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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
requests.adapters
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This module contains the transport adapters that Requests uses to define
and maintain connections.
"""
import os.path
import socket
from urllib3.poolmanager import PoolManager, proxy_from_url
from urllib3.response import HTTPResponse
from urllib3.util import parse_url
from urllib3.util import Timeout as TimeoutSauce
from urllib3.util.retry import Retry
from urllib3.exceptions import ClosedPoolError
from urllib3.exceptions import ConnectTimeoutError
from urllib3.exceptions import HTTPError as _HTTPError
from urllib3.exceptions import MaxRetryError
from urllib3.exceptions import NewConnectionError
from urllib3.exceptions import ProxyError as _ProxyError
from urllib3.exceptions import ProtocolError
from urllib3.exceptions import ReadTimeoutError
from urllib3.exceptions import SSLError as _SSLError
from urllib3.exceptions import ResponseError
from urllib3.exceptions import LocationValueError
from .models import Response
from .compat import urlparse, basestring
from .utils import (DEFAULT_CA_BUNDLE_PATH, extract_zipped_paths,
get_encoding_from_headers, prepend_scheme_if_needed,
get_auth_from_url, urldefragauth, select_proxy)
from .structures import CaseInsensitiveDict
from .cookies import extract_cookies_to_jar
from .exceptions import (ConnectionError, ConnectTimeout, ReadTimeout, SSLError,
ProxyError, RetryError, InvalidSchema, InvalidProxyURL,
InvalidURL)
from .auth import _basic_auth_str
try:
from urllib3.contrib.socks import SOCKSProxyManager
except ImportError:
def SOCKSProxyManager(*args, **kwargs):
raise InvalidSchema("Missing dependencies for SOCKS support.")
DEFAULT_POOLBLOCK = False
DEFAULT_POOLSIZE = 10
DEFAULT_RETRIES = 0
DEFAULT_POOL_TIMEOUT = None
class BaseAdapter(object):
"""The Base Transport Adapter"""
def __init__(self):
super(BaseAdapter, self).__init__()
def send(self, request, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True,
cert=None, proxies=None):
"""Sends PreparedRequest object. Returns Response object.
:param request: The :class:`PreparedRequest <PreparedRequest>` being sent.
:param stream: (optional) Whether to stream the request content.
:param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send
data before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout,
read timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
:type timeout: float or tuple
:param verify: (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path
to a CA bundle to use
:param cert: (optional) Any user-provided SSL certificate to be trusted.
:param proxies: (optional) The proxies dictionary to apply to the request.
"""
raise NotImplementedError
def close(self):
"""Cleans up adapter specific items."""
raise NotImplementedError
class HTTPAdapter(BaseAdapter):
"""The built-in HTTP Adapter for urllib3.
Provides a general-case interface for Requests sessions to contact HTTP and
HTTPS urls by implementing the Transport Adapter interface. This class will
usually be created by the :class:`Session <Session>` class under the
covers.
:param pool_connections: The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
:param pool_maxsize: The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
:param max_retries: The maximum number of retries each connection
should attempt. Note, this applies only to failed DNS lookups, socket
connections and connection timeouts, never to requests where data has
made it to the server. By default, Requests does not retry failed
connections. If you need granular control over the conditions under
which we retry a request, import urllib3's ``Retry`` class and pass
that instead.
:param pool_block: Whether the connection pool should block for connections.
Usage::
>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> a = requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter(max_retries=3)
>>> s.mount('http://', a)
"""
__attrs__ = ['max_retries', 'config', '_pool_connections', '_pool_maxsize',
'_pool_block']
def __init__(self, pool_connections=DEFAULT_POOLSIZE,
pool_maxsize=DEFAULT_POOLSIZE, max_retries=DEFAULT_RETRIES,
pool_block=DEFAULT_POOLBLOCK):
if max_retries == DEFAULT_RETRIES:
self.max_retries = Retry(0, read=False)
else:
self.max_retries = Retry.from_int(max_retries)
self.config = {}
self.proxy_manager = {}
super(HTTPAdapter, self).__init__()
self._pool_connections = pool_connections
self._pool_maxsize = pool_maxsize
self._pool_block = pool_block
self.init_poolmanager(pool_connections, pool_maxsize, block=pool_block)
def __getstate__(self):
return {attr: getattr(self, attr, None) for attr in self.__attrs__}
def __setstate__(self, state):
