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@kalymos @wyatt8740 @ramapcsx2
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// PsNee / psxdev.net version
// For Arduino and ATtiny
//
// Quick start: Select your hardware via the #defines, compile + upload the code, install in PSX.
// There are some pictures in the development thread ( http://www.psxdev.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=47&t=1262&start=120 )
// Beware to use the PSX 3.5V / 3.3V power, *NOT* 5V! The installation pictures include an example.
//
// Arduinos:
// Use #define ARDUINO_328_BOARD for the following:
// - Arduino Pro Mini @8Mhz and @16Mhz (supported, tested)
// - Arduino Uno @8Mhz and @16Mhz (supported, tested)
// Use #define ARDUINO_32UX_BOARD for the following:
// - Pro Micro (supported, tested)
// - Arduino Leonardo (supported, untested)
// ATtiny:
// - ATtiny85: Should work the same as ATtiny45 (supported, untested)
// - ATtiny45: LFUSE 0xE2 HFUSE 0xDF > internal oscillator, full 8Mhz speed (supported, tested)
// - ATtiny25: Should work the same as ATtiny45 but doesn't have enough Flash nor RAM for PSNEEDEBUG (supported, untested)
// - Use #define ATTINY_X5
//
// To use ATtiny with the Arduino environment, an ATtiny core has to be installed.
//
// PAL PM-41 consoles are supported with #define APPLY_PSONE_PAL_BIOS_PATCH,
// but only on boards with ATmega chips (Arduinos).
// Also, the Arduino must be flashed using SPI (deleting the bootloader), since I expect a signal ~1 second after power on.
//
// This code defaults to multi-region, meaning it will unlock PAL, NTSC-U and NTSC-J machines.
// You can optimize boot times for your console further. See "// inject symbols now" in the main loop.
//+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
//| Choose your hardware! |
//+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
// 2 main branches available:
// - ATmega based > easy to use, fast and nice features for development, recommended
// - ATtiny based > for minimal installs
// ATmega32U4/32U2 boards (as in the Pro Micro) have to use different pinouts than the 'regular'
// Arduino ATMega328's. For these, a different define must be used.
//#define ARDUINO_328_BOARD
//#define ARDUINO_32UX_BOARD
//#define ATTINY_X5
//#define APPLY_PSONE_PAL_BIOS_PATCH
//#define PSNEEDEBUG
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#if defined(ARDUINO_328_BOARD)
// board pins (code requires porting to reflect any changes)
#if defined(APPLY_PSONE_PAL_BIOS_PATCH)
#define BIOS_A18 4 // connect to PSOne BIOS A18 (pin 31 on that chip)
#define BIOS_D2 5 // connect to PSOne BIOS D2 (pin 15 on that chip)
#endif
#define sqck 6 // connect to PSX HC-05 SQCK pin
#define subq 7 // connect to PSX HC-05 SUBQ pin
#define data 8 // connect to point 6 in old modchip diagrams
#define gate_wfck 9 // connect to point 5 in old modchip diagrams
// MCU I/O definitions
#define SUBQPORT PIND // MCU port for the 2 SUBQ sampling inputs
#define SQCKBIT 6 // PD6 "SQCK" < Mechacon pin 26 (PU-7 and early PU-8 Mechacons: pin 41)
#define SUBQBIT 7 // PD7 "SUBQ" < Mechacon pin 24 (PU-7 and early PU-8 Mechacons: pin 39)
#define GATEWFCKPORT PINB // MCU port for the gate input (used for WFCK)
#define DATAPORT PORTB // MCU port for the gate input (used for WFCK)
#define GATEWFCKBIT 1 // PB1
#define DATABIT 0 // PB0
#if defined(APPLY_PSONE_PAL_BIOS_PATCH)
#define BIOSPATCHPORTIN PIND
#define BIOSPATCHPORTOUT PORTD
#define BIOSPATCHDDR DDRD
#define BIOS_A18_BIT 4
#define BIOS_D2_BIT 5
#endif
