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/*
* Copyright 2012 Luke Dashjr
* Copyright 2012 Xiangfu <xiangfu@openmobilefree.com>
* Copyright 2012 Andrew Smith
*
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
* under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
* Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
* any later version. See COPYING for more details.
*/
/*
* Those code should be works fine with V2 and V3 bitstream of Icarus.
* Operation:
* No detection implement.
* Input: 64B = 32B midstate + 20B fill bytes + last 12 bytes of block head.
* Return: send back 32bits immediately when Icarus found a valid nonce.
* no query protocol implemented here, if no data send back in ~11.3
* seconds (full cover time on 32bit nonce range by 380MH/s speed)
* just send another work.
* Notice:
* 1. Icarus will start calculate when you push a work to them, even they
* are busy.
* 2. The 2 FPGAs on Icarus will distribute the job, one will calculate the
* 0 ~ 7FFFFFFF, another one will cover the 80000000 ~ FFFFFFFF.
* 3. It's possible for 2 FPGAs both find valid nonce in the meantime, the 2
* valid nonce will all be send back.
* 4. Icarus will stop work when: a valid nonce has been found or 32 bits
* nonce range is completely calculated.
*/
#include <limits.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#ifndef WIN32
#include <termios.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#ifndef O_CLOEXEC
#define O_CLOEXEC 0
#endif
#else
#include <windows.h>
#include <io.h>
#endif
#include "elist.h"
#include "fpgautils.h"
#include "miner.h"
// The serial I/O speed - Linux uses a define 'B115200' in bits/termios.h
#define ICARUS_IO_SPEED 115200
// The size of a successful nonce read
#define ICARUS_READ_SIZE 4
// Ensure the sizes are correct for the Serial read
#if (ICARUS_READ_SIZE != 4)
#error ICARUS_READ_SIZE must be 4
#endif
#define ASSERT1(condition) __maybe_unused static char sizeof_uint32_t_must_be_4[(condition)?1:-1]
ASSERT1(sizeof(uint32_t) == 4);
#define ICARUS_READ_TIME ((double)ICARUS_READ_SIZE * (double)8.0 / (double)ICARUS_IO_SPEED)
// Fraction of a second, USB timeout is measured in
// i.e. 10 means 1/10 of a second
#define TIME_FACTOR 10
// It's 10 per second, thus value = 10/TIME_FACTOR =
#define ICARUS_READ_FAULT_DECISECONDS 1
// In timing mode: Default starting value until an estimate can be obtained
// 5 seconds allows for up to a ~840MH/s device
#define ICARUS_READ_COUNT_TIMING (5 * TIME_FACTOR)
// For a standard Icarus REV3 (to 5 places)
// Since this rounds up a the last digit - it is a slight overestimate
// Thus the hash rate will be a VERY slight underestimate
// (by a lot less than the displayed accuracy)
#define ICARUS_REV3_HASH_TIME 0.0000000026316
#define NANOSEC 1000000000.0
// Icarus Rev3 doesn't send a completion message when it finishes
// the full nonce range, so to avoid being idle we must abort the
// work (by starting a new work) shortly before it finishes
//
// Thus we need to estimate 2 things:
// 1) How many hashes were done if the work was aborted
// 2) How high can the timeout be before the Icarus is idle,
// to minimise the number of work started
// We set 2) to 'the calculated estimate' - 1
// to ensure the estimate ends before idle
//
// The simple calculation used is:
