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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
requests.utils
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This module provides utility functions that are used within Requests
that are also useful for external consumption.
"""
import cgi
import codecs
import cookielib
import os
import random
import re
import zlib
import urllib
from urllib2 import parse_http_list as _parse_list_header
def guess_filename(obj):
"""Tries to guess the filename of the given object."""
name = getattr(obj, 'name', None)
if name and name[0] != '<' and name[-1] != '>':
return name
# From mitsuhiko/werkzeug (used with permission).
def parse_list_header(value):
"""Parse lists as described by RFC 2068 Section 2.
In particular, parse comma-separated lists where the elements of
the list may include quoted-strings. A quoted-string could
contain a comma. A non-quoted string could have quotes in the
middle. Quotes are removed automatically after parsing.
It basically works like :func:`parse_set_header` just that items
may appear multiple times and case sensitivity is preserved.
The return value is a standard :class:`list`:
>>> parse_list_header('token, "quoted value"')
['token', 'quoted value']
To create a header from the :class:`list` again, use the
:func:`dump_header` function.
:param value: a string with a list header.
:return: :class:`list`
"""
result = []
for item in _parse_list_header(value):
if item[:1] == item[-1:] == '"':
item = unquote_header_value(item[1:-1])
result.append(item)
return result
# From mitsuhiko/werkzeug (used with permission).
def parse_dict_header(value):
"""Parse lists of key, value pairs as described by RFC 2068 Section 2 and
convert them into a python dict:
>>> d = parse_dict_header('foo="is a fish", bar="as well"')
>>> type(d) is dict
True
>>> sorted(d.items())
[('bar', 'as well'), ('foo', 'is a fish')]
If there is no value for a key it will be `None`:
>>> parse_dict_header('key_without_value')
{'key_without_value': None}
To create a header from the :class:`dict` again, use the
:func:`dump_header` function.
:param value: a string with a dict header.
:return: :class:`dict`
"""
result = {}
for item in _parse_list_header(value):
if '=' not in item:
result[item] = None
continue
name, value = item.split('=', 1)
if value[:1] == value[-1:] == '"':
value = unquote_header_value(value[1:-1])
result[name] = value
return result
# From mitsuhiko/werkzeug (used with permission).
def unquote_header_value(value, is_filename=False):
r"""Unquotes a header value. (Reversal of :func:`quote_header_value`).
This does not use the real unquoting but what browsers are actually
using for quoting.
:param value: the header value to unquote.
"""
if value and value[0] == value[-1] == '"':
# this is not the real unquoting, but fixing this so that the
# RFC is met will result in bugs with internet explorer and
# probably some other browsers as well. IE for example is
# uploading files with "C:\foo\bar.txt" as filename
value = value[1:-1]
# if this is a filename and the starting characters look like
# a UNC path, then just return the value without quotes. Using the
# replace sequence below on a UNC path has the effect of turning
# the leading double slash into a single slash and then
# _fix_ie_filename() doesn't work correctly. See #458.
if not is_filename or value[:2] != '\\\\':
return value.replace('\\\\', '\\').replace('\\"', '"')
return value
def header_expand(headers):
"""Returns an HTTP Header value string from a dictionary.
Example expansion::
{'text/x-dvi': {'q': '.8', 'mxb': '100000', 'mxt': '5.0'}, 'text/x-c': {}}
# Accept: text/x-dvi; q=.8; mxb=100000; mxt=5.0, text/x-c
(('text/x-dvi', {'q': '.8', 'mxb': '100000', 'mxt': '5.0'}), ('text/x-c', {}))
# Accept: text/x-dvi; q=.8; mxb=100000; mxt=5.0, text/x-c
"""
collector = []
if isinstance(headers, dict):
headers = headers.items()
elif isinstance(headers, basestring):
return headers
for i, (value, params) in enumerate(headers):
_params = []
for (p_k, p_v) in params.items():
_params.append('%s=%s' % (p_k, p_v))
collector.append(value)
collector.append('; ')
if len(params):
collector.append('; '.join(_params))
if not len(headers) == i+1:
collector.append(', ')
# Remove trailing separators.
if collector[-1] in (', ', '; '):
del collector[-1]
return ''.join(collector)
def randombytes(n):
"""Return n random bytes."""
