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hwclock: fix possible hang and other set_hardware_clock_exact() issues

In sys-utils/hwclock.c, set_hardware_clock_exact() has some problems when the
process gets pre-empted (for more than 100ms) before reaching the time for
which it waits:

1. The "continue" statement causes execution to skip the final tdiff
assignment at the end of the do...while loop, leading to the while condition
using the wrong value of tdiff, and thus always exiting the loop once
newhwtime != sethwtime (e.g., after 1 second).  This masks bug # 2, below.

2. The previously-existing bug is that because it starts over waiting for the
desired time whenever two successive calls to gettimeofday() return values >
100ms apart, the loop will never terminate unless the process holds the CPU
(without losing it for more than 100ms) for at least 500ms.  This can happen
on a heavily loaded machine or on a virtual machine (or on a heavily loaded
virtual machine).  This has been observed to occur, preventing a machine from
completing the shutdown or reboot process due to a "hwclock --systohc" call in
a shutdown script.

The new implementation presented in this patch takes a somewhat different
approach, intended to accomplish the same goals:

It computes the desired target system time (at which the requested hardware
clock time will be applied to the hardware clock), and waits for that time to
arrive.  If it misses the time (such as due to being pre-empted for too long),
it recalculates the target time, and increases the tolerance (how late it can
be relative to the target time, and still be "close enough".  Thus, if all is
well, the time will be set *very* precisely.  On a machine where the hwclock
process is repeatedly pre-empted, it will set the time as precisely as is
possible under the conditions present on that particular machine.  In any
case, it will always terminate eventually (and pretty quickly); it will never
hang forever.

[kzak@redhat.com: - tiny coding style changes]