// Tn = Total time in seconds to calculate n hashes
// Hs = seconds per hash
// Xn = number of hashes
// W = code overhead per work
//
// Rough but reasonable estimate:
// Tn = Hs * Xn + W (of the form y = mx + b)
//
// Thus:
// Line of best fit (using least squares)
//
// Hs = (n*Sum(XiTi)-Sum(Xi)*Sum(Ti))/(n*Sum(Xi^2)-Sum(Xi)^2)
// W = Sum(Ti)/n - (Hs*Sum(Xi))/n
//
// N.B. W is less when aborting work since we aren't waiting for the reply
// to be transferred back (ICARUS_READ_TIME)
// Calculating the hashes aborted at n seconds is thus just n/Hs
// (though this is still a slight overestimate due to code delays)
//
// Both below must be exceeded to complete a set of data
// Minimum how long after the first, the last data point must be
#define HISTORY_SEC 60
// Minimum how many points a single ICARUS_HISTORY should have
#define MIN_DATA_COUNT 5
// The value above used is doubled each history until it exceeds:
#define MAX_MIN_DATA_COUNT 100
static struct timeval history_sec = { HISTORY_SEC, 0 };
// Store the last INFO_HISTORY data sets
// [0] = current data, not yet ready to be included as an estimate
// Each new data set throws the last old set off the end thus
// keeping a ongoing average of recent data
#define INFO_HISTORY 10
struct ICARUS_HISTORY {
struct timeval finish;
double sumXiTi;
double sumXi;
double sumTi;
double sumXi2;
uint32_t values;
uint32_t hash_count_min;
uint32_t hash_count_max;
};
enum timing_mode { MODE_DEFAULT, MODE_SHORT, MODE_LONG, MODE_VALUE };
static const char *MODE_DEFAULT_STR = "default";
static const char *MODE_SHORT_STR = "short";
static const char *MODE_LONG_STR = "long";
static const char *MODE_VALUE_STR = "value";
static const char *MODE_UNKNOWN_STR = "unknown";
struct ICARUS_INFO {
// time to calculate the golden_ob
uint64_t golden_hashes;
struct timeval golden_tv;
struct ICARUS_HISTORY history[INFO_HISTORY+1];
uint32_t min_data_count;
// seconds per Hash
double Hs;
int read_count;
enum timing_mode timing_mode;
bool do_icarus_timing;
double fullnonce;
int count;
double W;
uint32_t values;
uint64_t hash_count_range;
// Determine the cost of history processing
// (which will only affect W)
uint64_t history_count;
struct timeval history_time;
};
// One for each possible device
static struct ICARUS_INFO **icarus_info;
struct device_api icarus_api;
static void rev(unsigned char *s, size_t l)
{
size_t i, j;
unsigned char t;
for (i = 0, j = l - 1; i < j; i++, j--) {
t = s[i];
s[i] = s[j];
s[j] = t;
}
}
#define icarus_open2(devpath, purge) serial_open(devpath, 115200, ICARUS_READ_FAULT_DECISECONDS, purge)
#define icarus_open(devpath) icarus_open2(devpath, false)
static int icarus_gets(unsigned char *buf, int fd, struct timeval *tv_finish, struct thr_info *thr, int read_count)
{
ssize_t ret = 0;
int rc = 0;
int read_amount = ICARUS_READ_SIZE;
bool first = true;
// Read reply 1 byte at a time to get earliest tv_finish
while (true) {
ret = read(fd, buf, 1);
if (first)
gettimeofday(tv_finish, NULL);
if (ret >= read_amount)
return 0;
if (ret > 0) {
buf += ret;
read_amount -= ret;
first = false;
continue;
}
rc++;
if (rc >= read_count) {
if (opt_debug) {
applog(LOG_DEBUG,
"Icarus Read: No data in %.2f seconds",
(float)rc/(float)TIME_FACTOR);
}
return 1;
}
if (thr->work_restart) {
if (opt_debug) {