# Can't handle by adding 'proxy_manager' to self.__attrs__ because
# self.poolmanager uses a lambda function, which isn't pickleable.
self.proxy_manager = {}
self.config = {}
for attr, value in state.items():
setattr(self, attr, value)
self.init_poolmanager(self._pool_connections, self._pool_maxsize,
block=self._pool_block)
def init_poolmanager(self, connections, maxsize, block=DEFAULT_POOLBLOCK, **pool_kwargs):
"""Initializes a urllib3 PoolManager.
This method should not be called from user code, and is only
exposed for use when subclassing the
:class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`.
:param connections: The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
:param maxsize: The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
:param block: Block when no free connections are available.
:param pool_kwargs: Extra keyword arguments used to initialize the Pool Manager.
"""
# save these values for pickling
self._pool_connections = connections
self._pool_maxsize = maxsize
self._pool_block = block
self.poolmanager = PoolManager(num_pools=connections, maxsize=maxsize,
block=block, strict=True, **pool_kwargs)
def proxy_manager_for(self, proxy, **proxy_kwargs):
"""Return urllib3 ProxyManager for the given proxy.
This method should not be called from user code, and is only
exposed for use when subclassing the
:class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`.
:param proxy: The proxy to return a urllib3 ProxyManager for.
:param proxy_kwargs: Extra keyword arguments used to configure the Proxy Manager.
:returns: ProxyManager
:rtype: urllib3.ProxyManager
"""
if proxy in self.proxy_manager:
manager = self.proxy_manager[proxy]
elif proxy.lower().startswith('socks'):
username, password = get_auth_from_url(proxy)
manager = self.proxy_manager[proxy] = SOCKSProxyManager(
proxy,
username=username,
password=password,
num_pools=self._pool_connections,
maxsize=self._pool_maxsize,
block=self._pool_block,
**proxy_kwargs
)
else:
proxy_headers = self.proxy_headers(proxy)
manager = self.proxy_manager[proxy] = proxy_from_url(
proxy,
proxy_headers=proxy_headers,
num_pools=self._pool_connections,
maxsize=self._pool_maxsize,
block=self._pool_block,
**proxy_kwargs)
return manager
def cert_verify(self, conn, url, verify, cert):
"""Verify a SSL certificate. This method should not be called from user
code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the
:class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`.
:param conn: The urllib3 connection object associated with the cert.
:param url: The requested URL.
:param verify: Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path
to a CA bundle to use
:param cert: The SSL certificate to verify.
"""
if url.lower().startswith('https') and verify:
cert_loc = None
# Allow self-specified cert location.
if verify is not True:
cert_loc = verify
if not cert_loc:
cert_loc = extract_zipped_paths(DEFAULT_CA_BUNDLE_PATH)
if not cert_loc or not os.path.exists(cert_loc):
raise IOError("Could not find a suitable TLS CA certificate bundle, "
"invalid path: {}".format(cert_loc))
conn.cert_reqs = 'CERT_REQUIRED'
if not os.path.isdir(cert_loc):
conn.ca_certs = cert_loc
else:
conn.ca_cert_dir = cert_loc
else:
conn.cert_reqs = 'CERT_NONE'
conn.ca_certs = None
conn.ca_cert_dir = None
if cert:
if not isinstance(cert, basestring):
conn.cert_file = cert[0]
conn.key_file = cert[1]
else:
conn.cert_file = cert
conn.key_file = None
if conn.cert_file and not os.path.exists(conn.cert_file):
raise IOError("Could not find the TLS certificate file, "
"invalid path: {}".format(conn.cert_file))
if conn.key_file and not os.path.exists(conn.key_file):
raise IOError("Could not find the TLS key file, "
"invalid path: {}".format(conn.key_file))
def build_response(self, req, resp):
"""Builds a :class:`Response <requests.Response>` object from a urllib3
response. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed
for use when subclassing the
:class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`
:param req: The :class:`PreparedRequest <PreparedRequest>` used to generate the response.
