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// ASIHTTPRequest+OAuth.m
// Created by Scott James Remnant on 6/1/11.
// Copyright 2011 Scott James Remnant <>. All rights reserved.
#include <sys/time.h>
#import <CommonCrypto/CommonHMAC.h>
#import "ASIHTTPRequest+OAuth.h"
#import "NSData+Base64.h"
#import "NSString+URLEncode.h"
// Signature Method strings, keep in sync with ASIOAuthSignatureMethod
static const NSString *oauthSignatureMethodName[] = {
// OAuth version implemented here
static const NSString *oauthVersion = @"1.0";
@implementation ASIHTTPRequest (ASIHTTPRequest_OAuth)
#pragma mark -
#pragma mark Timestamp and nonce handling
- (NSArray *)oauthGenerateTimestampAndNonce
static time_t last_timestamp = -1;
static NSMutableSet *nonceHistory = nil;
// Make sure we never send the same timestamp and nonce
if (!nonceHistory)
nonceHistory = [[NSMutableSet alloc] init];
struct timeval tv;
NSString *timestamp, *nonce;
do {
// Get the time of day, for both the timestamp and the random seed
gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
// Generate a random alphanumeric character sequence for the nonce
char nonceBytes[16];
srandom(tv.tv_sec | tv.tv_usec);
for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
int byte = random() % 62;
if (byte < 26)
nonceBytes[i] = 'a' + byte;
else if (byte < 52)
nonceBytes[i] = 'A' + byte - 26;
nonceBytes[i] = '0' + byte - 52;
timestamp = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%d", tv.tv_sec];
nonce = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%.16s", nonceBytes];
} while ((tv.tv_sec == last_timestamp) && [nonceHistory containsObject:nonce]);
if (tv.tv_sec != last_timestamp) {
last_timestamp = tv.tv_sec;
[nonceHistory removeAllObjects];
[nonceHistory addObject:nonce];
return [NSArray arrayWithObjects:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"oauth_timestamp", @"key", timestamp, @"value", nil], [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"oauth_nonce", @"key", nonce, @"value", nil], nil];
#pragma mark -
#pragma mark Signature base string construction
- (NSString *)oauthBaseStringURI
NSAssert1([self.url host] != nil, @"URL host missing: %@", [self.url absoluteString]);
// Port need only be present if it's not the default
NSString *hostString;
if (([self.url port] == nil)
|| ([[[self.url scheme] lowercaseString] isEqualToString:@"http"] && ([[self.url port] integerValue] == 80))
|| ([[[self.url scheme] lowercaseString] isEqualToString:@"https"] && ([[self.url port] integerValue] == 443))) {
hostString = [[self.url host] lowercaseString];
} else {
hostString = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@:%@", [[self.url host] lowercaseString], [self.url port]];
// Annoyingly [self.url path] is decoded and has trailing slashes stripped, so we have to manually extract the path without the query or fragment
NSString *pathString = [[self.url absoluteString] substringFromIndex:[[self.url scheme] length] + 3];
NSRange pathStart = [pathString rangeOfCharacterFromSet:[NSCharacterSet characterSetWithCharactersInString:@"/"]];
NSRange pathEnd = [pathString rangeOfCharacterFromSet:[NSCharacterSet characterSetWithCharactersInString:@"?#"]];
if (pathEnd.location != NSNotFound) {
pathString = [pathString substringWithRange:NSMakeRange(pathStart.location, pathEnd.location - pathStart.location)];
} else {
pathString = [pathString substringFromIndex:pathStart.location];
return [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@://%@%@", [[self.url scheme] lowercaseString], hostString, pathString];
- (NSArray *)oauthPostBodyParameters
// For sub-classes to override
return nil;
- (NSArray *)oauthAdditionalParametersForMethod:(ASIOAuthSignatureMethod)signatureMethod
// For sub-classes to override
return nil;
- (NSString *)oauthRequestParameterString:(NSArray *)oauthParameters
