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A LWP::UserAgent suitable for simulating and testing network calls
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Test::LWP::UserAgent - a LWP::UserAgent suitable for simulating and testing network calls


version 0.008


In your real code:

use URI;
use HTTP::Request::Common;
use LWP::UserAgent;

my $ua = $self->useragent || LWP::UserAgent->new;

my $uri = URI->new('');
my $request = POST($uri, a => 1);
my $response = $ua->request($request);

Then, in your tests:

use Test::LWP::UserAgent;
use Test::More;

    qr{}, HTTP::Response->new(200, 'OK', ['Content-Type' => 'text/plain'], ''));
    qr{}, HTTP::Response->new(500, 'ERROR', ['Content-Type' => 'text/plain'], ''));
    sub {
        my $request = shift;
        my $success = $request->uri =~ /success/;
        return HTTP::Response->new(
            ($success ? ( 200, 'OK') : (500, 'ERROR'),
            ['Content-Type' => 'text/plain'], '')

OR, you can use a PSGI app to handle the requests:

use HTTP::Message::PSGI;
Test::LWP::UserAgent->register_psgi('' => sub {
    my $env = shift;
    # logic here...
    [ 200, [ 'Content-Type' => 'text/plain' ], [ 'some body' ] ],

And then:

# <something which calls the code being tested...>

my $last_request = Test::LWP::UserAgent->last_http_request_sent;
is($last_request->uri, '', 'URI');
is($last_request->content, 'a=1', 'POST content');

# <now test that your code responded to the 200 response properly...>

This feature is useful for testing your PSGI apps (you may or may not find using Plack::Test easier), or for simulating a server so as to test your client code.

OR, you can route some or all requests through the network as normal, but still gain the hooks provided by this class to test what was sent and received:

my $useragent = Test::LWP::UserAgent->new(network_fallback => 1);



# ... generate a request...

# and then in your tests:
    'timeout was overridden properly',
    'uri my code should have constructed',
    'I should have gotten an OK response',

One common mechanism to swap out the useragent implementation is via a lazily-built Moose attribute; if no override is provided at construction time, default to LWP::UserAgent->new(%options).


  • new

Accepts all options as in LWP::UserAgent, including use_eval, an undocumented boolean which is enabled by default. When set, sending the HTTP request is wrapped in an eval {}, allowing all exceptions to be caught and an appropriate error response (usually HTTP 500) to be returned. You may want to unset this if you really want to test extraordinary errors within your networking code. Normally, you should leave it alone, as LWP::UserAgent and this module are capable of handling normal errors.

Plus, this option is added:

- `network_fallback => <boolean>`

If true, requests passing through this object that do not match a
previously-configured mapping or registration will be directed to the network.
(To only divert _matched_ requests rather than unmatched requests, use
`map_network_response`, see below.)

This option is also available as a read/write accessor via

All other methods may be called on a specific object instance, or as a class method. If called as on a blessed object, the action performed or data returned is limited to just that object; if called as a class method, the action or data is global.

  • map_response($request_description, $http_response)

With this method, you set up what HTTP::Response should be returned for each request received.

The request match specification can be described in multiple ways:

- string

The string is matched identically against the `host` field of the [URI]( in the request.


    $test_ua->map_response('', HTTP::Response->new(500));

- regexp

The regexp is matched against the URI in the request.


    $test_ua->map_response(qr{foo/bar}, HTTP::Response->new(200));
    $test_ua->map_response(qr{baz/quux}, HTTP::Response->new(500));

- code

An arbitrary coderef is passed a single argument, the [HTTP::Request](, and
returns a boolean indicating if there is a match.

    $test_ua->map_response(sub {
            my $request = shift;
            return 1 if $request->method eq 'GET' || $request->method eq 'POST';

- [HTTP::Request]( object

The [HTTP::Request]( object is matched identically (including all query
parameters, headers etc) against the provided object.

The response can be represented either as a literal HTTP::Request object, or as a coderef that is run at the time of matching, with the request passed as the single argument:



sub {
    my $request = shift;

Instance mappings take priority over global (class method) mappings - if no matches are found from mappings added to the instance, the global mappings are then examined. After no matches have been found, a 404 response is returned.

