a2d11d4 Jun 19, 2018
5 contributors

Users who have contributed to this file

@fchollet @qin @simra @dstine @bzamecnik
231 lines (195 sloc) 8.9 KB
'''Sequence to sequence example in Keras (character-level).
This script demonstrates how to implement a basic character-level
sequence-to-sequence model. We apply it to translating
short English sentences into short French sentences,
character-by-character. Note that it is fairly unusual to
do character-level machine translation, as word-level
models are more common in this domain.
# Summary of the algorithm
- We start with input sequences from a domain (e.g. English sentences)
and corresponding target sequences from another domain
(e.g. French sentences).
- An encoder LSTM turns input sequences to 2 state vectors
(we keep the last LSTM state and discard the outputs).
- A decoder LSTM is trained to turn the target sequences into
the same sequence but offset by one timestep in the future,
a training process called "teacher forcing" in this context.
Is uses as initial state the state vectors from the encoder.
Effectively, the decoder learns to generate `targets[t+1...]`
given `targets[...t]`, conditioned on the input sequence.
- In inference mode, when we want to decode unknown input sequences, we:
- Encode the input sequence into state vectors
- Start with a target sequence of size 1
(just the start-of-sequence character)
- Feed the state vectors and 1-char target sequence
to the decoder to produce predictions for the next character
- Sample the next character using these predictions
(we simply use argmax).
- Append the sampled character to the target sequence
- Repeat until we generate the end-of-sequence character or we
hit the character limit.
# Data download
English to French sentence pairs.
Lots of neat sentence pairs datasets can be found at:
# References
- Sequence to Sequence Learning with Neural Networks
- Learning Phrase Representations using
RNN Encoder-Decoder for Statistical Machine Translation
from __future__ import print_function
from keras.models import Model
from keras.layers import Input, LSTM, Dense
import numpy as np
batch_size = 64 # Batch size for training.
epochs = 100 # Number of epochs to train for.
latent_dim = 256 # Latent dimensionality of the encoding space.
num_samples = 10000 # Number of samples to train on.
# Path to the data txt file on disk.
data_path = 'fra-eng/fra.txt'
# Vectorize the data.
input_texts = []
target_texts = []
input_characters = set()
target_characters = set()
with open(data_path, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as f:
lines ='\n')
for line in lines[: min(num_samples, len(lines) - 1)]:
input_text, target_text = line.split('\t')
# We use "tab" as the "start sequence" character
# for the targets, and "\n" as "end sequence" character.
target_text = '\t' + target_text + '\n'
for char in input_text:
if char not in input_characters:
for char in target_text:
if char not in target_characters:
input_characters = sorted(list(input_characters))
target_characters = sorted(list(target_characters))
num_encoder_tokens = len(input_characters)
num_decoder_tokens = len(target_characters)
max_encoder_seq_length = max([len(txt) for txt in input_texts])
max_decoder_seq_length = max([len(txt) for txt in target_texts])
print('Number of samples:', len(input_texts))
print('Number of unique input tokens:', num_encoder_tokens)
print('Number of unique output tokens:', num_decoder_tokens)
print('Max sequence length for inputs:', max_encoder_seq_length)
print('Max sequence length for outputs:', max_decoder_seq_length)
input_token_index = dict(
[(char, i) for i, char in enumerate(input_characters)])
target_token_index = dict(
[(char, i) for i, char in enumerate(target_characters)])
encoder_input_data = np.zeros(
(len(input_texts), max_encoder_seq_length, num_encoder_tokens),
decoder_input_data = np.zeros(
(len(input_texts), max_decoder_seq_length, num_decoder_tokens),
decoder_target_data = np.zeros(
(len(input_texts), max_decoder_seq_length, num_decoder_tokens),
for i, (input_text, target_text) in enumerate(zip(input_texts, target_texts)):
for t, char in enumerate(input_text):
encoder_input_data[i, t, input_token_index[char]] = 1.
for t, char in enumerate(target_text):
# decoder_target_data is ahead of decoder_input_data by one timestep
decoder_input_data[i, t, target_token_index[char]] = 1.
if t > 0:
# decoder_target_data will be ahead by one timestep
# and will not include the start character.
decoder_target_data[i, t - 1, target_token_index[char]] = 1.