#elif defined(ARDUINO_32UX_BOARD) // ATMega32U2/ATMega32U4
#if defined(APPLY_PSONE_PAL_BIOS_PATCH)
#define BIOS_A18 8
#define BIOS_D2 9
#endif
#define sqck 2
#define subq 3
#define data 14
#define gate_wfck 15
// MCU I/O definitions
#define SUBQPORT PIND
#define SQCKBIT 1 // PD1
#define SUBQBIT 0 // PD0
#define GATEWFCKPORT PINB
#define DATAPORT PORTB
#define GATEWFCKBIT 1 // PB1
#define DATABIT 3 // PB3
#if defined(APPLY_PSONE_PAL_BIOS_PATCH)
#define BIOSPATCHPORTIN PINB
#define BIOSPATCHPORTOUT PORTB
#define BIOSPATCHDDR DDRB
#define BIOS_A18_BIT 4 //PB4
#define BIOS_D2_BIT 5 //PB5
#endif
#elif defined(ATTINY_X5) // ATtiny 25/45/85
// extras
#define USINGSOFTWARESERIAL
// board pins (Do not change. Changing pins requires adjustments to MCU I/O definitions)
#define sqck 0
#define subq 1
#define data 2
#define gate_wfck 4
#define debugtx 3
// MCU I/O definitions
#define SUBQPORT PINB
#define SQCKBIT 0
#define SUBQBIT 1
#define GATEWFCKPORT PINB
#define DATAPORT PORTB
#define GATEWFCKBIT 4
#define DATABIT 2
#if defined(APPLY_PSONE_PAL_BIOS_PATCH)
#error "ATtiny does not support PAL PSOne patch yet!"
#endif
#else
#error "Select a board!"
#endif
#if defined(PSNEEDEBUG) && defined(USINGSOFTWARESERIAL)
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>
SoftwareSerial mySerial(-1, 3); // RX, TX. (RX -1 = off)
#define DEBUG_PRINT(x) mySerial.print(x)
#define DEBUG_PRINTHEX(x) mySerial.print(x, HEX)
#define DEBUG_PRINTLN(x) mySerial.println(x)
#define DEBUG_FLUSH mySerial.flush()
#elif defined(PSNEEDEBUG) && !defined(USINGSOFTWARESERIAL)
#define DEBUG_PRINT(x) Serial.print(x)
#define DEBUG_PRINTHEX(x) Serial.print(x, HEX)
#define DEBUG_PRINTLN(x) Serial.println(x)
#define DEBUG_FLUSH Serial.flush()
#else
#define DEBUG_PRINT(x)
#define DEBUG_PRINTHEX(x)
#define DEBUG_PRINTLN(x)
#define DEBUG_FLUSH
#endif
#define NOP __asm__ __volatile__ ("nop\n\t")
// Setup() detects which (of 2) injection methods this PSX board requires, then stores it in pu22mode.
boolean pu22mode;
//Timing
const int delay_between_bits = 4000; // 250 bits/s (microseconds) (ATtiny 8Mhz works from 3950 to 4100)
const int delay_between_injections = 90; // 72 in oldcrow. PU-22+ work best with 80 to 100 (milliseconds)
// borrowed from AttyNee. Bitmagic to get to the SCEX strings stored in flash (because Harvard architecture)
bool readBit(int index, const unsigned char *ByteSet)
{
int byte_index = index >> 3;
byte bits = pgm_read_byte(&(ByteSet[byte_index]));
int bit_index = index & 0x7; // same as (index - byte_index<<3) or (index%8)
byte mask = 1 << bit_index;
return (0 != (bits & mask));
}
void inject_SCEX(char region)
{
//SCEE: 1 00110101 00, 1 00111101 00, 1 01011101 00, 1 01011101 00
//SCEA: 1 00110101 00, 1 00111101 00, 1 01011101 00, 1 01111101 00
//SCEI: 1 00110101 00, 1 00111101 00, 1 01011101 00, 1 01101101 00
//const boolean SCEEData[44] = {1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0};
//const boolean SCEAData[44] = {1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0};
//const boolean SCEIData[44] = {1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0};
static const PROGMEM unsigned char SCEEData[] = {0b01011001, 0b11001001, 0b01001011, 0b01011101, 0b11101010, 0b00000010};
static const PROGMEM unsigned char SCEAData[] = {0b01011001, 0b11001001, 0b01001011, 0b01011101, 0b11111010, 0b00000010};
static const PROGMEM unsigned char SCEIData[] = {0b01011001, 0b11001001, 0b01001011, 0b01011101, 0b11011010, 0b00000010};
// pinMode(data, OUTPUT) is used more than it has to be but that's fine.
