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README.md

Secure token module for Nginx Build Status

Generates CDN tokens, either as a cookie or as a query string parameter (m3u8,mpd,f4m only). Currently supports Akamai v2 tokens, and Amazon CloudFront tokens. In addition, the module supports the encryption of URIs with a configured key.

Build

To link statically against nginx, cd to nginx source directory and execute:

./configure --add-module=/path/to/nginx-secure-token-module

To compile as a dynamic module (nginx 1.9.11+), use:

./configure --add-dynamic-module=/path/to/nginx-secure-token-module

In this case, the load_module directive should be used in nginx.conf to load the module.

Requires OpenSSL.

Configuration

Generic token parameters

secure_token

  • syntax: secure_token value
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the value of the token that should be embedded in the manifest/returned as a cookie. The parameter value can contain variables, and often points to variables set by this module (using secure_token_akamai / secure_token_cloudfront blocks)

secure_token_avoid_cookies

  • syntax: secure_token_avoid_cookies on/off
  • default: on
  • context: http, server, location

When enabled the module prefers to use a query string token instead of a cookie token. A query string token is currently supported only for the following mime types (other mime types return a cookie token):

  • application/vnd.apple.mpegurl
  • application/dash+xml
  • video/f4m

secure_token_types

  • syntax: secure_token_types mime_type ...
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

Defines a set of mime types that should return a token

secure_token_uri_filename_prefix

  • syntax: secure_token_uri_filename_prefix prefix
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

Defines a set of prefixes that will be matched against the URI file name, only URIs whose file name starts with one of the defined prefixes will return a token

secure_token_expires_time

  • syntax: secure_token_expires_time time
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the expiration time of responses that are not tokenized (determines the values of the Cache-Control and Expires HTTP headers)

secure_token_cookie_token_expires_time

  • syntax: secure_token_cookie_token_expires_time time
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the expiration time of responses that are tokenized with a cookie token (determines the values of the Cache-Control and Expires HTTP headers)

secure_token_query_token_expires_time

  • syntax: secure_token_query_token_expires_time time
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the expiration time of responses that are tokenized with a query string token (determines the values of the Cache-Control and Expires HTTP headers)

secure_token_cache_scope

  • syntax: secure_token_cache_scope scope
  • default: public
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the cache scope (public/private) of responses that are not tokenized

secure_token_token_cache_scope

  • syntax: secure_token_token_cache_scope scope
  • default: private
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the cache scope (public/private) of responses that are tokenized (query / cookie)

secure_token_last_modified

  • syntax: secure_token_last_modified time
  • default: Sun, 19 Nov 2000 08:52:00 GMT
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the value of the last-modified header of responses that are not tokenized. An empty string leaves the value of last-modified unaltered, while the string "now" sets the header to the server current time.

secure_token_token_last_modified

  • syntax: secure_token_token_last_modified time
  • default: now
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the value of the last-modified header of responses that are tokenized (query / cookie) An empty string leaves the value of last-modified unaltered, while the string "now" sets the header to the server current time.

secure_token_content_type_m3u8

  • syntax: secure_token_content_type_m3u8 type
  • default: application/vnd.apple.mpegurl
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the content type that should be parsed as m3u8 for token insertion

secure_token_content_type_mpd

  • syntax: secure_token_content_type_mpd type
  • default: application/dash+xml
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the content type that should be parsed as mpd for token insertion

secure_token_content_type_f4m

  • syntax: secure_token_content_type_f4m type
  • default: video/f4m
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the content type that should be parsed as f4m for token insertion

Akamai token parameters

secure_token_akamai

  • syntax: secure_token_akamai $variable { ... }
  • context: http

Creates a new variable whose value is an Akamai token, created according to the parameters specified within the block.

