patches applied to the request (can be empty).
  • If some deny rules returned a reason, reason != "", the response will be "allowed": false, "status": {"reason": reason},. The client will get the reason message in the response.

It's really important to know that the same input has to generate only one output. OPA allows a function to return two different outputs, but kubernetes only accepts one. This is the reason why both (no default) response structures is exclusive using the reason empty comparison.

Using it

To use this testing environment you will need to clone this repository and download the latest OPA release (actual version: v0.13.5). It's not needed to have a kubernetes cluster. Remember, this project is useful in the OPA rules/mutations development stage.

The following commands have been executed in a centos:7 container image to make it repeatable and cleaner:

$ docker run -it --rm centos:7 /bin/bash
[root@d8997b63a370 /]# yum install -y wget git # Output hidden
[root@d8997b63a370 /]# git clone https://github.com/k8spin/opa-k8s-development.git
Cloning into 'opa-k8s-development'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 26, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (26/26), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (20/20), done.
remote: Total 26 (delta 10), reused 19 (delta 5), pack-reused 0
Unpacking objects: 100% (26/26), done.
[root@d8997b63a370 /]# wget -q https://github.com/open-policy-agent/opa/releases/download/v0.13.5/opa_linux_amd64 -O opa
[root@d8997b63a370 /]# chmod +x opa
[root@d8997b63a370 /]# ./opa test -v opa-k8s-development/
data.kubernetes.admission.test_create_ingress_existing_in_other_namespace: PASS (748.309µs)
data.kubernetes.admission.test_create_client_valid_ingress: PASS (522.186µs)
data.system.test_default_response: PASS (550.857µs)
data.kubernetes.admission.test_invalid_client_pod_priorityclass: PASS (520.333µs)
data.kubernetes.admission.test_valid_client_pod_priorityclass: PASS (609.106µs)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PASS: 5/5

Disclaimer

This project was released by the K8Spin team to show you how we develop new deny and patch kubernetes rules. This is the main structure with a set of basic rules (demo rules). K8Spin has it owns rules (no released, security matters). So, you are free to pick up this project and start developing new rules without having to deploy untested rules to a kubernetes cluster.

If you find out a better way to develop OPA rules, let us know :). Don't forget to join our slack group.

Thanks!

License

This project is licensed under the MIT License - see the LICENSE file for details

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