for (byte bit_counter = 0; bit_counter < 44; bit_counter++)
{
if (readBit(bit_counter, region == 'e' ? SCEEData : region == 'a' ? SCEAData : SCEIData) == 0)
{
pinMode(data, OUTPUT);
bitClear(GATEWFCKPORT, DATABIT); // data low
delayMicroseconds(delay_between_bits);
}
else
{
if (pu22mode) {
pinMode(data, OUTPUT);
unsigned long now = micros();
do {
bool wfck_sample = bitRead(GATEWFCKPORT, GATEWFCKBIT);
bitWrite(DATAPORT, DATABIT, wfck_sample); // output wfck signal on data pin
}
while ((micros() - now) < delay_between_bits);
}
else { // PU-18 or lower mode
pinMode(data, INPUT);
delayMicroseconds(delay_between_bits);
}
}
}
pinMode(data, OUTPUT);
bitClear(GATEWFCKPORT, DATABIT); // pull data low
delay(delay_between_injections);
}
void NTSC_fix() {
#if defined(APPLY_PSONE_PAL_BIOS_PATCH)
pinMode(BIOS_A18, INPUT);
pinMode(BIOS_D2, INPUT);
delay(100); // this is right after SQCK appeared. wait a little to avoid noise
while (!bitRead(BIOSPATCHPORTIN, BIOS_A18_BIT))
{
; //wait for stage 1 A18 pulse
}
delay(1350); //wait through stage 1 of A18 activity
noInterrupts(); // start critical section
while (!bitRead(BIOSPATCHPORTIN, BIOS_A18_BIT))
{
; //wait for priming A18 pulse
}
delayMicroseconds(17); // max 17us for 16Mhz ATmega (maximize this when tuning!)
bitClear(BIOSPATCHPORTOUT, BIOS_D2_BIT); // store a low
bitSet(BIOSPATCHDDR, BIOS_D2_BIT); // D2 = output. drags line low now
delayMicroseconds(4); // min 2us for 16Mhz ATmega, 8Mhz requires 3us (minimize this when tuning, after maximizing first us delay!)
bitClear(DDRD, BIOS_D2_BIT); // D2 = input / high-z
interrupts(); // end critical section
// not necessary but I want to make sure these pins are now high-z again
pinMode(BIOS_A18, INPUT);
pinMode(BIOS_D2, INPUT);
#endif
}
//--------------------------------------------------
// Setup
//--------------------------------------------------
void setup()
{
pinMode(data, INPUT);
pinMode(gate_wfck, INPUT);
pinMode(subq, INPUT); // PSX subchannel bits
pinMode(sqck, INPUT); // PSX subchannel clock
#if defined(PSNEEDEBUG) && defined(USINGSOFTWARESERIAL)
pinMode(debugtx, OUTPUT); // software serial tx pin
mySerial.begin(115200); // 13,82 bytes in 12ms, max for softwareserial. (expected data: ~13 bytes / 12ms) // update: this is actually quicker
#elif defined(PSNEEDEBUG) && !defined(USINGSOFTWARESERIAL)
Serial.begin(500000); // 60 bytes in 12ms (expected data: ~26 bytes / 12ms) // update: this is actually quicker
DEBUG_PRINT("MCU frequency: "); DEBUG_PRINT(F_CPU); DEBUG_PRINTLN(" Hz");
DEBUG_PRINTLN("Waiting for SQCK..");
#endif
#if defined(ARDUINO_328_BOARD) || defined(ARDUINO_32UX_BOARD)
pinMode(LED_BUILTIN, OUTPUT); // Blink on injection / debug.
digitalWrite(LED_BUILTIN, HIGH); // mark begin of setup
#endif
// wait for console power on and stable signals
while (!digitalRead(sqck));
while (!digitalRead(gate_wfck));
// if enabled: patches PAL PSOne consoles so they start all region games
NTSC_fix();
// Board detection
//
// GATE: __----------------------- // this is a PU-7 .. PU-20 board!
