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# Copyright 2020 The AutoKeras Authors.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
from pathlib import Path
from typing import List
from typing import Optional
from typing import Type
from typing import Union
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.python.util import nest
from autokeras import blocks
from autokeras import graph as graph_module
from autokeras import pipeline
from autokeras import tuners
from autokeras.engine import head as head_module
from autokeras.engine import node as node_module
from autokeras.engine import tuner
from autokeras.nodes import Input
from autokeras.utils import data_utils
from autokeras.utils import utils
"bayesian": tuners.BayesianOptimization,
"random": tuners.RandomSearch,
"hyperband": tuners.Hyperband,
"greedy": tuners.Greedy,
def get_tuner_class(tuner):
if isinstance(tuner, str) and tuner in TUNER_CLASSES:
return TUNER_CLASSES.get(tuner)
raise ValueError(
'Expected the tuner argument to be one of "greedy", '
'"random", "hyperband", or "bayesian", '
"but got {tuner}".format(tuner=tuner)
class AutoModel(object):
"""A Model defined by inputs and outputs.
AutoModel combines a HyperModel and a Tuner to tune the HyperModel.
The user can use it in a similar way to a Keras model since it
also has `fit()` and `predict()` methods.
The AutoModel has two use cases. In the first case, the user only specifies the
input nodes and output heads of the AutoModel. The AutoModel infers the rest part
of the model. In the second case, user can specify the high-level architecture of
the AutoModel by connecting the Blocks with the functional API, which is the same
as the Keras [functional API](
# Example
# The user only specifies the input nodes and output heads.
import autokeras as ak
inputs=[ak.ImageInput(), ak.TextInput()],
outputs=[ak.ClassificationHead(), ak.RegressionHead()]
# The user specifies the high-level architecture.
import autokeras as ak
image_input = ak.ImageInput()
image_output = ak.ImageBlock()(image_input)
text_input = ak.TextInput()
text_output = ak.TextBlock()(text_input)
output = ak.Merge()([image_output, text_output])
classification_output = ak.ClassificationHead()(output)
regression_output = ak.RegressionHead()(output)
inputs=[image_input, text_input],
outputs=[classification_output, regression_output]
# Arguments
inputs: A list of Node instances.
The input node(s) of the AutoModel.
outputs: A list of Node or Head instances.
The output node(s) or head(s) of the AutoModel.
project_name: String. The name of the AutoModel. Defaults to 'auto_model'.
max_trials: Int. The maximum number of different Keras Models to try.
The search may finish before reaching the max_trials. Defaults to 100.
directory: String. The path to a directory for storing the search outputs.
Defaults to None, which would create a folder with the name of the
AutoModel in the current directory.
objective: String. Name of model metric to minimize
or maximize, e.g. 'val_accuracy'. Defaults to 'val_loss'.
tuner: String or subclass of AutoTuner. If string, it should be one of
'greedy', 'bayesian', 'hyperband' or 'random'. It can also be a subclass
of AutoTuner. Defaults to 'greedy'.
overwrite: Boolean. Defaults to `False`. If `False`, reloads an existing
project of the same name if one is found. Otherwise, overwrites the
seed: Int. Random seed.
max_model_size: Int. Maximum number of scalars in the parameters of a
model. Models larger than this are rejected.
**kwargs: Any arguments supported by keras_tuner.Tuner.
def __init__(
inputs: Union[Input, List[Input]],
outputs: Union[head_module.Head, node_module.Node, list],
project_name: str = "auto_model",
max_trials: int = 100,
directory: Union[str, Path, None] = None,
objective: str = "val_loss",
tuner: Union[str, Type[tuner.AutoTuner]] = "greedy",
overwrite: bool = False,
seed: Optional[int] = None,
max_model_size: Optional[int] = None,
self.inputs = nest.flatten(inputs)
self.outputs = nest.flatten(outputs)
self.seed = seed
if seed:
# TODO: Support passing a tuner instance.
# Initialize the hyper_graph.
graph = self._build_graph()
if isinstance(tuner, str):
tuner = get_tuner_class(tuner)
self.tuner = tuner(
self.overwrite = overwrite
self._heads = [output_node.in_blocks[0] for output_node in self.outputs]
def objective(self):
return self.tuner.objective
def max_trials(self):
return self.tuner.max_trials
def directory(self):
def project_name(self):
return self.tuner.project_name
def _assemble(self):
"""Assemble the Blocks based on the input output nodes."""
