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Option type implementation in ECMAScript whose APIs are inspired by Rust's `Option<T>`
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README.md

option-t

npm version Build Status

  • This library represents Option type in ECMAScript.
    • You can sort "nullable" convention in your project.
  • APIs are inspired by Rust Language's Option<T> and Result<T, E>.
  • TypeScript friendly APIs.
    • We recommend to use this with some static type systems like TypeScript.

Motivation

This library provies these conventions for your project:

  1. Uniform the expression of "none" value.
  2. Uniform the way to carry error information instead of throwing an error.
  3. Provide a utility function to handle 1 and 2 easily.

And Rust's std::option and std::result are suggestive to achive these conventions in practice. Thus this package is inspired by their design.

Uniform the expression of "none" value.

In JavaScript world, there are many ways to express "there is no values". At least in ECMA262, There are some ways to represent them:

  • undefined (e.g. Map.prototype.get())
  • null (e.g. RegExp.prototype.exec())
  • -1 (e.g. String.prototype.indexOf())

In addition, ECMA262 intracts with DOM binding, Node.js standtard modules, and others. There are additional various way to represetn "none" value.

In practice, we write some glue code to tame their various ways in our project to uniform their expression style. This library contributes to uniform the convention to write it.

Uniform the way to carry error information instead of throwing an error.

Exception is useful but it has some terrible aspect. It's easy that try-catch statement be a jump instruction by large scoped try-catch statement. It's hard to find where throws an error, it's also hard to handle a penetrated exception from a lower layer. Especially, exception mechanism is mis-match with an async programming model. ECMA262 7th' _async-await relaxes the problem about an exception with async programming, but there is still leave the problem about exception in traditional synchronous programming. Furthermore, if you interact with setTimeout() and other async APIs built with callback style on event loop, this problem faces to you.

And some async-push based paradigm like Rx.Observable<T> does not allow throw any expception in their Observable stream. If you throw an error in it, only catch() operator can catch the error. But a programmer would sometimes forget to use its operator. This means that throwing an Error in Rx's Observable is pretty mis-matched action. Promise also has a similar problem.

And exception in ECMA262 is not friendly with static typing model because ECMA262's throw can throw not only Error but also other object type.

In Rust which is a programming language designed for parallel and seftiness, it treats errors in two category:

Rust groups errors into two major categories: recoverable and unrecoverable errors. For a recoverable error, such as a file not found error, it’s reasonable to report the problem to the user and retry the operation. Unrecoverable errors are always symptoms of bugs, like trying to access a location beyond the end of an array.

This categorization is pretty useful to relax the problem about exception in ECMA262 which this section described.

Thus this library provides a way to express recoverable error and also recommmends to use throwing an error only if you intend throw an unrecoverable error. This categarization introduces a convinient convention for you:

  • If the code uses throw, you should be careful about unrecoverable error.
  • If the code returns Result<T, E> provided this library, then you should handle it correctly.

This convention is claer as error handling style and it's static typing friendly by generics.

Provide a utility function to handle these uniformed expression easily.

Some static type checking tools also provide a way to check nullability and provide these conventions.

Flowtype and TypeScript checks with thier control flow analysis (Sorry, I don't know the details of Google Closure Compiler's behavior).

However, these compiler does not provide a way to handle their value easily like map or flatMap operations.

Rust's std::option and std::result has some utlity operation method to handle them easily. This library also provides a convinient way to handle them and its way is inspired by Rust's ones.

Installation

npm install --save option-t
// or
yarn add option-t --save

Usage & APIs

Utility functions for some types.

These are designed for more tree shaking friendly and more usable for JavaScript common world.

We recommend to use these in almost case.

Nullable<T> (T | null)

This can express a value of T type or null.

Undefinable<T> (T | undefined)

This can express a value of T type or undefined.

Maybe<T> (T | null | undefined)

This can express a value of T type, null, or undefined.

Option<T> ({ ok: true; val: T } | { ok: false; })

This can express that there is some values or none as a plain object. This does not have any property method on its prototype. But this allows no including unused methods of them.

Result<T, E> ({ ok: true; val: T } | { ok: false; err: E; })

This can express that there is some values or some error information as a plain object. This does not have any property method on its prototype. But this allows no including unused methods of them.

Wrapper objects

This is a wrapper object which have utility methods on its prototype.

We recommend to use utility types & functions if you don't have to use instanceof check and you should avoid to expose this object as a public API of your package because instanceof checking might not work correctly if a user project has multiple version of this package in their dependencies. See (#337).

Option<T>

This can express that there is some values or none.

import { createSome, createNone, } from 'option-t/esm/Option';
// or
const { createSome, createNone, } = require('option-t/cjs/Option');

// `Some<T>`
const some = createSome(1);
console.log(some.isSome); // true
console.log(some.unwrap()); // 1

// `None`
const none = createNone();
console.log(none.isSome); // false
console.log(none.unwrap()); // this will throw `Error`.

Result<T, E>

This can express that there is some values or some error information.

import { createOk, createErr, } from 'option-t/esm/Result';
// or
const { createOk, createErr, } = require('option-t/cjs/Result');

// `Ok<T, E>`
const some = createOk(1);
console.log(some.isOk()); // true
console.log(some.unwrap()); // 1
console.log(none.unwrapErr()); // this will throw `Error`.

// `Err<T, E>`
const none = createErr('some error info');
console.log(none.isOk()); // false
console.log(none.unwrap()); // this will throw `Error`.
console.log(none.unwrapErr()); // 'some error info'

How to import

This package provides some sub directories to import various functions. Each of them includes same directoty hierarchy with under src/.

  • option-t/cjs
    • This directory privides commonjs style modules with .js extension.
  • option-t/esm
    • This directory privides ES modules with .mjs extension.
    • Currently, we provides them with .js extension for compatibility. However, we may only release .mjs for the future release. If you uses some module bundler (e.g. webpack or rollup), please add the config to prefer .mjs file.
  • option-t/lib
    • This directory privides both of an ES module and a commonjs style module.
      • ES module has .mjs extension.
      • CommonJS module has .js extension.
    • This directory is provided for a bit tricky purpose.
      • For example, your project distributes a bundled file with some module bundlers that can handle ES module (e.g. rollup or webpack), But your project also use babel or typescript's downlevel trasnform to transform your code from ES module to Commonjs and your project runs unit-tests for transformed code with plain Node.js which only use require().
    • Please don't use this path if you don't have to use this.

JSON Representation

Some types defines JSON representations if you serialize them by JSON.stringify().

Idioms

  • You can see some idioms of this library for the interoperability to JavaScript world.

See also

These documents would provide more information about Option<T> and Result<T, E>. These are written for Rust, but the essense is just same.

License

MIT License

Contribution

  • Use yarn to install dev-dependency toolchains.
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