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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
This module provides a Session object to manage and persist settings across
requests (cookies, auth, proxies).
import os
from datetime import datetime
from .compat import cookielib
from .cookies import cookiejar_from_dict
from .models import Request, PreparedRequest
from .hooks import default_hooks, dispatch_hook
from .utils import from_key_val_list, default_headers
from .exceptions import TooManyRedirects, InvalidSchema
from .compat import urlparse, urljoin
from .adapters import HTTPAdapter
from .utils import requote_uri, get_environ_proxies, get_netrc_auth
from .status_codes import codes
codes.moved, # 301
codes.found, # 302
codes.other, # 303
codes.temporary_moved, # 307
def merge_kwargs(local_kwarg, default_kwarg):
"""Merges kwarg dictionaries.
If a local key in the dictionary is set to None, it will be removed.
if default_kwarg is None:
return local_kwarg
if isinstance(local_kwarg, str):
return local_kwarg
if local_kwarg is None:
return default_kwarg
# Bypass if not a dictionary (e.g. timeout)
if not hasattr(default_kwarg, 'items'):
return local_kwarg
default_kwarg = from_key_val_list(default_kwarg)
local_kwarg = from_key_val_list(local_kwarg)
# Update new values in a case-insensitive way
def get_original_key(original_keys, new_key):
Finds the key from original_keys that case-insensitive matches new_key.
for original_key in original_keys:
if key.lower() == original_key.lower():
return original_key
return new_key
kwargs = default_kwarg.copy()
original_keys = kwargs.keys()
for key, value in local_kwarg.items():
kwargs[get_original_key(original_keys, key)] = value
# Remove keys that are set to None.
for (k, v) in local_kwarg.items():
if v is None:
del kwargs[k]
return kwargs
class SessionRedirectMixin(object):
def resolve_redirects(self, resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None,
verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None):
"""Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses."""
i = 0
prepared_request = PreparedRequest()
prepared_request.body = req.body
prepared_request.headers = req.headers.copy()
prepared_request.hooks = req.hooks
prepared_request.method = req.method
prepared_request.url = req.url
cookiejar = cookiejar_from_dict({})
# ((resp.status_code is codes.see_other))
while (('location' in resp.headers and resp.status_code in REDIRECT_STATI)):
resp.content # Consume socket so it can be released
if i >= self.max_redirects:
raise TooManyRedirects('Exceeded %s redirects.' % self.max_redirects)
# Release the connection back into the pool.
url = resp.headers['location']
method = prepared_request.method
# Handle redirection without scheme (see: RFC 1808 Section 4)
if url.startswith('//'):
parsed_rurl = urlparse(resp.url)
url = '%s:%s' % (parsed_rurl.scheme, url)
# Facilitate non-RFC2616-compliant 'location' headers
# (e.g. '/path/to/resource' instead of 'http://domain.tld/path/to/resource')
if not urlparse(url).netloc:
# Compliant with RFC3986, we percent encode the url.
url = urljoin(resp.url, requote_uri(url))
prepared_request.url = url
if (resp.status_code == codes.see_other and
prepared_request.method != 'HEAD'):
method = 'GET'
# Do what the browsers do, despite standards...
if (resp.status_code in (codes.moved, codes.found) and
prepared_request.method == 'POST'):
method = 'GET'
prepared_request.method = method
if resp.status_code not in (codes.temporary, codes.resume):
if 'Content-Length' in prepared_request.headers:
del prepared_request.headers['Content-Length']
prepared_request.body = None
headers = prepared_request.headers
del headers['Cookie']
except KeyError:
resp = self.send(
i += 1
yield resp
class Session(SessionRedirectMixin):
"""A Requests session.
Provides cookie persistience, connection-pooling, and configuration.
Basic Usage::
>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.get('')
__attrs__ = [
'headers', 'cookies', 'auth', 'timeout', 'proxies', 'hooks',
'params', 'verify', 'cert', 'prefetch', 'adapters', 'stream',
'trust_env', 'max_redirects']
def __init__(self):
#: A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each
#: :class:`Request <Request>` sent from this
#: :class:`Session <Session>`.
self.headers = default_headers()
#: Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to
#: :class:`Request <Request>`.
self.auth = None
#: Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy (e.g.
#: {'http': ''}) to be used on each
#: :class:`Request <Request>`.
self.proxies = {}
#: Event-handling hooks.
self.hooks = default_hooks()
#: Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each
#: :class:`Request <Request>`. The dictionary values may be lists for
#: representing multivalued query parameters.
self.params = {}
#: Stream response content default. = False
#: SSL Verification default.
self.verify = True
#: SSL certificate default.
self.cert = None
#: Maximum number of redirects to follow.
self.max_redirects = DEFAULT_REDIRECT_LIMIT
#: Should we trust the environment?
self.trust_env = True
# Set up a CookieJar to be used by default
self.cookies = cookiejar_from_dict({})
# Default connection adapters.
self.adapters = {}
self.mount('http://', HTTPAdapter())
self.mount('https://', HTTPAdapter())
def __enter__(self):
return self
def __exit__(self, *args):
def request(self, method, url,
"""Constructs a :class:`Request <Request>`, prepares it and sends it.
Returns :class:`Response <Response>` object.
:param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param params: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query
string for the :class:`Request`.
:param data: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to send in the body of the
:param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the
:param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the
:param files: (optional) Dictionary of 'filename': file-like-objects
for multipart encoding upload.