inputs = nest.flatten(self.inputs)
outputs = nest.flatten(self.outputs)
middle_nodes = [input_node.get_block()(input_node) for input_node in inputs]
# Merge the middle nodes.
if len(middle_nodes) > 1:
output_node = blocks.Merge()(middle_nodes)
output_node = middle_nodes[0]
outputs = nest.flatten(
[output_blocks(output_node) for output_blocks in outputs]
return graph_module.Graph(inputs=inputs, outputs=outputs)
def _build_graph(self):
# Using functional API.
if all([isinstance(output, node_module.Node) for output in self.outputs]):
graph = graph_module.Graph(inputs=self.inputs, outputs=self.outputs)
# Using input/output API.
elif all([isinstance(output, head_module.Head) for output in self.outputs]):
# Clear session to reset get_uid(). The names of the blocks will
# start to count from 1 for new blocks in a new AutoModel afterwards.
graph = self._assemble()
self.outputs = graph.outputs
return graph
def fit(
"""Search for the best model and hyperparameters for the AutoModel.
It will search for the best model based on the performances on
validation data.
# Arguments
x: numpy.ndarray or tensorflow.Dataset. Training data x.
y: numpy.ndarray or tensorflow.Dataset. Training data y.
batch_size: Int. Number of samples per gradient update. Defaults to 32.
epochs: Int. The number of epochs to train each model during the search.
If unspecified, by default we train for a maximum of 1000 epochs,
but we stop training if the validation loss stops improving for 10
epochs (unless you specified an EarlyStopping callback as part of
the callbacks argument, in which case the EarlyStopping callback you
specified will determine early stopping).
callbacks: List of Keras callbacks to apply during training and
validation_split: Float between 0 and 1. Defaults to 0.2.
Fraction of the training data to be used as validation data.
The model will set apart this fraction of the training data,
will not train on it, and will evaluate
the loss and any model metrics
on this data at the end of each epoch.
The validation data is selected from the last samples
in the `x` and `y` data provided, before shuffling. This argument is
not supported when `x` is a dataset.
The best model found would be fit on the entire dataset including the
validation data.
validation_data: Data on which to evaluate the loss and any model metrics
at the end of each epoch. The model will not be trained on this data.
`validation_data` will override `validation_split`. The type of the
validation data should be the same as the training data.
The best model found would be fit on the training dataset without the
validation data.
verbose: 0, 1, or 2. Verbosity mode. 0 = silent, 1 = progress bar,
2 = one line per epoch. Note that the progress bar is not
particularly useful when logged to a file, so verbose=2 is
recommended when not running interactively (eg, in a production
environment). Controls the verbosity of both KerasTuner search and
**kwargs: Any arguments supported by
# Returns
history: A Keras History object corresponding to the best model.
Its History.history attribute is a record of training
loss values and metrics values at successive epochs, as well as
validation loss values and validation metrics values (if applicable).
# Check validation information.
if not validation_data and not validation_split:
raise ValueError(
"Either validation_data or a non-zero validation_split "
"should be provided."
if validation_data:
validation_split = 0
dataset, validation_data = self._convert_to_dataset(
x=x, y=y, validation_data=validation_data, batch_size=batch_size
# Split the data with validation_split.
if validation_data is None and validation_split:
dataset, validation_data = data_utils.split_dataset(
dataset, validation_split
history =
return history
def _adapt(self, dataset, hms, batch_size):
if isinstance(dataset,
sources = data_utils.unzip_dataset(dataset)
sources = nest.flatten(dataset)
adapted = []
for source, hm in zip(sources, hms):
source = hm.get_adapter().adapt(source, batch_size)
if len(adapted) == 1:
return adapted[0]
def _check_data_format(self, dataset, validation=False, predict=False):
"""Check if the dataset has the same number of IOs with the model."""