Signed-off-by: Chris MacGregor <chrismacgregor@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Karel Zak <kzak@redhat.com>
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1 parent 260412b commit 4a44a54b3caf77923f0e3f1d5bdf5eda6ef07f62 Chris MacGregor committed with Feb 27, 2014
Showing with 131 additions and 39 deletions.
  1. +131 −39 sys-utils/hwclock.c
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170 sys-utils/hwclock.c
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ struct adjtime {
* We are running in debug mode, wherein we put a lot of information about
* what we're doing to standard output.
*/
-bool debug;
+int debug;
/* Workaround for Award 4.50g BIOS bug: keep the year in a file. */
bool badyear;
@@ -526,43 +526,141 @@ set_hardware_clock_exact(const time_t sethwtime,
const struct timeval refsystime,
const bool universal, const bool testing)
{
- time_t newhwtime = sethwtime;
- struct timeval beginsystime, nowsystime;
- double tdiff;
- int time_resync = 1;
-
/*
- * Now delay some more until Hardware Clock time newhwtime arrives.
- * The 0.5 s is because the Hardware Clock always sets to your set
- * time plus 500 ms (because it is designed to update to the next
- * second precisely 500 ms after you finish the setting).
+ * The Hardware Clock can only be set to any integer time plus one
+ * half second. The integer time is required because there is no
+ * interface to set or get a fractional second. The additional half
+ * second is because the Hardware Clock updates to the following
+ * second precisely 500 ms (not 1 second!) after you release the
+ * divider reset (after setting the new time) - see description of
+ * DV2, DV1, DV0 in Register A in the MC146818A data sheet (and note
+ * that although that document doesn't say so, real-world code seems
+ * to expect that the SET bit in Register B functions the same way).
+ * That means that, e.g., when you set the clock to 1:02:03, it
+ * effectively really sets it to 1:02:03.5, because it will update to
+ * 1:02:04 only half a second later. Our caller passes the desired
+ * integer Hardware Clock time in sethwtime, and the corresponding
+ * system time (which may have a fractional part, and which may or may
+ * not be the same!) in refsystime. In an ideal situation, we would
+ * then apply sethwtime to the Hardware Clock at refsystime+500ms, so
+ * that when the Hardware Clock ticks forward to sethwtime+1s half a
+ * second later at refsystime+1000ms, everything is in sync. So we
+ * spin, waiting for gettimeofday() to return a time at or after that
+ * time (refsystime+500ms) up to a tolerance value, initially 1ms. If
+ * we miss that time due to being preempted for some other process,
+ * then we increase the margin a little bit (initially 1ms, doubling
+ * each time), add 1 second (or more, if needed to get a time that is
+ * in the future) to both the time for which we are waiting and the
+ * time that we will apply to the Hardware Clock, and start waiting
+ * again.
+ *
+ * For example, the caller requests that we set the Hardware Clock to
+ * 1:02:03, with reference time (current system time) = 6:07:08.250.
+ * We want the Hardware Clock to update to 1:02:04 at 6:07:09.250 on
+ * the system clock, and the first such update will occur 0.500
+ * seconds after we write to the Hardware Clock, so we spin until the
+ * system clock reads 6:07:08.750. If we get there, great, but let's
+ * imagine the system is so heavily loaded that our process is
+ * preempted and by the time we get to run again, the system clock
+ * reads 6:07:11.990. We now want to wait until the next xx:xx:xx.750
+ * time, which is 6:07:12.750 (4.5 seconds after the reference time),
+ * at which point we will set the Hardware Clock to 1:02:07 (4 seconds
+ * after the originally requested time). If we do that successfully,
+ * then at 6:07:13.250 (5 seconds after the reference time), the
+ * Hardware Clock will update to 1:02:08 (5 seconds after the
+ * originally requested time), and all is well thereafter.
*/
- do {
- if (time_resync) {
- gettimeofday(&beginsystime, NULL);
- tdiff = time_diff(beginsystime, refsystime);
- newhwtime = sethwtime + (int)(tdiff + 0.5);
- if (debug)
- printf(_
- ("Time elapsed since reference time has been %.6f seconds.\n"
- "Delaying further to reach the new time.\n"),
- tdiff);
- time_resync = 0;
+
+ time_t newhwtime = sethwtime;
+ double target_time_tolerance_secs = 0.001; /* initial value */
+ double tolerance_incr_secs = 0.001; /* initial value */
+ const double RTC_SET_DELAY_SECS = 0.5; /* 500 ms */
+ const struct timeval RTC_SET_DELAY_TV = { 0, RTC_SET_DELAY_SECS * 1E6 };
+
+ struct timeval targetsystime;
+ struct timeval nowsystime;
+ struct timeval prevsystime = refsystime;
+ double deltavstarget;
+
+ timeradd(&refsystime, &RTC_SET_DELAY_TV, &targetsystime);
+
+ while (1) {
+ double ticksize;
+
+ /* FOR TESTING ONLY: inject random delays of up to 1000ms */
+ if (debug >= 10) {
+ int usec = random() % 1000000;
+ printf(_("sleeping ~%d usec\n"), usec);
+ usleep(usec);
}
gettimeofday(&nowsystime, NULL);
- tdiff = time_diff(nowsystime, beginsystime);
- if (tdiff < 0) {
- time_resync = 1; /* probably backward time reset */
- continue;
- }
- if (tdiff > 0.1) {
- time_resync = 1; /* probably forward time reset */
- continue;
+ deltavstarget = time_diff(nowsystime, targetsystime);
+ ticksize = time_diff(nowsystime, prevsystime);
+ prevsystime = nowsystime;
+
+ if (ticksize < 0) {
+ if (debug)
+ printf(_("time jumped backward %.6f seconds "
+ "to %ld.%06d - retargeting\n"),
+ ticksize, (long)nowsystime.tv_sec,
+ (int)nowsystime.tv_usec);
+ /* The retarget is handled at the end of the loop. */
+ } else if (deltavstarget < 0) {
+ /* deltavstarget < 0 if current time < target time */
+ if (debug >= 2)
+ printf(_("%ld.%06d < %ld.%06d (%.6f)\n"),
+ (long)nowsystime.tv_sec,
+ (int)nowsystime.tv_usec,
+ (long)targetsystime.tv_sec,
+ (int)targetsystime.tv_usec,
+ deltavstarget);
+ continue; /* not there yet - keep spinning */
+ } else if (deltavstarget <= target_time_tolerance_secs) {
+ /* Close enough to the target time; done waiting. */
+ break;
+ } else /* (deltavstarget > target_time_tolerance_secs) */ {
+ /*
+ * We missed our window. Increase the tolerance and
+ * aim for the next opportunity.
+ */
+ if (debug)
+ printf(_("missed it - %ld.%06d is too far "
+ "past %ld.%06d (%.6f > %.6f)\n"),
+ (long)nowsystime.tv_sec,
+ (int)nowsystime.tv_usec,
+ (long)targetsystime.tv_sec,
+ (int)targetsystime.tv_usec,
+ deltavstarget,
+ target_time_tolerance_secs);
+ target_time_tolerance_secs += tolerance_incr_secs;
+ tolerance_incr_secs *= 2;
}
- beginsystime = nowsystime;
- tdiff = time_diff(nowsystime, refsystime);
- } while (newhwtime == sethwtime + (int)(tdiff + 0.5));
+
+ /*
+ * Aim for the same offset (tv_usec) within the second in
+ * either the current second (if that offset hasn't arrived
+ * yet), or the next second.
+ */
+ if (nowsystime.tv_usec < targetsystime.tv_usec)
+ targetsystime.tv_sec = nowsystime.tv_sec;
+ else
+ targetsystime.tv_sec = nowsystime.tv_sec + 1;
+ }
+
+ newhwtime = sethwtime
+ + (int)(time_diff(nowsystime, refsystime)
+ - RTC_SET_DELAY_SECS /* don't count this */
+ + 0.5 /* for rounding */);
+ if (debug)
+ printf(_("%ld.%06d is close enough to %ld.%06d (%.6f < %.6f)\n"
+ "Set RTC to %ld (%ld + %d; refsystime = %ld.%06d)\n"),
+ (long)nowsystime.tv_sec, (int)nowsystime.tv_usec,
+ (long)targetsystime.tv_sec, (int)targetsystime.tv_usec,
+ deltavstarget, target_time_tolerance_secs,
+ (long)newhwtime, (long)sethwtime,
+ (int)(newhwtime - sethwtime),
+ (long)refsystime.tv_sec, (int)refsystime.tv_usec);
set_hardware_clock(newhwtime, universal, testing);
}
@@ -1636,7 +1734,7 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
switch (c) {
case 'D':
- debug = TRUE;
+ ++debug;
break;
case 'a':
adjust = TRUE;
@@ -1953,10 +2051,4 @@ void __attribute__((__noreturn__)) hwaudit_exit(int status)
*
* hwclock uses this method, and considers the Hardware Clock to have
* infinite precision.
- *
- * TODO: Enhancements needed:
- *
- * - When waiting for whole second boundary in set_hardware_clock_exact,
- * fail if we miss the goal by more than .1 second, as could happen if we
- * get pre-empted (by the kernel dispatcher).
*/

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