# Define an input sequence and process it.
encoder_inputs = Input(shape=(None, num_encoder_tokens))
encoder = LSTM(latent_dim, return_state=True)
encoder_outputs, state_h, state_c = encoder(encoder_inputs)
# We discard `encoder_outputs` and only keep the states.
encoder_states = [state_h, state_c]
# Set up the decoder, using `encoder_states` as initial state.
decoder_inputs = Input(shape=(None, num_decoder_tokens))
# We set up our decoder to return full output sequences,
# and to return internal states as well. We don't use the
# return states in the training model, but we will use them in inference.
decoder_lstm = LSTM(latent_dim, return_sequences=True, return_state=True)
decoder_outputs, _, _ = decoder_lstm(decoder_inputs,
decoder_dense = Dense(num_decoder_tokens, activation='softmax')
decoder_outputs = decoder_dense(decoder_outputs)
# Define the model that will turn
# `encoder_input_data` & `decoder_input_data` into `decoder_target_data`
model = Model([encoder_inputs, decoder_inputs], decoder_outputs)
# Run training
model.compile(optimizer='rmsprop', loss='categorical_crossentropy')[encoder_input_data, decoder_input_data], decoder_target_data,
# Save model's2s.h5')
# Next: inference mode (sampling).
# Here's the drill:
# 1) encode input and retrieve initial decoder state
# 2) run one step of decoder with this initial state
# and a "start of sequence" token as target.
# Output will be the next target token
# 3) Repeat with the current target token and current states
# Define sampling models
encoder_model = Model(encoder_inputs, encoder_states)
decoder_state_input_h = Input(shape=(latent_dim,))
decoder_state_input_c = Input(shape=(latent_dim,))
decoder_states_inputs = [decoder_state_input_h, decoder_state_input_c]
decoder_outputs, state_h, state_c = decoder_lstm(
decoder_inputs, initial_state=decoder_states_inputs)
decoder_states = [state_h, state_c]
decoder_outputs = decoder_dense(decoder_outputs)
decoder_model = Model(
[decoder_inputs] + decoder_states_inputs,
[decoder_outputs] + decoder_states)
# Reverse-lookup token index to decode sequences back to
# something readable.
reverse_input_char_index = dict(
(i, char) for char, i in input_token_index.items())
reverse_target_char_index = dict(
(i, char) for char, i in target_token_index.items())
def decode_sequence(input_seq):
# Encode the input as state vectors.
states_value = encoder_model.predict(input_seq)
# Generate empty target sequence of length 1.
target_seq = np.zeros((1, 1, num_decoder_tokens))
# Populate the first character of target sequence with the start character.
target_seq[0, 0, target_token_index['\t']] = 1.
# Sampling loop for a batch of sequences
# (to simplify, here we assume a batch of size 1).
stop_condition = False
decoded_sentence = ''
while not stop_condition:
output_tokens, h, c = decoder_model.predict(
[target_seq] + states_value)
# Sample a token
sampled_token_index = np.argmax(output_tokens[0, -1, :])
sampled_char = reverse_target_char_index[sampled_token_index]
decoded_sentence += sampled_char
# Exit condition: either hit max length
# or find stop character.
if (sampled_char == '\n' or
len(decoded_sentence) > max_decoder_seq_length):
stop_condition = True
# Update the target sequence (of length 1).
target_seq = np.zeros((1, 1, num_decoder_tokens))
target_seq[0, 0, sampled_token_index] = 1.
# Update states
states_value = [h, c]
return decoded_sentence
for seq_index in range(100):
# Take one sequence (part of the training set)
# for trying out decoding.
input_seq = encoder_input_data[seq_index: seq_index + 1]
decoded_sentence = decode_sequence(input_seq)
print('Input sentence:', input_texts[seq_index])
print('Decoded sentence:', decoded_sentence)