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STM8: Add README for Raisonance RKit-STM8 RTOS port.

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1 parent b4bc5a9 commit 916dc11a0c5a89866146a5a09bc8fdad17566b58 Kelvin Lawson committed Jun 28, 2010
Showing with 468 additions and 14 deletions.
  1. +8 −7 ports/stm8/README-COSMIC
  2. +8 −7 ports/stm8/README-IAR
  3. +452 −0 ports/stm8/README-RAISONANCE
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15 ports/stm8/README-COSMIC
@@ -44,12 +44,13 @@ provides an easy mechanism for building, downloading and running the test
suite to prove the OS on your target.
The port was carried out and tested on an STM8S105C6 running within an
-STM8S-Discovery board, and supports both the Cosmic and IAR compiler tools.
-It is possible to use it with other processors in the STM8 range, as well
-as other hardware platforms and compilers, with minimal changes. Platform
-and compiler specific code has been kept to an absolute minimum. This
-README covers usage of Atomthreads with the Cosmic compiler. Instructions
-for users of the IAR compiler are available in README-IAR.
+STM8S-Discovery board, and supports the Cosmic, Raisonance and IAR compiler
+tools. It is possible to use it with other processors in the STM8 range, as
+well as other hardware platforms and compilers, with minimal changes.
+Platform and compiler specific code has been kept to an absolute minimum.
+This README covers usage of Atomthreads with the Cosmic compiler.
+Instructions for users of the other compilers are available in README-IAR
+and README-RAISONANCE.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -76,7 +77,7 @@ The core software prerequisites are therefore:
Optionally, application build, program and debug can be carried out
using ST's visual debug tool, STVD.
-Use with alternative compiler tools will require some modification, but you
+Use with alternative compiler tools may require some modification, but you
can easily replace STVP by your own favourite programmer if required.
View
15 ports/stm8/README-IAR
@@ -43,12 +43,13 @@ provides an easy mechanism for building, downloading and running the test
suite to prove the OS on your target.
The port was carried out and tested on an STM8S105C6 running within an
-STM8S-Discovery board, and supports both the Cosmic and IAR compiler tools.
-It is possible to use it with other processors in the STM8 range, as well
-as other hardware platforms and compilers, with minimal changes. Platform
-and compiler specific code has been kept to an absolute minimum. This
-README covers usage of Atomthreads with the IAR compiler. Instructions for
-users of the Cosmic compiler are available in README-COSMIC.
+STM8S-Discovery board, and supports the Cosmic, Raisonance and IAR compiler
+tools. It is possible to use it with other processors in the STM8 range, as
+well as other hardware platforms and compilers, with minimal changes.
+Platform and compiler specific code has been kept to an absolute minimum.
+This README covers usage of Atomthreads with the IAR compiler. Instructions
+for users of the other compilers are available in README-COSMIC and
+README-RAISONANCE.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -70,7 +71,7 @@ such as VirtualBox, including USB download and debug.
The core software prerequisites are therefore:
* IAR Embedded Workbench STM8
-Use with alternative compiler tools will require some modification, but you
+Use with alternative compiler tools may require some modification, but you
can easily replace the EWSTM8 IDE by your own favourite programmer if
required (e.g. STVP).
View
452 ports/stm8/README-RAISONANCE
@@ -0,0 +1,452 @@
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Library: Atomthreads
+Author: Kelvin Lawson <kelvinl@users.sf.net>
+Website: http://atomthreads.com
+License: BSD Revised
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+STM8 PORT - RAISONANCE COMPILER
+
+This folder contains a port of the Atomthreads real time kernel for the
+STM8 processor architecture. These instructions cover usage of Atomthreads
+with the Raisonance compiler (RCSTM8).