//
// WFCK: __-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- // this is a PU-22 or newer board!
unsigned int highs = 0, lows = 0;
unsigned long now = millis();
do {
if (digitalRead(gate_wfck) == 1) highs++;
if (digitalRead(gate_wfck) == 0) lows++;
delayMicroseconds(200); // good for ~5000 reads in 1s
}
while ((millis() - now) < 1000); // sample 1s
// typical readouts
// PU-22: highs: 2449 lows: 2377
if (lows > 100) {
pu22mode = 1;
}
else {
pu22mode = 0;
}
#ifdef ATTINY_X5
DEBUG_PRINT("m "); DEBUG_PRINTLN(pu22mode);
#else
DEBUG_PRINT("highs: "); DEBUG_PRINT(highs); DEBUG_PRINT(" lows: "); DEBUG_PRINTLN(lows);
DEBUG_PRINT("pu22mode: "); DEBUG_PRINTLN(pu22mode);
// Power saving
// Disable the ADC by setting the ADEN bit (bit 7) of the ADCSRA register to zero.
ADCSRA = ADCSRA & B01111111;
// Disable the analog comparator by setting the ACD bit (bit 7) of the ACSR register to one.
ACSR = B10000000;
// Disable digital input buffers on all analog input pins by setting bits 0-5 of the DIDR0 register to one.
DIDR0 = DIDR0 | B00111111;
#endif
#if defined(ARDUINO_328_BOARD) || defined(ARDUINO_32UX_BOARD)
digitalWrite(LED_BUILTIN, LOW); // setup complete
#endif
DEBUG_FLUSH; // empty serial transmit buffer
}
void loop()
{
static byte scbuf [12] = { 0 }; // We will be capturing PSX "SUBQ" packets, there are 12 bytes per valid read.
static unsigned int timeout_clock_counter = 0;
static byte bitbuf = 0; // SUBQ bit storage
static bool sample = 0;
static byte bitpos = 0;
byte scpos = 0; // scbuf position
// start with a small delay, which can be necessary in cases where the MCU loops too quickly
// and picks up the laster SUBQ trailing end
delay(1);
noInterrupts(); // start critical section
start:
// Capture 8 bits for 12 runs > complete SUBQ transmission
bitpos = 0;
for (; bitpos < 8; bitpos++) {
while (bitRead(SUBQPORT, SQCKBIT) == 1) {
// wait for clock to go low..
// a timeout resets the 12 byte stream in case the PSX sends malformatted clock pulses, as happens on bootup
timeout_clock_counter++;
if (timeout_clock_counter > 1000) {
scpos = 0; // reset SUBQ packet stream
timeout_clock_counter = 0;
bitbuf = 0;
goto start;
}
}
// wait for clock to go high..
while ((bitRead(SUBQPORT, SQCKBIT)) == 0);
sample = bitRead(SUBQPORT, SUBQBIT);
bitbuf |= sample << bitpos;
timeout_clock_counter = 0; // no problem with this bit
}
// one byte done
scbuf[scpos] = bitbuf;
scpos++;
bitbuf = 0;
// repeat for all 12 bytes
if (scpos < 12) {
goto start;
}
interrupts(); // end critical section
// log SUBQ packets. We only have 12ms to get the logs written out. Slower MCUs get less formatting.