applog(LOG_DEBUG,
"Icarus Read: Work restart at %.2f seconds",
(float)(rc)/(float)TIME_FACTOR);
}
return 1;
}
}
}
static int icarus_write(int fd, const void *buf, size_t bufLen)
{
size_t ret;
ret = write(fd, buf, bufLen);
if (unlikely(ret != bufLen))
return 1;
return 0;
}
#define icarus_close(fd) close(fd)
static const char *timing_mode_str(enum timing_mode timing_mode)
{
switch(timing_mode) {
case MODE_DEFAULT:
return MODE_DEFAULT_STR;
case MODE_SHORT:
return MODE_SHORT_STR;
case MODE_LONG:
return MODE_LONG_STR;
case MODE_VALUE:
return MODE_VALUE_STR;
default:
return MODE_UNKNOWN_STR;
}
}
static void set_timing_mode(struct cgpu_info *icarus)
{
struct ICARUS_INFO *info = icarus_info[icarus->device_id];
double Hs;
char buf[BUFSIZ+1];
char *ptr, *comma, *eq;
size_t max;
int i;
if (opt_icarus_timing == NULL)
buf[0] = '\0';
else {
ptr = opt_icarus_timing;
for (i = 0; i < icarus->device_id; i++) {
comma = strchr(ptr, ',');
if (comma == NULL)
break;
ptr = comma + 1;
}
comma = strchr(ptr, ',');
if (comma == NULL)
max = strlen(ptr);
else
max = comma - ptr;
if (max > BUFSIZ)
max = BUFSIZ;
strncpy(buf, ptr, max);
buf[max] = '\0';
}
info->Hs = 0;
info->read_count = 0;
if (strcasecmp(buf, MODE_SHORT_STR) == 0) {
info->Hs = ICARUS_REV3_HASH_TIME;
info->read_count = ICARUS_READ_COUNT_TIMING;
info->timing_mode = MODE_SHORT;
info->do_icarus_timing = true;
} else if (strcasecmp(buf, MODE_LONG_STR) == 0) {
info->Hs = ICARUS_REV3_HASH_TIME;
info->read_count = ICARUS_READ_COUNT_TIMING;
info->timing_mode = MODE_LONG;
info->do_icarus_timing = true;
} else if ((Hs = atof(buf)) != 0) {
info->Hs = Hs / NANOSEC;
info->fullnonce = info->Hs * (((double)0xffffffff) + 1);
if ((eq = strchr(buf, '=')) != NULL)
info->read_count = atoi(eq+1);
if (info->read_count < 1)
info->read_count = (int)(info->fullnonce * TIME_FACTOR) - 1;
if (unlikely(info->read_count < 1))
info->read_count = 1;
info->timing_mode = MODE_VALUE;
info->do_icarus_timing = false;
} else {
// Anything else in buf just uses DEFAULT mode
info->Hs = ICARUS_REV3_HASH_TIME;
info->fullnonce = info->Hs * (((double)0xffffffff) + 1);
if ((eq = strchr(buf, '=')) != NULL)
info->read_count = atoi(eq+1);
if (info->read_count < 1)
info->read_count = (int)(info->fullnonce * TIME_FACTOR) - 1;
info->timing_mode = MODE_DEFAULT;
info->do_icarus_timing = false;
}
info->min_data_count = MIN_DATA_COUNT;
applog(LOG_DEBUG, "Icarus: Init: %d mode=%s read_count=%d Hs=%e",
icarus->device_id, timing_mode_str(info->timing_mode), info->read_count, info->Hs);
}
static bool icarus_detect_one(const char *devpath)
{
struct ICARUS_INFO *info;
struct timeval tv_start, tv_finish;
int fd;
// Block 171874 nonce = (0xa2870100) = 0x000187a2
// N.B. golden_ob MUST take less time to calculate
// than the timeout set in icarus_open()
// This one takes ~0.53ms on Rev3 Icarus
const char golden_ob[] =
"4679ba4ec99876bf4bfe086082b40025"
"4df6c356451471139a3afa71e48f544a"
"00000000000000000000000000000000"
"0000000087320b1a1426674f2fa722ce";
const char golden_nonce[] = "000187a2";
const uint32_t golden_nonce_val = 0x000187a2;
unsigned char ob_bin[64], nonce_bin[ICARUS_READ_SIZE];
char *nonce_hex;
applog(LOG_DEBUG, "Icarus Detect: Attempting to open %s", devpath);
fd = icarus_open2(devpath, true);
if (unlikely(fd == -1)) {