:param resp: The urllib3 response object.
:rtype: requests.Response
"""
response = Response()
# Fallback to None if there's no status_code, for whatever reason.
response.status_code = getattr(resp, 'status', None)
# Make headers case-insensitive.
response.headers = CaseInsensitiveDict(getattr(resp, 'headers', {}))
# Set encoding.
response.encoding = get_encoding_from_headers(response.headers)
response.raw = resp
response.reason = response.raw.reason
if isinstance(req.url, bytes):
response.url = req.url.decode('utf-8')
else:
response.url = req.url
# Add new cookies from the server.
extract_cookies_to_jar(response.cookies, req, resp)
# Give the Response some context.
response.request = req
response.connection = self
return response
def get_connection(self, url, proxies=None):
"""Returns a urllib3 connection for the given URL. This should not be
called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the
:class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`.
:param url: The URL to connect to.
:param proxies: (optional) A Requests-style dictionary of proxies used on this request.
:rtype: urllib3.ConnectionPool
"""
proxy = select_proxy(url, proxies)
if proxy:
proxy = prepend_scheme_if_needed(proxy, 'http')
proxy_url = parse_url(proxy)
if not proxy_url.host:
raise InvalidProxyURL("Please check proxy URL. It is malformed"
" and could be missing the host.")
proxy_manager = self.proxy_manager_for(proxy)
conn = proxy_manager.connection_from_url(url)
else:
# Only scheme should be lower case
parsed = urlparse(url)
url = parsed.geturl()
conn = self.poolmanager.connection_from_url(url)
return conn
def close(self):
"""Disposes of any internal state.
Currently, this closes the PoolManager and any active ProxyManager,
which closes any pooled connections.
"""
self.poolmanager.clear()
for proxy in self.proxy_manager.values():
proxy.clear()
def request_url(self, request, proxies):
"""Obtain the url to use when making the final request.
If the message is being sent through a HTTP proxy, the full URL has to
be used. Otherwise, we should only use the path portion of the URL.
This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use
when subclassing the
:class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`.
:param request: The :class:`PreparedRequest <PreparedRequest>` being sent.
:param proxies: A dictionary of schemes or schemes and hosts to proxy URLs.
:rtype: str
"""
proxy = select_proxy(request.url, proxies)
scheme = urlparse(request.url).scheme
is_proxied_http_request = (proxy and scheme != 'https')
using_socks_proxy = False
if proxy:
proxy_scheme = urlparse(proxy).scheme.lower()
using_socks_proxy = proxy_scheme.startswith('socks')
url = request.path_url
if is_proxied_http_request and not using_socks_proxy:
url = urldefragauth(request.url)
return url
def add_headers(self, request, **kwargs):
"""Add any headers needed by the connection. As of v2.0 this does
nothing by default, but is left for overriding by users that subclass
the :class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`.
This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use
when subclassing the
:class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`.
:param request: The :class:`PreparedRequest <PreparedRequest>` to add headers to.
:param kwargs: The keyword arguments from the call to send().
"""
pass
def proxy_headers(self, proxy):
"""Returns a dictionary of the headers to add to any request sent
through a proxy. This works with urllib3 magic to ensure that they are
correctly sent to the proxy, rather than in a tunnelled request if
CONNECT is being used.
This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use
when subclassing the
:class:`HTTPAdapter <requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter>`.
:param proxy: The url of the proxy being used for this request.
:rtype: dict
"""
headers = {}
username, password = get_auth_from_url(proxy)
if username:
headers['Proxy-Authorization'] = _basic_auth_str(username,
password)
return headers
def send(self, request, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None):
"""Sends PreparedRequest object. Returns Response object.