#ifdef ATTINY_X5
if (!(scbuf[0] == 0 && scbuf[1] == 0 && scbuf[2] == 0 && scbuf[3] == 0)) { // a bad sector read is all 0 except for the CRC fields. Don't log it.
for (int i = 0; i < 12; i++) {
if (scbuf[i] < 0x10) {
DEBUG_PRINT("0"); // padding
}
DEBUG_PRINTHEX(scbuf[i]);
}
DEBUG_PRINTLN("");
}
#else
if (!(scbuf[0] == 0 && scbuf[1] == 0 && scbuf[2] == 0 && scbuf[3] == 0)) {
for (int i = 0; i < 12; i++) {
if (scbuf[i] < 0x10) {
DEBUG_PRINT("0"); // padding
}
DEBUG_PRINTHEX(scbuf[i]);
DEBUG_PRINT(" ");
}
DEBUG_PRINTLN("");
}
#endif
// check if read head is in wobble area
// We only want to unlock game discs (0x41) and only if the read head is in the outer TOC area.
// We want to see a TOC sector repeatedly before injecting (helps with timing and marginal lasers).
// All this logic is because we don't know if the HC-05 is actually processing a getSCEX() command.
// Hysteresis is used because older drives exhibit more variation in read head positioning.
// While the laser lens moves to correct for the error, they can pick up a few TOC sectors.
static byte hysteresis = 0;
boolean isDataSector = (((scbuf[0] & 0x40) == 0x40) && (((scbuf[0] & 0x10) == 0) && ((scbuf[0] & 0x80) == 0)));
if (
(isDataSector && scbuf[1] == 0x00 && scbuf[6] == 0x00) && // [0] = 41 means psx game disk. the other 2 checks are garbage protection
(scbuf[2] == 0xA0 || scbuf[2] == 0xA1 || scbuf[2] == 0xA2 || // if [2] = A0, A1, A2 ..
(scbuf[2] == 0x01 && (scbuf[3] >= 0x98 || scbuf[3] <= 0x02) ) ) // .. or = 01 but then [3] is either > 98 or < 02
) {
hysteresis++;
}
else if ( hysteresis > 0 &&
((scbuf[0] == 0x01 || isDataSector) && (scbuf[1] == 0x00 /*|| scbuf[1] == 0x01*/) && scbuf[6] == 0x00)
) { // This CD has the wobble into CD-DA space. (started at 0x41, then went into 0x01)
hysteresis++;
}
else if (hysteresis > 0) {
hysteresis--; // None of the above. Initial detection was noise. Decrease the counter.
}
// hysteresis value "optimized" using very worn but working drive on ATmega328 @ 16Mhz
// should be fine on other MCUs and speeds, as the PSX dictates SUBQ rate
if (hysteresis >= 14) {
// If the read head is still here after injection, resending should be quick.
// Hysteresis naturally goes to 0 otherwise (the read head moved).
hysteresis = 11;
#ifdef ATTINY_X5
DEBUG_PRINTLN("!");
#else
DEBUG_PRINTLN("INJECT!INJECT!INJECT!INJECT!INJECT!INJECT!");
#endif
#if defined(ARDUINO_328_BOARD) || defined(ARDUINO_32UX_BOARD)
digitalWrite(LED_BUILTIN, HIGH);
#endif
pinMode(data, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(data, 0); // pull data low
if (!pu22mode) {
pinMode(gate_wfck, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(gate_wfck, 0);
}
// HC-05 waits for a bit of silence (pin low) before it begins decoding.
delay(delay_between_injections);
// inject symbols now. 2 x 3 runs seems optimal to cover all boards
for (byte loop_counter = 0; loop_counter < 2; loop_counter++)
{
inject_SCEX('e'); // e = SCEE, a = SCEA, i = SCEI
inject_SCEX('a'); // injects all 3 regions by default
inject_SCEX('i'); // optimize boot time by sending only your console region letter (all 3 times per loop)
}
if (!pu22mode) {
pinMode(gate_wfck, INPUT); // high-z the line, we're done
}
pinMode(data, INPUT); // high-z the line, we're done
#if defined(ARDUINO_328_BOARD) || defined(ARDUINO_32UX_BOARD)
digitalWrite(LED_BUILTIN, LOW);
#endif
}
// keep catching SUBQ packets forever
}
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