Gorgasm is a framework for writing Android native applications in Go using the Goandroid toolchain. You can develop, test and run your application on your desktop and then deploy it to an Android device. It encourages the use of idiomatic Go for writing Android applications: communication happens through channels, no callbacks. The framework is not to be considered as an high-level game engine but as a basic layer onto which game engines can be build or existing ones can be used. In my opinion, this opens interesting scenarios in the developing of native Android applications/games in Go. Goandroid's native_activity example was the initial source of inspiration for this project.
Please consider that Gorgasm is in a very early stage of development: API will change, test coverage is not so good for now. Last but not least, Go doesn't officially supports native Android development. Regarding this point, I hope that the present work could act as a sort of incentive in the direction of an official Android support by the Go Team.
Have a nice Gorgasm!
- Code/test/run on your desktop and deploy on the device.
- Build/deploy/run your application using simple shell commands.
- On-device black-box testing.
- Communicate through channels, no callbacks.
- Quick bootstrap using a predefined template.
How does it work?
Gorgasm uses Goandroid toolchain to compile Go applications for Android. The graphics abstraction between desktop and device is obtained using a bunch of technologies. In particular
- OpenGL ES 2.0
- GLFW 3
The EGL layer is necessary to use an OpenGL ES 2 context on a desktop environment. The GLFW library is responsible of managing the rendering context and the handling of events in a window.
The framework itself provides an event channel from which client code listen for events happening during program execution. Examples of events are the interaction with the screen, the creation of the native rendering context, pausing/resuming/destroying of the application, etc.
The framework abstracts the Android native events providing a way to build, run and test the application on the desktop with the promise that it will behave the same on the device once deployed. Oh well, this is the long-term aim, at least!
A typical Gorgasm application has two loops: one continously listen to events, the other is responsible for rendering the scene. In order to dealing with application resources (images, sounds, configuration files, etc.), the framework provides an AssetManager object. Client code sends request to it in order to obtain resources as io.Reader instances. In the desktop application this simply means opening the file at the given path. In the Android application the framework will unpack the apk archive on the fly getting the requested resources from it. However, is the framework responsibility to deal with the right native method for opening file. From the client-code point of view the request will be the same.
The bothering steps needed to build, package and deploy the application on the device are simplified using a set of predefined gotask tasks.
Please visit gorgasm-examples.
- Android NDK
- OpenGL ES 2
- gotask (to run the tests)
- xdotool (to run the tests on xorg)
After installing Goandroid you have to export a new environment variable GOANDROID. It should point to the Go bin folder of the Goandroid distribution. For example,
Also note that on a 32 bit host machine, it would be necessary to generate the toolchain with:
$NDK/build/tools/make-standalone-toolchain.sh --platform=android-9 --toolchain=arm-linux-androideabi-4.8 --install-dir=ndk-toolchain
See here for further info about the issue.
EGL/OpenGL ES 2
On a debian-like system:
sudo apt-get install libgles2-mesa-dev libegl1-mesa-dev
Then you should install the Go bindings for EGL and OpenGL ES 2. This as simple as:
go get github.com/remogatto/egl go get github.com/remogatto/opengles2
Install from source following the instruction here. Please note that you have to configure GLFW in order to use EGL and OpenGL ES 2. For further informations see here and here. Be sure to build GLFW as a shared object!
After installing GLFW3, in order to install the Go binding see here.
For now let's use my fork:
go get github.com/remogatto/gotask
Support for the official gotask will come as soon as this PR is resolved.
On a debian-like system:
sudo apt-get install xdotool
This is needed for black-box testing only.
Once you have satisfied all the prerequisites:
go get github.com/remogatto/gorgasm
This will install all the remaining dependencies.
To create a basic application install gorgasm-template:
go get github.com/remogatto/gorgasm-template
Then, in a folder inside $GOPATH/src run the following commands:
gorgasm-template myapp cd myapp gotask init gotask run android # deploy and run on a connected device gotask run xorg # run on a desktop window
This will generate a simple Android application showing a red screen. See gorgasm-template for furher info.
Setup a testing environment on Android was not straightforward. The main issue is related to the flag package. To avoid dependency from it I had to hack PrettyTest in order to remove the dependency from testing (which in turn depends on flag). So basically, testing a native Android application is now possible using PrettyTest but we have to renounce to the benefits of testing (at least for now). See test for further info about testing. To run the tests on your desktop window you need the xdotool (see the Prerequisites section)
- Write a complete game using the framework
- Sound support
- More tests
@jingweno for his cool build tool gotask
@eliasnaur for his Goandroid, the necessary condition for this work
@aded for patiently testing the pre-announcement release on his 32bit broken machine.