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README.md

- Note: this project has been revived so that a Raspberry Pi Zero W can be used to natively send ham radio APRS packets, with no external transmitter!

Turning the Raspberry Pi Zero W Into an APRS Transmitter

Steps to play mono sound file:

(Created by Oliver Mattos and Oskar Weigl. Code is GPL)

sudo python
>>> import PiFm
>>> PiFm.play_sound("sound.wav")

Now connect a 19.2-inch (19-and-3/16 inch) piece of plain wire to GPIO 4 (which is pin 7 on the Pi Zero W header) to act as an antenna, and tune a 2-meter FM ham radio to 144.390Mhz

from a post on MAKE by Matt Richardson

The sound file can be 16 bit mono or stereo wav format.

Play a stereo file:

sudo ./pifm left_right.wav 144.390 22050 stereo

# Example command lines
# play an MP3
ffmpeg -i input.mp3 -f s16le -ar 22.05k -ac 1 - | sudo ./pifm -

# Broadcast from a usb microphone (see arecord manual page for config)
arecord -d0 -c2 -f S16_LE -r 22050 -twav -D copy | sudo ./pifm -

How to change the broadcast frequency

Run the ./pifm binary with no command line arguments to find usage.

The second command line argument is the frequency to transmit on, as a number in Mhz. Eg. This will transmit on 144.390 Mhz

sudo ./pifm sound.wav 144.390

It will work from about 1Mhz up to 250Mhz, although the 2-meter ham radio band in the USA is 144.0 Mhz to 146.0 Mhz

The details of how it works

The code was hacked together over a few hours at the Code Club pihack. It uses the hardware on the raspberry pi that is actually meant to generate spread-spectrum clock signals on the GPIO pins to output FM Radio energy. This means that all you need to do to turn the Raspberry-Pi into a (ridiculously powerful) FM Transmitter is to plug in a wire as the antenna (as little as 20cm will do) into GPIO pin 4 and run the code posted below. It transmits on 144.390 MHz.

When testing, the signal only started to break up after we went through several conference rooms with heavy walls, at least 50m away, and crouched behind a heavy metal cabinet. The sound quality is ok, but not amazing, as it currently plays some clicks when the CPU gets switched away to do anything else than play the music. We made a kernel mode driver that used the DMA controller to offload the CPU and play smooth music without loading the CPU. DMA from userspace is awesome and awful at the same time!

Accessing Hardware

The python library calls a C program. The C program maps the Peripheral Bus (0x20000000) in physical memory into virtual address space using /dev/mem and mmap. To do this it needs root access, hence the sudo. Next it sets the clock generator module to enabled and sets it to output on GPIO4 (no other accessible pins can be used). It also sets the frequency to 103.3, which provides a carrier. At this point, radios will stop making a "fuzz" noise, and become silent.

Modulation is done by adjusting the frequency using the fractional divider between 103.325Mhz and 103.275Mhz, which makes the audio signal. The fractional divider can get full 16 bit quality sound, and it even does FM pre-emphasis so that the result doesn't sound bass-heavy.

Notes

This is a copy of the original material from http://www.icrobotics.co.uk/wiki/index.php/Turning_the_Raspberry_Pi_Into_an_FM_Transmitter,

The changes here have been made in order to adapt this project for both the Pi Zero W, and for transmitting APRS on United States 2 meter ham radio frequencies.

NOTE: YOU CAN NOT USE THIS CODE UNLESS YOU ARE A LICENSED AMATEUR RADIO OPERATOR with operating privileges in the US 2 meter ham radio band. PERIOD!

All rights of the original authors reserved.

References

DEPENDENCY ALERT!

This project has a dependency upon the direwolf project.

In particular, you will need the "gen_packets", "direwolf", "decode_aprs" and "atest" executables from that project for both testing and execution of this project. These executables are created by the appropriate Makefile from that direwolf project. See that project for instructions on building those executables.

FINAL NOTES:

Because this project depends upon other projects, I may have checked in some items from those other projects into THIS project, just for reference/completeness. IN EVERY CASE OF DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THE TWO you should ALWAYS defer to those dependencies. Conflicting files in this repository are only 'examples', and not "FINAL".

2019-05-04 UPDATE: I started using Direwolf and a USB soundcard. I start Direwolf with "direwolf -t 0" using direwolf.conf copied to this repo. I then start the "kissutil" with "kissutil -T %H:%M:%S -f /home/direwolf/outbox/ | tee -a kiss.log" in the same directory (/home/direwolf). Then all of the get* commands can be used to read through the kiss.log to try processing direct messages. It's still experimental, so....

I also had to modify sendAPRS to adapt to this - Instead of sendAPRS playing out a file through the USB soundcard, which the Baofeng 888 transmitted via VOX, now we copy (only one line from) the "z.txt" file that sendAPRS creates, and send that to the kissutil's "outbox" (/home/direwolf/outbox/) directory, where kissutil picks it up and transmits it through Direwolf.

Again, it's all experimental...

To read and process direct APRS messages, run "getnewmsgs -r" (which both finds new messages and creates both ACKs and direct-message-responses back). If you wanna ensure things get pushed out to the APRS network, wait 90 seconds, run "getunackmsgs" and send those results again (via a new file in "outbox/"). In the future, we might want to filter down the output of "getunackmsgs" using "getunheard" - because if the outbound messages were "heard" by someone digipeating them, we probably don't want to re-send them again (....probably!).

Did I mention this is all experimental!??! (GOOD!....because... it's all experimental!)

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