if validation:
in_val = " in validation_data"
if isinstance(dataset,
x = dataset
y = None
x, y = dataset
in_val = ""
x, y = dataset
if isinstance(x, and y is not None:
raise ValueError(
"Expected y to be None when x is "
if isinstance(x,
if not predict:
x_shapes, y_shapes = data_utils.dataset_shape(x)
x_shapes = nest.flatten(x_shapes)
y_shapes = nest.flatten(y_shapes)
x_shapes = nest.flatten(data_utils.dataset_shape(x))
x_shapes = [a.shape for a in nest.flatten(x)]
if not predict:
y_shapes = [a.shape for a in nest.flatten(y)]
if len(x_shapes) != len(self.inputs):
raise ValueError(
"Expected x{in_val} to have {input_num} arrays, "
"but got {data_num}".format(
in_val=in_val, input_num=len(self.inputs), data_num=len(x_shapes)
if not predict and len(y_shapes) != len(self.outputs):
raise ValueError(
"Expected y{in_val} to have {output_num} arrays, "
"but got {data_num}".format(
def _analyze_data(self, dataset):
input_analysers = [node.get_analyser() for node in self.inputs]
output_analysers = [head.get_analyser() for head in self._heads]
analysers = input_analysers + output_analysers
for x, y in dataset:
x = nest.flatten(x)
y = nest.flatten(y)
for item, analyser in zip(x + y, analysers):
for analyser in analysers:
for hm, analyser in zip(self.inputs + self._heads, analysers):
def _build_hyper_pipeline(self, dataset):
self.tuner.hyper_pipeline = pipeline.HyperPipeline(
inputs=[node.get_hyper_preprocessors() for node in self.inputs],
outputs=[head.get_hyper_preprocessors() for head in self._heads],
self.tuner.hypermodel.hyper_pipeline = self.tuner.hyper_pipeline
def _convert_to_dataset(self, x, y, validation_data, batch_size):
"""Convert the data to"""
# TODO: Handle other types of input, zip dataset, tensor, dict.
# Convert training data.
self._check_data_format((x, y))
if isinstance(x,
dataset = x
x = x, y: x)
y = x, y: y)
x = self._adapt(x, self.inputs, batch_size)
y = self._adapt(y, self._heads, batch_size)
dataset =, y))
# Convert validation data
if validation_data:
self._check_data_format(validation_data, validation=True)
if isinstance(validation_data,
x = x, y: x)
y = x, y: y)
x, y = validation_data
x = self._adapt(x, self.inputs, batch_size)
y = self._adapt(y, self._heads, batch_size)
validation_data =, y))
return dataset, validation_data
def _has_y(self, dataset):
"""Remove y from the if exists."""
shapes = data_utils.dataset_shape(dataset)
# Only one or less element in the first level.
if len(shapes) <= 1:
return False
# The first level has more than 1 element.
# The nest has 2 levels.
for shape in shapes:
if isinstance(shape, tuple):
return True
# The nest has one level.
# It matches the single IO case.
return len(shapes) == 2 and len(self.inputs) == 1 and len(self.outputs) == 1
def predict(self, x, batch_size=32, verbose=1, **kwargs):
"""Predict the output for a given testing data.
# Arguments
x: Any allowed types according to the input node. Testing data.
batch_size: Number of samples per batch.
If unspecified, batch_size will default to 32.
verbose: Verbosity mode. 0 = silent, 1 = progress bar.
Controls the verbosity of
**kwargs: Any arguments supported by keras.Model.predict.
# Returns
A list of numpy.ndarray objects or a single numpy.ndarray.
The predicted results.
if isinstance(x, and self._has_y(x):
x = x, y: x)
self._check_data_format((x, None), predict=True)
dataset = self._adapt(x, self.inputs, batch_size)
pipeline = self.tuner.get_best_pipeline()
model = self.tuner.get_best_model()
dataset = pipeline.transform_x(dataset)
dataset =, dataset))
y = model.predict(dataset, **kwargs)
y = utils.predict_with_adaptive_batch_size(
model=model, batch_size=batch_size, x=dataset, verbose=verbose, **kwargs
return pipeline.postprocess(y)
def evaluate(self, x, y=None, batch_size=32, verbose=1, **kwargs):
"""Evaluate the best model for the given data.
# Arguments
x: Any allowed types according to the input node. Testing data.
y: Any allowed types according to the head. Testing targets.
Defaults to None.
batch_size: Number of samples per batch.
If unspecified, batch_size will default to 32.
verbose: Verbosity mode. 0 = silent, 1 = progress bar.
Controls the verbosity of
**kwargs: Any arguments supported by keras.Model.evaluate.
# Returns
Scalar test loss (if the model has a single output and no metrics) or
list of scalars (if the model has multiple outputs and/or metrics).
The attribute model.metrics_names will give you the display labels for
the scalar outputs.
self._check_data_format((x, y))
if isinstance(x,
dataset = x
x = x, y: x)
y = x, y: y)
x = self._adapt(x, self.inputs, batch_size)
y = self._adapt(y, self._heads, batch_size)
dataset =, y))
pipeline = self.tuner.get_best_pipeline()
dataset = pipeline.transform(dataset)
model = self.tuner.get_best_model()
return utils.evaluate_with_adaptive_batch_size(
model=model, batch_size=batch_size, x=dataset, verbose=verbose, **kwargs
def export_model(self):
"""Export the best Keras Model.
# Returns
tf.keras.Model instance. The best model found during the search, loaded
with trained weights.
return self.tuner.get_best_model()