+
+All of the cross-platform kernel code is contained in the top-level
+'kernel' folder, while ports to specific CPU architectures are contained in
+the 'ports' folder tree. A port to a CPU architecture can comprise just one
+or two modules which provide the architecture-specific functionality, such
+as the context-switch routine which saves and restores processor registers
+on a thread switch. In this case, the kernel port is split into two files:
+
+ * atomport.c: Those functions which can be written in C
+ * atomport-asm-raisonance.s: Main register save/restore assembler routines
+
+Each Atomthreads port requires also a header file which describes various
+architecture-specific details such as appropriate types for 8-bit, 16-bit
+etc variables, the port's system tick frequency, and macros for performing
+interrupt lockouts / critical sections:
+
+ * atomuser.h: Port-specific header required by the kernel for each port
+
+A few additional source files are also included here:
+
+ * tests-main.c: Main application file (used for launching automated tests)
+ * uart.c: UART wrapper to allow use of stdio/printf()
+ * stm8s-periphs/*.*: Peripheral drivers as delivered by ST (no changes
+ to distributed code).
+
+Atomthreads includes a suite of automated tests which prove the key OS
+functionality, and can be used with any architecture ports. This port
+provides an easy mechanism for building, downloading and running the test
+suite to prove the OS on your target.
+
+The port was carried out and tested on an STM8S105C6 running within an
+STM8S-Discovery board, and supports the Cosmic, Raisonance and IAR compiler
+tools. It is possible to use it with other processors in the STM8 range, as
+well as other hardware platforms and compilers, with minimal changes.
+Platform and compiler specific code has been kept to an absolute minimum.
+This README covers usage of Atomthreads with the Raisonance compiler.
+Instructions for users of the other compilers are available in README-IAR
+and README-COSMIC.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+PREREQUISITES
+
+The port works out-of-the-box with the Raisonance compiler tools for
+building. Applications are generated in .hex form and can be programmed
+with any supporting programming software, including the free STVP (visual
+programmer tool). At this time there does not appear to be a command-line
+programmer application suitable for use with STM8.
+
+The Raisonance compiler and STVP are currently Windows-only applications.
+For users of other operating systems the Raisonance compiler may work in
+environments like Wine, but the USB programming tools are less likely to
+be supported. Both the compiler and the USB programming tool for
+STM8S-Discovery (STVP) can, however, be run successfully within a VM such
+as VirtualBox.
+
+The core software prerequisites are therefore:
+ * Raisonance STM8 compiler
+ * Programming software (e.g. ST's STVP tool)
+
+Optionally, application build, program and debug can be carried out
+using ST's visual debug tool, STVD.
+
+Use with alternative compiler tools may require some modification, but you
+can easily replace STVP by your own favourite programmer if required.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+MEMORY MODEL
+
+The sample build configurations use the Small memory model. All global
+variables are placed in the Data section rather than page0, which allows
+for large arrays such as thread stacks which would not fit in page0.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+BUILDING THE SOURCE
+
+You may build Atomthreads using whichever build environment you desire. For
+your convenience we provide both a ready-rolled Makefile-based build system
+and an STVD visual debugger project. The STVD project permits easy
+building, programming and debugging, but does not easily support building
+a wide range of application builds within the same project, which is
+useful for building the numerous automated tests. For the automated tests
+you may find it easier to use the Makefile which automatically builds all
+automated tests.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+BUILD VIA STVD PROJECT
+
+For building applications using STVD you can use the sample workspace
+atomthreads-sample-stvd.stw which contains both Cosmic compiler and
+Raisonance compiler based projects. You can also import the
+Raisonance-only project file atomthreads-sample-raisonance.stp directly.
+This builds a sample full application which runs the "sem1" automated test.
+Applications can be downloaded directly to the target hardware (e.g.
+STM8S-Discovery) and run via the integrated debugger. Press the
+exclamation button to run, and confirm that the LED flashes once per
+second (if running on an STM8S-Discovery) to ensure that the test has
+passed.
+
+This is also a good starting point for building your own applications:
+simply modify the file tests-main.c which starts the test application.
+You can run any of the other automated tests by replacing the file sem1.c
+within the project by another of the tests within the atomthreads tests
+folder. This is rather painful using a GUI interface due to the large
+number of test files, and you may prefer to use the Makefile-based system
+instead which builds all automated tests in one command.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+BUILD VIA MAKEFILE
+
+A Makefile is also provided for building the kernel, port and automated
+tests. This is particularly useful for building the automated tests
+because many different independent applications need to be built which is
+not easily achieved within the STVD environment.