The block supports the following parameters:

key

  • syntax: key key_hex
  • default: N/A (mandatory)

Sets the secret key.

param_name

  • syntax: param_name name
  • default: __hdnea__

Sets the token parameter name (either the name of the cookie or the query string parameter)

acl

  • syntax: acl acl
  • default: $secure_token_baseuri_comma

Sets the signed part of the URL (ACL). The parameter value can contain variables.

start

  • syntax: start time
  • default: 0

Sets the start time of the token (see Time format below)

end

  • syntax: end time
  • default: 86400

Sets the end time of the token (see Time format below)

ip_address

  • syntax: ip_address address
  • default: none

Sets the IP address that should be embedded in the token. The parameter value can contain variables, e.g. $remote_addr.

CloudFront token parameters

secure_token_cloudfront

  • syntax: secure_token_cloudfront $variable { ... }
  • context: http

Creates a new variable whose value is a CloudFront token, created according to the parameters specified within the block.

The block supports the following parameters:

private_key_file

  • syntax: private_key_file filename
  • default: N/A (mandatory)

Sets the file name of the private key (PEM file)

key_pair_id

  • syntax: key_pair_id id
  • default: N/A (mandatory)

Sets the key pair id

acl

  • syntax: acl acl
  • default: $secure_token_baseuri_comma

Sets the signed part of the URL (ACL). The parameter value can contain variables.

end

  • syntax: end time
  • default: 86400

Sets the end time of the token (see Time format below)

ip_address

  • syntax: ip_address address
  • default: none

Sets the IP address that should be embedded in the token. The parameter value can contain variables, e.g. $remote_addr/32 can be used to limit the token to the specific IP of the client.

URI encryption parameters

secure_token_encrypt_uri

  • syntax: secure_token_encrypt_uri on/off
  • default: off
  • context: http, server, location

Enables/disables uri encryption

secure_token_encrypt_uri_key

  • syntax: secure_token_encrypt_uri_key key_hex
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the encryption key, the key has to be 256 bits (64 hex characters)

secure_token_encrypt_uri_iv

  • syntax: secure_token_encrypt_uri_iv iv_hex
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

Sets the encryption iv, the iv has to be 128 bits (32 hex characters)

secure_token_encrypt_uri_part

  • syntax: secure_token_encrypt_uri_part expression
  • default: none
  • context: http, server, location

An expression that calculates the part of the URL that should be encrypted in regular expression locations. For non-regular expression locations, the encrypted part is everything following the path defined on the location block.

Example 1:

  location /secret_param/([^/]+)/some_other_param/.* {
  	secure_token_encrypt_uri_part $1;
	...
  }

In this configuration, only the value of secret_param will be encrypted/decrypted.

Example 2:

  location /base/ {
    ...
  }

In this configuration, everything following /base/ will be encrypted/decrypted.

secure_token_encrypt_uri_hash_size

  • syntax: secure_token_encrypt_uri_hash_size size
  • default: 8
  • context: http, server, location

The size in bytes of hash used to validate the uri after decryption, the value has to be between 0 and 16.

Time format

Some of the configuration parameters mentioned above, support both absolute timestamps, and timestamps relative to now. These parameters can be set in the configuration using one of the following formats:

  • epoch - unix timestamp 0 (01/01/1970)
  • max - unix timestamp 2147483647 (18/01/2038)
  • @1481230000 - unix timestamp 1481230000 (8/12/2016)
  • 10d / +10d - now + 10 days
  • -5m - now - 5 minutes

Sample configurations

HLS packaging with Akamai tokens

	secure_token_akamai $token {
		key 1234;
		acl "$secure_token_baseuri_comma*";
	}

	server {
	
		location ~ ^/hls/p/\d+/(sp/\d+/)?serveFlavor/ {
			vod hls;

			g2o        on;

			secure_token $token;
			secure_token_types application/vnd.apple.mpegurl;
			
			secure_token_expires_time 100d;
			secure_token_query_token_expires_time 1h;

			more_set_headers 'Access-Control-Allow-Headers: *';
			more_set_headers 'Access-Control-Expose-Headers: Server,range,Content-Length,Content-Range';
			more_set_headers 'Access-Control-Allow-Methods: GET, HEAD, OPTIONS';
			more_set_headers 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *';
		}
		