  • map_network_response($request_description)

Same as map_response above, only requests that match this description will not use a response that you specify, but instead uses a real LWP::UserAgent to dispatch your request to the network.

If called on an instance, all options passed to the constructor (e.g. timeout) are used for making the real network call. If called as a class method, a pristine LWP::UserAgent object with no customized options will be used instead.

  • unmap_all(instance_only?)

When called as a class method, removes all mappings set up globally (across all objects). Mappings set up on an individual object will still remain.

When called as an object method, removes all mappings both globally and on this instance, unless a true value is passed as an argument, in which only mappings local to the object will be removed. (Any true value will do, so you can pass a meaningful string.)

  • register_psgi($domain, $app)

Register a particular PSGI app (code reference) to be used when requests for a domain are received (matches are made exactly against $request->uri->host). The request is passed to the $app for processing, and the PSGI response is converted back to an HTTP::Response (you must already have loaded HTTP::Message::PSGI or equivalent, as this is not done for you).

You can also use register_psgi with a regular expression as the first argument, or any of the other forms used by map_response, if you wish, as calling $test_ua->register_psgi($domain, $app) is equivalent to:

    sub { HTTP::Response->from_psgi($app->($_[0]->to_psgi)) },
  • unregister_psgi($domain, instance_only?)

When called as a class method, removes a domain->PSGI app entry that had been registered globally. Some mappings set up on an individual object may still remain.

When called as an object method, removes a domain registration that was made both globally and locally, unless a true value was passed as the second argument, in which case only the registration local to the object will be removed. This allows a different mapping made globally to take over.

If you want to mask a global registration on just one particular instance, then add undef as a mapping on your instance:

$useragent->map_response($domain, undef);
  • last_http_request_sent

The last HTTP::Request object that this object (if called on an object) or module (if called as a class method) processed, whether or not it matched a mapping you set up earlier.

  • last_http_response_received

The last HTTP::Response object that this module returned, as a result of a mapping you set up earlier with map_response. You shouldn't normally need to use this, as you know what you responded with - you should instead be testing how your code reacted to receiving this response.

  • last_useragent

The last Test::LWP::UserAgent object that was used to send a request. Obviously this only provides new information if called as a class method; you can use this if you don't have direct control over the useragent itself, to get the object that was used, to verify options such as the network timeout.

  • network_fallback

Getter/setter method for the network_fallback preference that will be used on this object (if called as an instance method), or globally, if called as a class method. Note that the actual behaviour used on an object is the ORed value of the instance setting and the global setting.

  • send_request($request)

This is the only method from LWP::UserAgent that has been overridden, which processes the HTTP::Request, sends to the network, then creates the HTTP::Response object from the reply received. Here, we loop through your local and global domain registrations, and local and global mappings (in this order) and returns the first match found; otherwise, a simple 404 response is returned (unless network_fallback was specified as a constructor option, in which case unmatched requests will be delivered to the network.)

All other methods from LWP::UserAgent are available unchanged.

Use with SOAP requests

To use this module when communicating with a SOAP server (either a real one, with live network requests, see above ... link here ..., or with one simulated with mapped responses), simply do this:

use SOAP::Lite;
use SOAP::Transport::HTTP;
$SOAP::Transport::HTTP::Client::USERAGENT_CLASS = 'Test::LWP::UserAgent';



Most mock libraries on the CPAN use Test::MockObject, which is widely considered not good practice (among other things, @ISA is violated, it requires knowing far too much about the module's internals, and is very clumsy to work with).

This module is a direct descendant of LWP::UserAgent, exports nothing into your namespace, and all access is via method calls, so it is fully inheritable should you desire to add more features or override some bits of functionality.

(Aside from the constructor), it only overrides the one method in LWP::UserAgent that issues calls to the network, so real HTTP::Request and HTTP::Headers objects are used throughout. It provides a method (last_http_request_sent) to access the last HTTP::Request, for testing things like the URI and headers that your code sent to LWP::UserAgent.


AirG Inc., my employer, and the first user of this distribution.

mst - Matt S. Trout, for the better name of this distribution, and for the PSGI registration concept.

Also Yury Zavarin, whose Test::Mock::LWP::Dispatch inspired me to write this module, and from where I borrowed some aspects of the API.







Karen Etheridge


This software is copyright (c) 2012 by Karen Etheridge.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

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