applog(LOG_ERR, "Icarus Detect: Failed to open %s", devpath);
return false;
}
hex2bin(ob_bin, golden_ob, sizeof(ob_bin));
icarus_write(fd, ob_bin, sizeof(ob_bin));
gettimeofday(&tv_start, NULL);
memset(nonce_bin, 0, sizeof(nonce_bin));
struct thr_info dummy = {
.work_restart = false,
};
icarus_gets(nonce_bin, fd, &tv_finish, &dummy, 1);
icarus_close(fd);
nonce_hex = bin2hex(nonce_bin, sizeof(nonce_bin));
if (nonce_hex) {
if (strncmp(nonce_hex, golden_nonce, 8)) {
applog(LOG_ERR,
"Icarus Detect: "
"Test failed at %s: get %s, should: %s",
devpath, nonce_hex, golden_nonce);
free(nonce_hex);
return false;
}
applog(LOG_DEBUG,
"Icarus Detect: "
"Test succeeded at %s: got %s",
devpath, nonce_hex);
free(nonce_hex);
} else
return false;
/* We have a real Icarus! */
struct cgpu_info *icarus;
icarus = calloc(1, sizeof(struct cgpu_info));
icarus->api = &icarus_api;
icarus->device_path = strdup(devpath);
icarus->threads = 1;
add_cgpu(icarus);
icarus_info = realloc(icarus_info, sizeof(struct ICARUS_INFO *) * (total_devices + 1));
applog(LOG_INFO, "Found Icarus at %s, mark as %d",
devpath, icarus->device_id);
// Since we are adding a new device on the end it needs to always be allocated
icarus_info[icarus->device_id] = (struct ICARUS_INFO *)malloc(sizeof(struct ICARUS_INFO));
if (unlikely(!(icarus_info[icarus->device_id])))
quit(1, "Failed to malloc ICARUS_INFO");
info = icarus_info[icarus->device_id];
// Initialise everything to zero for a new device
memset(info, 0, sizeof(struct ICARUS_INFO));
info->golden_hashes = (golden_nonce_val & 0x7fffffff) << 1;
timersub(&tv_finish, &tv_start, &(info->golden_tv));
set_timing_mode(icarus);
return true;
}
static void icarus_detect()
{
serial_detect(icarus_api.dname, icarus_detect_one);
}
static bool icarus_prepare(struct thr_info *thr)
{
struct cgpu_info *icarus = thr->cgpu;
struct timeval now;
int fd = icarus_open(icarus->device_path);
if (unlikely(-1 == fd)) {
applog(LOG_ERR, "Failed to open Icarus on %s",
icarus->device_path);
return false;
}
icarus->device_fd = fd;
applog(LOG_INFO, "Opened Icarus on %s", icarus->device_path);
gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
get_datestamp(icarus->init, &now);
return true;
}
static uint64_t icarus_scanhash(struct thr_info *thr, struct work *work,
__maybe_unused uint64_t max_nonce)
{
struct cgpu_info *icarus;
int fd;
int ret;
struct ICARUS_INFO *info;
unsigned char ob_bin[64], nonce_bin[ICARUS_READ_SIZE];
char *ob_hex;
uint32_t nonce;
uint64_t hash_count;
struct timeval tv_start, tv_finish, elapsed;
struct timeval tv_history_start, tv_history_finish;
double Ti, Xi;
int i;
struct ICARUS_HISTORY *history0, *history;
int count;
double Hs, W, fullnonce;
int read_count;
uint64_t estimate_hashes;
uint32_t values;
uint64_t hash_count_range;
elapsed.tv_sec = elapsed.tv_usec = 0;
icarus = thr->cgpu;
fd = icarus->device_fd;
memset(ob_bin, 0, sizeof(ob_bin));
memcpy(ob_bin, work->midstate, 32);
memcpy(ob_bin + 52, work->data + 64, 12);
rev(ob_bin, 32);
rev(ob_bin + 52, 12);
#ifndef WIN32
tcflush(fd, TCOFLUSH);
#endif
ret = icarus_write(fd, ob_bin, sizeof(ob_bin));
if (ret)
return 0; /* This should never happen */
gettimeofday(&tv_start, NULL);
if (opt_debug) {
ob_hex = bin2hex(ob_bin, sizeof(ob_bin));
if (ob_hex) {
applog(LOG_DEBUG, "Icarus %d sent: %s",