	}

HDS packaging with CloudFront tokens

	secure_token_cloudfront $token {
		private_key_file /path/to/pem;
		key_pair_id ABCDEF;
		acl "$scheme://$http_host$secure_token_baseuri_comma*";
	}

	server {
	
		location ~ ^/hds/p/\d+/(sp/\d+/)?serveFlavor/ {
			vod hds;
			vod_segment_duration 6000;
			vod_align_segments_to_key_frames on;
			vod_segment_count_policy last_rounded;

			secure_token $token;
			secure_token_types video/f4m;
			
			secure_token_expires_time 100d;
			secure_token_query_token_expires_time 1h;

			more_set_headers 'Access-Control-Allow-Headers: *';
			more_set_headers 'Access-Control-Expose-Headers: Server,range,Content-Length,Content-Range';
			more_set_headers 'Access-Control-Allow-Methods: GET, HEAD, OPTIONS';
			more_set_headers 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *';
		}
		
	}

Encrypted HLS with token security on the encryption key

This configuration enables token security while having static URLs for the video segments, this enables the caching of the segments transparently by proxies.

	secure_token_akamai $token {
		key 1234;
		acl "$secure_token_baseuri_comma*";
	}

	server {
	
		location ~ ^/s/hls/enc/p/\d+/(sp/\d+/)?serveFlavor/ {
			vod hls;
			vod_secret_key "password$vod_filepath";

			secure_token $token;
			secure_token_types application/vnd.apple.mpegurl;
			
			secure_token_expires_time 100d;
			secure_token_query_token_expires_time 1h;
			
			secure_token_uri_filename_prefix index;
			secure_token_tokenize_segments off;

			akamai_token_validate $arg___hdnea__;
			akamai_token_validate_key 1234;
			akamai_token_validate_uri_filename_prefix encryption;
			akamai_token_validate_uri_filename_prefix index;
		}
		
	}

Note: this configuration requires the module https://github.com/kaltura/nginx-akamai-token-validate-module in addition to nginx-secure-token-module

Adding token security on top of an existing HDS/HLS live stream

	secure_token_akamai $token {
		key 1234;
		acl "$secure_token_baseuri_comma*";
	}

	server {
	
		location /secure-live/ {
			proxy_pass http://original.live.domain;

			secure_token $token;
			secure_token_types text/xml application/vnd.apple.mpegurl;		
			secure_token_content_type_f4m text/xml;
			
			secure_token_expires_time 100d;
			secure_token_query_token_expires_time 1h;

			akamai_token_validate $arg___hdnea__;
			akamai_token_validate_key 1234;
			akamai_token_validate_strip_token __hdnea__;
		}
	
	}

Note: this configuration requires the module https://github.com/kaltura/nginx-akamai-token-validate-module in addition to nginx-secure-token-module

URI encryption

	location ~ ^/hls/p/\d+/(sp/\d+/)?serveFlavor/entryId/([^/]+)/(.*) {
		vod hls;
		vod_secret_key "password$2";

		secure_token_encrypt_uri on;
		secure_token_encrypt_uri_key 000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f;
		secure_token_encrypt_uri_iv 00000000000000000000000000000000;
		secure_token_encrypt_uri_part $3;
		secure_token_types application/vnd.apple.mpegurl;

		add_header Last-Modified "Sun, 19 Nov 2000 08:52:00 GMT";
		expires 100d;
	}

Nginx variables

The module adds the following nginx variables:

  • $secure_token_baseuri - contains the value of the $uri built in variable truncated up to the last slash (/). For exmaple, if $uri is /a/b/c.htm then $secure_token_baseuri will be /a/b/.
  • $secure_token_baseuri_comma - same as $secure_token_baseuri, except that if this value contains a comma (,) the value is truncated up to the comma position. For exmaple, if $uri is /a/b/c.htm then $secure_token_baseuri_comma will be /a/b/; if $uri is /a/b,c/d.htm then $secure_token_baseuri_comma will be /a/b.

Copyright & License

All code in this project is released under the AGPLv3 license unless a different license for a particular library is specified in the applicable library path.

Copyright © Kaltura Inc. All rights reserved.

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