+
+For a Windows system you can obtain a Make application suitable for use
+with the Raisonance compiler from:
+
+ * http://www.cosmic-software.com/comp_utils/GNU_Make.zip
+
+Assuming you install the above into C:\Program Files\GNU_MAKE, you
+should set up your environment variables as follows:
+
+ * set PATH=%PATH%;C:\Program Files\GNU_MAKE;C:\Program Files\Raisonance\Ride\bin
+ * set MAKE_MODE=DOS
+
+
+The full build is carried out using simply:
+
+ * make -f raisonance.mak
+
+All objects are built into the 'build-raisonance' folder under ports/stm8.
+The build process builds separate target applications for each automated
+test, and appropriate .aof or .hex files can be found in the build folder
+ready for downloading to and running on the target. Because of the limited
+resources on the STM8, and the large amount of automated tests, each test
+is built and run as a separate application.
+
+
+All built objects etc can be cleaned using:
+
+ * make -f raisonance.mak clean
+
+
+The Atomthreads sources are documented using Doxygen markup. You can build
+both the kernel and STM8 port documentation from this folder using:
+
+ * make -f raisonance.mak doxygen
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+PROGRAMMING MAKEFILE-BUILT APPLICATIONS TO THE TARGET DEVICE
+
+When developing within STVD, programs can be downloaded directly to the
+target. If, however, you are building applications separately using a
+Makefile or similar, then you are not able to program the application
+using STVD. None of the tools delivered by ST appear to be designed to
+cater for those who build applications externally, but it is possible using
+STVP.
+
+The following development workflow can be used (note that these settings
+apply to the STM8S-Discovery):
+
+ * Build app using Makefile.
+ * Open STVP and configure to use Swim ST-Link for CPU STM8105C6.
+ * Open application .hex file and program using "Program All Tabs".
+
+Unfortunately STVP does not have a command to reset and start the CPU
+running, but it can be forced into doing so by reconfiguring the
+programmer:
+
+ * Select "Configure ST Visual Programmer" from the Configure menu.
+
+Your application should now be programmed and running.
+
+If you wish to program and run another application then you can open and
+program it in STVP, then use the Configure menu again to reset the
+device and start it running.
+
+Other programming tools may exist but are not apparent in the toolset
+delivered for use the STM8S Discovery platform.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+STM8S-DISCOVERY SPECIFICS
+
+There are very minimal board-specific aspects to the STM8 port so it is
+trivial to run Atomthreads on other STM8 platforms.
+
+The test applications make use of a LED to indicate test pass/fail status.
+This is currently configured to use a bit in GPIOD, which on the Discovery
+board maps to the board's only LED. You may change the port and register
+bit in tests-main.c to utilise a different pin on other hardware platforms.
+You may also completely omit the LED flashing in the test application if
+you prefer to use the UART for monitoring test status.
+
+The test applications also make use of the UART to print out pass/fail
+indications and other information. For this you should connect a serial
+cable to the Discovery board via the external pin connectors. Use of
+a UART is not required if you prefer to use the LED or some other method
+of notifying test pass/fail status.
+
+To connect a serial cable to the Discovery you will need to connect to
+the following pins on the external connectors:
+ Vcc: CN2 pin 8
+ GND: CN2 pin 7
+ UART TX: CN4 pin 10 (connect to RX at the PC end)
+ UART RX: CN4 pin 9 (connect to TX at the PC end)
+Note that the board uses TTL levels so you may need to use a level
+converter. External level converters may need to be powered using
+a Vdd of 5v, which can be achieved by positioning JP1 on the Discovery.
+
+The STM8 device on the Discovery only offers UART2. If you are using a
+different device or wish to use an alternative UART then you must change
+the stm8s_conf.h file.
+
+If you are using a CPU other than the STM8S105C6 you should change the
+PART macro from "STM8S105" to your target CPU. This can be changed in the
+raisonance.mak Makefile. If you are using the STVD project it should be
+changed in the project preprocessor settings for both Debug and Release
+builds. You may also wish to enable any CPU peripherals which you wish to
+use in the stm8s_conf.h file.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+RUNNING THE AUTOMATED TESTS
+
+Atomthreads contains a set of generic kernel tests which can be run on any
+port to prove that all core functionality is working on your target.
