Data and code used in the 2016 TACL, "Reassessing the Goals of Grammatical Error Correction: Fluency Instead of Grammaticality"
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Failed to load latest commit information.

Reassessing the Goals of Grammatical Error Correction

Data and scripts used in 2016 TACL paper, "Reassessing the Goals of Grammatical Error Correction: Fluency Instead of Grammaticality"

  • Keisuke Sakaguchi
  • Courtney Napoles
  • Matt Post
  • Joel Tetreault

Last updated: May 2nd, 2016

This repository contains data and scripts in the following paper:

        author = {Sakaguchi, Keisuke  and Napoles, Courtney  and Post, Matt
and Tetreault, Joel },
        title = {Reassessing the Goals of Grammatical Error Correction:
Fluency Instead of Grammaticality},
        journal = {Transactions of the Association for Computational
        volume = {4},
        year = {2016},
        keywords = {},
        abstract = {The field of grammatical error correction (GEC) has
grown substantially in recent years, with research directed at both
evaluation metrics and improved system performance against those metrics.
One unvisited assumption, however, is the reliance of GEC evaluation on
error-coded corpora, which contain specific labeled corrections. We examine
current practices and show that GEC’s reliance on such corpora unnaturally
constrains annotation and automatic evaluation, resulting in (a) sentences
that do not sound acceptable to native speakers and (b) system rankings that
do not correlate with human judgments. In light of this, we propose an
alternate approach that jettisons costly error coding in favor of
unannotated, whole-sentence rewrites. We compare the performance of existing
metrics over different gold-standard annotations, and show that automatic
evaluation with our new annotation scheme has very strong correlation with
expert rankings (ρ = 0.82). As a result, we advocate for a fundamental and
necessary shift in the goal of GEC, from correcting small, labeled error
types, to producing text that has native fluency.},
        issn = {2307-387X},
        url =
        pages = {169--182}


├──  # this file
├── annotations # fluency and minimal edits by experts and non-experts
├── inter_annotator_agreements # human judgments
├── metric_scores # system-level scores by all metric-reference pairs
└── trueskill_rankings # scripts for get the ranking by human


  • Please e-mail to Keisuke Sakaguchi (keisuke[at] and Courtney Napoles (courtneyn[at]