:param request: The :class:`PreparedRequest <PreparedRequest>` being sent.
:param stream: (optional) Whether to stream the request content.
:param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send
data before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout,
read timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
:type timeout: float or tuple or urllib3 Timeout object
:param verify: (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether
we verify the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it
must be a path to a CA bundle to use
:param cert: (optional) Any user-provided SSL certificate to be trusted.
:param proxies: (optional) The proxies dictionary to apply to the request.
:rtype: requests.Response
"""
try:
conn = self.get_connection(request.url, proxies)
except LocationValueError as e:
raise InvalidURL(e, request=request)
self.cert_verify(conn, request.url, verify, cert)
url = self.request_url(request, proxies)
self.add_headers(request, stream=stream, timeout=timeout, verify=verify, cert=cert, proxies=proxies)
chunked = not (request.body is None or 'Content-Length' in request.headers)
if isinstance(timeout, tuple):
try:
connect, read = timeout
timeout = TimeoutSauce(connect=connect, read=read)
except ValueError as e:
# this may raise a string formatting error.
err = ("Invalid timeout {}. Pass a (connect, read) "
"timeout tuple, or a single float to set "
"both timeouts to the same value".format(timeout))
raise ValueError(err)
elif isinstance(timeout, TimeoutSauce):
pass
else:
timeout = TimeoutSauce(connect=timeout, read=timeout)
try:
if not chunked:
resp = conn.urlopen(
method=request.method,
url=url,
body=request.body,
headers=request.headers,
redirect=False,
assert_same_host=False,
preload_content=False,
decode_content=False,
retries=self.max_retries,
timeout=timeout
)
# Send the request.
else:
if hasattr(conn, 'proxy_pool'):
conn = conn.proxy_pool
low_conn = conn._get_conn(timeout=DEFAULT_POOL_TIMEOUT)
try:
low_conn.putrequest(request.method,
url,
skip_accept_encoding=True)
for header, value in request.headers.items():
low_conn.putheader(header, value)
low_conn.endheaders()
for i in request.body:
low_conn.send(hex(len(i))[2:].encode('utf-8'))
low_conn.send(b'\r\n')
low_conn.send(i)
low_conn.send(b'\r\n')
low_conn.send(b'0\r\n\r\n')
# Receive the response from the server
try:
# For Python 2.7, use buffering of HTTP responses
r = low_conn.getresponse(buffering=True)
except TypeError:
# For compatibility with Python 3.3+
r = low_conn.getresponse()
resp = HTTPResponse.from_httplib(
r,
pool=conn,
connection=low_conn,
preload_content=False,
decode_content=False
)
except:
# If we hit any problems here, clean up the connection.
# Then, reraise so that we can handle the actual exception.
low_conn.close()
raise
except (ProtocolError, socket.error) as err:
raise ConnectionError(err, request=request)
except MaxRetryError as e:
if isinstance(e.reason, ConnectTimeoutError):
# TODO: Remove this in 3.0.0: see #2811
if not isinstance(e.reason, NewConnectionError):
raise ConnectTimeout(e, request=request)
if isinstance(e.reason, ResponseError):
raise RetryError(e, request=request)
if isinstance(e.reason, _ProxyError):
raise ProxyError(e, request=request)
if isinstance(e.reason, _SSLError):
# This branch is for urllib3 v1.22 and later.
raise SSLError(e, request=request)
raise ConnectionError(e, request=request)
except ClosedPoolError as e:
raise ConnectionError(e, request=request)
except _ProxyError as e:
raise ProxyError(e)
except (_SSLError, _HTTPError) as e:
if isinstance(e, _SSLError):
# This branch is for urllib3 versions earlier than v1.22
raise SSLError(e, request=request)
elif isinstance(e, ReadTimeoutError):
raise ReadTimeout(e, request=request)
else:
raise
return self.build_response(request, resp)
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