:param auth: (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable
Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
:param timeout: (optional) Float describing the timeout of the
:param allow_redirects: (optional) Boolean. Set to True by default.
:param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of
the proxy.
:param stream: (optional) whether to immediately download the response
content. Defaults to ``False``.
:param verify: (optional) if ``True``, the SSL cert will be verified.
A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided.
:param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem).
If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
cookies = cookies or {}
proxies = proxies or {}
# Bootstrap CookieJar.
if not isinstance(cookies, cookielib.CookieJar):
cookies = cookiejar_from_dict(cookies)
# Merge with session cookies
merged_cookies = self.cookies.copy()
cookies = merged_cookies
# Gather clues from the surrounding environment.
if self.trust_env:
# Set environment's proxies.
env_proxies = get_environ_proxies(url) or {}
for (k, v) in env_proxies.items():
proxies.setdefault(k, v)
# Set environment's basic authentication.
if not auth:
auth = get_netrc_auth(url)
# Look for configuration.
if not verify and verify is not False:
verify = os.environ.get('REQUESTS_CA_BUNDLE')
# Curl compatibility.
if not verify and verify is not False:
verify = os.environ.get('CURL_CA_BUNDLE')
# Merge all the kwargs.
params = merge_kwargs(params, self.params)
headers = merge_kwargs(headers, self.headers)
auth = merge_kwargs(auth, self.auth)
proxies = merge_kwargs(proxies, self.proxies)
hooks = merge_kwargs(hooks, self.hooks)
stream = merge_kwargs(stream,
verify = merge_kwargs(verify, self.verify)
cert = merge_kwargs(cert, self.cert)
# Create the Request.
req = Request()
req.method = method.upper()
req.url = url
req.headers = headers
req.files = files = data
req.params = params
req.auth = auth
req.cookies = cookies
req.hooks = hooks
# Prepare the Request.
prep = req.prepare()
# Send the request.
send_kwargs = {
'stream': stream,
'timeout': timeout,
'verify': verify,
'cert': cert,
'proxies': proxies,
'allow_redirects': allow_redirects,
resp = self.send(prep, **send_kwargs)
# Persist cookies.
return resp
def get(self, url, **kwargs):
"""Sends a GET request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', True)
return self.request('GET', url, **kwargs)
def options(self, url, **kwargs):
"""Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', True)
return self.request('OPTIONS', url, **kwargs)
def head(self, url, **kwargs):
"""Sends a HEAD request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', False)
return self.request('HEAD', url, **kwargs)
def post(self, url, data=None, **kwargs):
"""Sends a POST request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
:param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
return self.request('POST', url, data=data, **kwargs)
def put(self, url, data=None, **kwargs):
"""Sends a PUT request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
:param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
return self.request('PUT', url, data=data, **kwargs)
def patch(self, url, data=None, **kwargs):
"""Sends a PATCH request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
:param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
return self.request('PATCH', url, data=data, **kwargs)
def delete(self, url, **kwargs):
"""Sends a DELETE request. Returns :class:`Response` object.
:param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
:param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
return self.request('DELETE', url, **kwargs)
def send(self, request, **kwargs):
"""Send a given PreparedRequest."""
# Set defaults that the hooks can utilize to ensure they always have
# the correct parameters to reproduce the previous request.
kwargs.setdefault('verify', self.verify)
kwargs.setdefault('cert', self.cert)
kwargs.setdefault('proxies', self.proxies)
# It's possible that users might accidentally send a Request object.
# Guard against that specific failure case.
if getattr(request, 'prepare', None):
raise ValueError('You can only send PreparedRequests.')
# Set up variables needed for resolve_redirects and dispatching of
# hooks
allow_redirects = kwargs.pop('allow_redirects', True)
stream = kwargs.get('stream')
timeout = kwargs.get('timeout')
verify = kwargs.get('verify')
cert = kwargs.get('cert')
proxies = kwargs.get('proxies')
hooks = request.hooks
# Get the appropriate adapter to use
adapter = self.get_adapter(url=request.url)
# Start time (approximately) of the request
start = datetime.utcnow()
# Send the request
r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs)
# Total elapsed time of the request (approximately)
r.elapsed = datetime.utcnow() - start
# Response manipulation hooks
r = dispatch_hook('response', hooks, r, **kwargs)
# Redirect resolving generator.
gen = self.resolve_redirects(r, request, stream=stream,
timeout=timeout, verify=verify, cert=cert,
# Resolve redirects if allowed.
history = [resp for resp in gen] if allow_redirects else []
# Shuffle things around if there's history.
if history:
# Insert the first (original) request at the start
history.insert(0, r)
# Get the last request made
r = history.pop()
r.history = tuple(history)
return r
def get_adapter(self, url):
"""Returns the appropriate connnection adapter for the given URL."""
for (prefix, adapter) in self.adapters.items():
if url.startswith(prefix):
return adapter
# Nothing matches :-/
raise InvalidSchema("No connection adapters were found for '%s'" % url)
def close(self):
"""Closes all adapters and as such the session"""
for _, v in self.adapters.items():
def mount(self, prefix, adapter):
"""Registers a connection adapter to a prefix."""
self.adapters[prefix] = adapter
def __getstate__(self):
return dict((attr, getattr(self, attr, None)) for attr in self.__attrs__)
def __setstate__(self, state):
for attr, value in state.items():
setattr(self, attr, value)
def session():
"""Returns a :class:`Session` for context-management."""
return Session()
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