+
+The full set of tests can be found in the top-level 'tests' folder. The
+Makefile builds each of these tests as independent applications in the
+'build' folder. Run them individually using the STVP process described
+above. For example to run the 'kern1.c' test use STVP to program and run
+it.
+
+You may also build the tests using the STVD project, but to run each
+different test you must manually remove the previous test module (e.g.
+kern1.c) and replace it with one of other tests, which can be quite time
+consuming compared to building all tests in one command via the Makefile.
+
+To view the test results, watch the LED on the STM8S-Discovery. This will
+flash once per second if the test passed, and once every 1/8 second if the
+test failed.
+
+If you wish to use the UART, connect a serial debug cable to your target
+platform (defaults to 9600bps 8N1). On starting, the test applications
+print out "Go" on the UART. Once the test is complete they will print
+out "Pass" or "Fail", along with other information if the test failed.
+
+Most of the tests complete within a few seconds, but some (particularly
+the stress tests) can take several seconds, so be patient.
+
+The full suite of tests endeavours to exercise as much of the kernel code
+as possible, and can be used for quick confirmation of core OS
+functionality if you ever need to make a change to the kernel or port.
+
+The test application main() is contained in tests-main.c. This initialises
+the OS, creates a main thread, and calls out to the test modules. It also
+initialises the UART driver for use by stdout.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+WRITING APPLICATIONS
+
+The easiest way to start a new application which utilises the Atomthreads
+scheduler is to base your main application startup on tests-main.c. This
+initialises the OS, sets up a UART and calls out to the test module entry
+functions. You can generally simply replace the call to the test modules by
+a call to your own application startup code.
+
+Projects developed within STVD can be started using the sample project
+atomthreads-sample-raisonance.stp. If you wish to create your own STVD
+project from scratch, then you should ensure you change the project settings
+for both Debug and Release builds as follows:
+
+* Toolset: "Raisonance"
+* MCU Selection: Appropriate for your platform (STM8S10C56 for Discovery)
+* C Compiler Memory Model: "Small"
+* C Compiler Preprocessor Definitions: CPU part (e.g. "STM8S105")
+* C Compiler Preprocessor Definitions: Enable thread stack checking if
+ desired by adding "ATOM_STACK_CHECKING", for example the full
+ preprocessor line for Discovery might be: "STM8S105 ATOM_STACK_CHECKING"
+* Linker Input: You may need to change the DATA setion to start from 0x1
+ rather than 0x0 to prevent the linker from placing OS data at address
+ 0x0 (which would cause NULL-pointer checks to fail). So far this has
+ not actually proved necessary, however.
+
+Note that for an RTOS like this the Raisonance compiler must place all
+functions in reentrant mode, however it does this by default on the STM8
+platform so no user action is required (unlike when targeting the STM7
+platform with Raisonance).
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+RAM FOOTPRINT & STACK USAGE
+
+The Atomthreads kernel is written in well-structured pure C which is highly
+portable and not targeted at any particular compiler or CPU architecture.
+For this reason it is not highly optimised for the STM8 architecture, and
+by its nature will likely have a higher text and data footprint than an
+RTOS targeted at the STM8 architecture only. The emphasis here is on
+C-based portable, readable and maintainable code which can run on any CPU
+architecture, from the 8-bitters up.
+
+A good rule of thumb when using Atomthreads on the STM8 architecture is
+that a minimum of 1KB RAM is required in order to support an application
+with 4 or 5 threads and the idle thread. If a minimum of approximately
+128 bytes per thread stack is acceptable then you will benefit from the
+easy-to-read, portable implementation of an RTOS herein.
+
+The major consumer of RAM when using Atomthreads is your thread stacks.
+Functionality that is shared between several kernel modules is farmed out
+to separate functions, resulting in readable and maintainable code but
+with some associated stack cost of calling out to subroutines. Further,
+each thread stack is used for saving its own registers on a context
+switch, and there is no separate interrupt stack which means that each
+thread stack has to be able to cope with the maximum stack usage of the
+kernel (and application) interrupt handlers.