# Use /dev/urandom if it is available. Fall back to random module
# if not. It might be worthwhile to extend this function to use
# other platform-specific mechanisms for getting random bytes.
if os.path.exists("/dev/urandom"):
f = open("/dev/urandom")
s = f.read(n)
f.close()
return s
else:
L = [chr(random.randrange(0, 256)) for i in range(n)]
return "".join(L)
def dict_from_cookiejar(cj):
"""Returns a key/value dictionary from a CookieJar.
:param cj: CookieJar object to extract cookies from.
"""
cookie_dict = {}
for _, cookies in cj._cookies.items():
for _, cookies in cookies.items():
for cookie in cookies.values():
# print cookie
cookie_dict[cookie.name] = cookie.value
return cookie_dict
def cookiejar_from_dict(cookie_dict):
"""Returns a CookieJar from a key/value dictionary.
:param cookie_dict: Dict of key/values to insert into CookieJar.
"""
# return cookiejar if one was passed in
if isinstance(cookie_dict, cookielib.CookieJar):
return cookie_dict
# create cookiejar
cj = cookielib.CookieJar()
cj = add_dict_to_cookiejar(cj, cookie_dict)
return cj
def add_dict_to_cookiejar(cj, cookie_dict):
"""Returns a CookieJar from a key/value dictionary.
:param cj: CookieJar to insert cookies into.
:param cookie_dict: Dict of key/values to insert into CookieJar.
"""
for k, v in cookie_dict.items():
cookie = cookielib.Cookie(
version=0,
name=k,
value=v,
port=None,
port_specified=False,
domain='',
domain_specified=False,
domain_initial_dot=False,
path='/',
path_specified=True,
secure=False,
expires=None,
discard=True,
comment=None,
comment_url=None,
rest={'HttpOnly': None},
rfc2109=False
)
# add cookie to cookiejar
cj.set_cookie(cookie)
return cj
def get_encodings_from_content(content):
"""Returns encodings from given content string.
:param content: bytestring to extract encodings from.
"""
charset_re = re.compile(r'<meta.*?charset=["\']*(.+?)["\'>]', flags=re.I)
return charset_re.findall(content)
def get_encoding_from_headers(headers):
"""Returns encodings from given HTTP Header Dict.
:param headers: dictionary to extract encoding from.
"""
content_type = headers.get('content-type')
if not content_type:
return None
content_type, params = cgi.parse_header(content_type)
if 'charset' in params:
return params['charset'].strip("'\"")
def unicode_from_html(content):
"""Attempts to decode an HTML string into unicode.
If unsuccessful, the original content is returned.
"""
encodings = get_encodings_from_content(content)
for encoding in encodings:
try:
return unicode(content, encoding)
except (UnicodeError, TypeError):
pass
return content
def stream_decode_response_unicode(iterator, r):
"""Stream decodes a iterator."""
if r.encoding is None:
for item in iterator:
yield item
return
decoder = codecs.getincrementaldecoder(r.encoding)(errors='replace')
for chunk in iterator:
rv = decoder.decode(chunk)
if rv:
yield rv
rv = decoder.decode('', final=True)
if rv:
yield rv
def get_unicode_from_response(r):
"""Returns the requested content back in unicode.
:param r: Response object to get unicode content from.
Tried:
1. charset from content-type
2. every encodings from ``<meta ... charset=XXX>``
3. fall back and replace all unicode characters
"""
tried_encodings = []
# Try charset from content-type
encoding = get_encoding_from_headers(r.headers)
if encoding:
try:
return unicode(r.content, encoding)
except UnicodeError:
tried_encodings.append(encoding)
# Fall back:
try:
return unicode(r.content, encoding, errors='replace')
except TypeError:
return r.content
def decode_gzip(content):
"""Return gzip-decoded string.
:param content: bytestring to gzip-decode.
"""
return zlib.decompress(content, 16 + zlib.MAX_WBITS)
def stream_decode_gzip(iterator):
"""Stream decodes a gzip-encoded iterator"""
try:
dec = zlib.decompressobj(16 + zlib.MAX_WBITS)
for chunk in iterator:
rv = dec.decompress(chunk)
if rv:
yield rv
buf = dec.decompress('')
rv = buf + dec.flush()
if rv:
yield rv
except zlib.error:
pass
def requote_path(path):
"""Re-quote the given URL path component.
This function passes the given path through an unquote/quote cycle to
ensure that it is fully and consistently quoted.
"""
parts = path.split("/")
parts = (urllib.quote(urllib.unquote(part), safe="") for part in parts)
return "/".join(parts)
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