icarus->device_id, ob_hex);
free(ob_hex);
}
}
/* Icarus will return 4 bytes (ICARUS_READ_SIZE) nonces or nothing */
memset(nonce_bin, 0, sizeof(nonce_bin));
info = icarus_info[icarus->device_id];
ret = icarus_gets(nonce_bin, fd, &tv_finish, thr, info->read_count);
work->blk.nonce = 0xffffffff;
memcpy((char *)&nonce, nonce_bin, sizeof(nonce_bin));
// aborted before becoming idle, get new work
if (nonce == 0 && ret) {
timersub(&tv_finish, &tv_start, &elapsed);
// ONLY up to just when it aborted
// We didn't read a reply so we don't subtract ICARUS_READ_TIME
estimate_hashes = ((double)(elapsed.tv_sec)
+ ((double)(elapsed.tv_usec))/((double)1000000)) / info->Hs;
// If some Serial-USB delay allowed the full nonce range to
// complete it can't have done more than a full nonce
if (unlikely(estimate_hashes > 0xffffffff))
estimate_hashes = 0xffffffff;
if (opt_debug) {
applog(LOG_DEBUG, "Icarus %d no nonce = 0x%08llx hashes (%ld.%06lds)",
icarus->device_id, estimate_hashes,
elapsed.tv_sec, elapsed.tv_usec);
}
return estimate_hashes;
}
#if !defined (__BIG_ENDIAN__) && !defined(MIPSEB)
nonce = swab32(nonce);
#endif
submit_nonce(thr, work, nonce);
hash_count = (nonce & 0x7fffffff);
if (hash_count++ == 0x7fffffff)
hash_count = 0xffffffff;
else
hash_count <<= 1;
if (opt_debug || info->do_icarus_timing)
timersub(&tv_finish, &tv_start, &elapsed);
if (opt_debug) {
applog(LOG_DEBUG, "Icarus %d nonce = 0x%08x = 0x%08llx hashes (%ld.%06lds)",
icarus->device_id, nonce, hash_count, elapsed.tv_sec, elapsed.tv_usec);
}
// ignore possible end condition values
if (info->do_icarus_timing && (nonce & 0x7fffffff) > 0x000fffff && (nonce & 0x7fffffff) < 0x7ff00000) {
gettimeofday(&tv_history_start, NULL);
history0 = &(info->history[0]);
if (history0->values == 0)
timeradd(&tv_start, &history_sec, &(history0->finish));
Ti = (double)(elapsed.tv_sec)
+ ((double)(elapsed.tv_usec))/((double)1000000)
- ICARUS_READ_TIME;
Xi = (double)hash_count;
history0->sumXiTi += Xi * Ti;
history0->sumXi += Xi;
history0->sumTi += Ti;
history0->sumXi2 += Xi * Xi;
history0->values++;
if (history0->hash_count_max < hash_count)
history0->hash_count_max = hash_count;
if (history0->hash_count_min > hash_count || history0->hash_count_min == 0)
history0->hash_count_min = hash_count;
if (history0->values >= info->min_data_count
&& timercmp(&tv_start, &(history0->finish), >)) {
for (i = INFO_HISTORY; i > 0; i--)
memcpy(&(info->history[i]),
&(info->history[i-1]),
sizeof(struct ICARUS_HISTORY));
// Initialise history0 to zero for summary calculation
memset(history0, 0, sizeof(struct ICARUS_HISTORY));
// We just completed a history data set
// So now recalc read_count based on the whole history thus we will
// initially get more accurate until it completes INFO_HISTORY
// total data sets
count = 0;
for (i = 1 ; i <= INFO_HISTORY; i++) {
history = &(info->history[i]);
if (history->values >= MIN_DATA_COUNT) {
count++;
history0->sumXiTi += history->sumXiTi;
history0->sumXi += history->sumXi;
history0->sumTi += history->sumTi;
history0->sumXi2 += history->sumXi2;
history0->values += history->values;
if (history0->hash_count_max < history->hash_count_max)
history0->hash_count_max = history->hash_count_max;
if (history0->hash_count_min > history->hash_count_min || history0->hash_count_min == 0)