+
+Clearly the stack requirement for each thread depends on what your
+application code does, and what memory model is used etc, but generally
+you should find that 128 bytes is enough to allow for the thread to be
+switched out (and thus save its registers) while deep within a kernel
+or application call stack, and similarly enough to provide stack for
+interrupt handlers interrupting while the thread is deep within a kernel
+or application call stack. You will need to increase this depending on
+what level of stack the application code in question requires.
+
+At this time the maximum stack consumed by the test threads within the
+automated test modules is 95 bytes of stack, and the main test thread has
+been seen to consume 163 bytes of stack. At this time the queue9 test is
+the largest consumer of test thread stack (95 bytes) and the sem1 test
+consumes the largest main thread stack (137 bytes). If your applications
+have large amounts of local data or call several subroutines then you may
+find that you need larger than 128 bytes.
+
+You may monitor the stack usage of your application threads during runtime
+by defining the macro ATOM_STACK_CHECKING and calling
+atomThreadStackCheck(). This macro is defined by default in the Makefile
+so that the automated test modules can check for stack overflows, but you
+may wish to undefine this in your application Makefiles when you are happy
+that the stack usage is acceptable. Enabling ATOM_STACK_CHECKING will
+increase the size of your threads' TCBs slightly, and will incur a minor
+CPU cycles overhead whenever threads are created due to prefilling the
+thread stack with a known value.
+
+With careful consideration and few threads it would be possible to use
+a platform with 512 bytes RAM, but not all of the automated test suite
+would run on such a platform (some of the test modules use 6 threads: a
+main thread together with 4 test threads and the idle thread).
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+INTERRUPT HANDLING
+
+Interrupt handlers use the stack of the thread which was running when the
+interrupt occurred. If no thread rescheduling occurs during the ISR then
+on exit from the ISR any data stacked by the ISR on the thread's stack is
+popped off the stack and execution of the thread resumes. If a reschedule
+during the ISR causes a context switch to a new thread, then the ISR's
+data will remain on the thread's stack until the thread is scheduled back
+in.
+
+Interrupt priorities (via the ITC_SPRx registers) are left in their
+default power-on state, which disables interrupt nesting. Kernel changes
+may be required to support interrupt nesting.
+
+Note that the STM8 programming manual currently describes the following
+feature:
+
+ "Fast interrupt handling through alternate register files (up to 4
+ contexts) with standard stack compatible mode (for real time OS
+ kernels)"
+
+This feature was implemented by ST in the core but has to date never been
+included in any STM8 products. If it is included in future products then
+you will need to put the device in the stack compatible mode described.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+WRITING NEW INTERRUPT HANDLERS
+
+All interrupt handlers which will call out to the OS kernel and potentially
+cause a thread switch must call atomIntEnter() and atomIntExit(). An
+example of this can be seen in the timer tick ISR in atomport.c.
+
+You may also implement fast interrupt handlers in the system which do not
+call atomIntEnter()/atomIntExit(), however these ISRs cannot perform OS
+functions such as posting semaphores or effecting a thread switch.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+RAISONANCE COMPILER VIRTUAL REGISTERS
+
+The STM8 has only very few CPU registers, so the Raisonance compiler
+augments them with four "virtual" registers, which are simply locations in
+fast memory. These registers are called BH, BL, CH and CL.
+
+The Atomthreads context switch for Raisonance/STM8 takes advantage of the
+fact that all CPU and virtual registers are automatically saved on the
+stack by the compiler when calling out to C functions (and even then only
+if necessary).
+
+For cooperative context switches (where a thread calls an OS kernel
+function to schedule itself out), any of these registers which should be
+preserved across the function call are automatically saved on the stack by
+the compiler before the context switch is even called. This means that no
+CPU or virtual registers actually have to be saved in the context switch
+routine, making cooperative switches potentially very cheap if few
+registers must be preserved.
+
+For preemptive switches (where an ISR has interrupted a thread and wishes
+to switch to a new thread), the interrupt handler prologue automatically
+saves all CPU registers (actually done automatically by the CPU) and all
+of the virtual registers. In this case all registers must always be saved
+because the ISR has no knowledge of what registers the interrupted thread
+was using, so we cannot take advantage of the potential for saving fewer
+than the full set of registers that we achieve with cooperative switches.
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------

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