history0->hash_count_min = history->hash_count_min;
}
}
// All history data
Hs = (history0->values*history0->sumXiTi - history0->sumXi*history0->sumTi)
/ (history0->values*history0->sumXi2 - history0->sumXi*history0->sumXi);
W = history0->sumTi/history0->values - Hs*history0->sumXi/history0->values;
hash_count_range = history0->hash_count_max - history0->hash_count_min;
values = history0->values;
// Initialise history0 to zero for next data set
memset(history0, 0, sizeof(struct ICARUS_HISTORY));
fullnonce = W + Hs * (((double)0xffffffff) + 1);
read_count = (int)(fullnonce * TIME_FACTOR) - 1;
info->Hs = Hs;
info->read_count = read_count;
info->fullnonce = fullnonce;
info->count = count;
info->W = W;
info->values = values;
info->hash_count_range = hash_count_range;
if (info->min_data_count < MAX_MIN_DATA_COUNT)
info->min_data_count *= 2;
else if (info->timing_mode == MODE_SHORT)
info->do_icarus_timing = false;
// applog(LOG_WARNING, "Icarus %d Re-estimate: read_count=%d fullnonce=%fs history count=%d Hs=%e W=%e values=%d hash range=0x%08lx min data count=%u", icarus->device_id, read_count, fullnonce, count, Hs, W, values, hash_count_range, info->min_data_count);
applog(LOG_WARNING, "Icarus %d Re-estimate: Hs=%e W=%e read_count=%d fullnonce=%.3fs",
icarus->device_id, Hs, W, read_count, fullnonce);
}
info->history_count++;
gettimeofday(&tv_history_finish, NULL);
timersub(&tv_history_finish, &tv_history_start, &tv_history_finish);
timeradd(&tv_history_finish, &(info->history_time), &(info->history_time));
}
return hash_count;
}
static struct api_data *icarus_api_stats(struct cgpu_info *cgpu)
{
struct api_data *root = NULL;
struct ICARUS_INFO *info = icarus_info[cgpu->device_id];
// Warning, access to these is not locked - but we don't really
// care since hashing performance is way more important than
// locking access to displaying API debug 'stats'
// If locking becomes an issue for any of them, use copy_data=true also
root = api_add_int(root, "read_count", &(info->read_count), false);
root = api_add_double(root, "fullnonce", &(info->fullnonce), false);
root = api_add_int(root, "count", &(info->count), false);
root = api_add_hs(root, "Hs", &(info->Hs), false);
root = api_add_double(root, "W", &(info->W), false);
root = api_add_uint(root, "total_values", &(info->values), false);
root = api_add_uint64(root, "range", &(info->hash_count_range), false);
root = api_add_uint64(root, "history_count", &(info->history_count), false);
root = api_add_timeval(root, "history_time", &(info->history_time), false);
root = api_add_uint(root, "min_data_count", &(info->min_data_count), false);
root = api_add_uint(root, "timing_values", &(info->history[0].values), false);
root = api_add_const(root, "timing_mode", timing_mode_str(info->timing_mode), false);
root = api_add_bool(root, "is_timing", &(info->do_icarus_timing), false);
return root;
}
static void icarus_shutdown(struct thr_info *thr)
{
struct cgpu_info *icarus = thr->cgpu;
icarus_close(icarus->device_fd);
}
struct device_api icarus_api = {
.dname = "icarus",
.name = "ICA",
.api_detect = icarus_detect,
.get_api_stats = icarus_api_stats,
.thread_prepare = icarus_prepare,
.scanhash = icarus_scanhash,
.thread_shutdown = icarus_shutdown,
};
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