NSMutableArray *parameters = [NSMutableArray array];
// Decode the parameters given in the query string, and add their encoded counterparts
NSArray *pairs = [[self.url query] componentsSeparatedByString:@"&"];
for (NSString *pair in pairs) {
NSString *key, *value;
NSRange separator = [pair rangeOfCharacterFromSet:[NSCharacterSet characterSetWithCharactersInString:@"="]];
if (separator.location != NSNotFound) {
key = [[pair substringToIndex:separator.location] decodeFromURL];
value = [[pair substringFromIndex:separator.location + 1] decodeFromURL];
} else {
key = [pair decodeFromURL];
value = @"";
[parameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:[key encodeForURL], @"key", [value encodeForURL], @"value", nil]];
// Add the encoded counterparts of the parameters in the OAuth header
for (NSDictionary *param in oauthParameters) {
NSString *key = [param objectForKey:@"key"];
if ([key hasPrefix:@"oauth_"]
&& ![key isEqualToString:@"oauth_signature"])
[parameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:[key encodeForURL], @"key", [[param objectForKey:@"value"] encodeForURL], @"value", nil]];
// Add encoded counterparts of any additional parameters from the body
NSArray *postBodyParameters = [self oauthPostBodyParameters];
for (NSDictionary *param in postBodyParameters)
[parameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:[[param objectForKey:@"key"] encodeForURL], @"key", [[param objectForKey:@"value"] encodeForURL], @"value", nil]];
// Sort by name and value
[parameters sortUsingComparator:^(id obj1, id obj2) {
NSDictionary *val1 = obj1, *val2 = obj2;
NSComparisonResult result = [[val1 objectForKey:@"key"] compare:[val2 objectForKey:@"key"] options:NSLiteralSearch];
if (result != NSOrderedSame)
return result;
return [[val1 objectForKey:@"value"] compare:[val2 objectForKey:@"value"] options:NSLiteralSearch];
// Join components together
NSMutableArray *parameterStrings = [NSMutableArray array];
for (NSDictionary *parameter in parameters)
[parameterStrings addObject:[NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@=%@", [parameter objectForKey:@"key"], [parameter objectForKey:@"value"]]];
return [parameterStrings componentsJoinedByString:@"&"];
#pragma mark -
#pragma mark Signing algorithms
- (NSString *)oauthGeneratePlaintextSignatureFor:(NSString *)baseString
withClientSecret:(NSString *)clientSecret
andTokenSecret:(NSString *)tokenSecret
// Construct the signature key
return [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@&%@", clientSecret != nil ? [clientSecret encodeForURL] : @"", tokenSecret != nil ? [tokenSecret encodeForURL] : @""];
- (NSString *)oauthGenerateHMAC_SHA1SignatureFor:(NSString *)baseString
withClientSecret:(NSString *)clientSecret
andTokenSecret:(NSString *)tokenSecret
NSString *key = [self oauthGeneratePlaintextSignatureFor:baseString withClientSecret:clientSecret andTokenSecret:tokenSecret];
const char *keyBytes = [key cStringUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];
const char *baseStringBytes = [baseString cStringUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];
unsigned char digestBytes[CC_SHA1_DIGEST_LENGTH];
CCHmacContext ctx;
CCHmacInit(&ctx, kCCHmacAlgSHA1, keyBytes, strlen(keyBytes));
CCHmacUpdate(&ctx, baseStringBytes, strlen(baseStringBytes));
CCHmacFinal(&ctx, digestBytes);
NSData *digestData = [NSData dataWithBytes:digestBytes length:CC_SHA1_DIGEST_LENGTH];
return [digestData base64EncodedString];
#pragma mark -
#pragma mark Public methods
- (void)signRequestWithClientIdentifier:(NSString *)clientIdentifier
secret:(NSString *)clientSecret
tokenIdentifier:(NSString *)tokenIdentifier
secret:(NSString *)tokenSecret
[self signRequestWithClientIdentifier:clientIdentifier secret:clientSecret tokenIdentifier:tokenIdentifier
secret:tokenSecret verifier:nil usingMethod:signatureMethod];
- (void)signRequestWithClientIdentifier:(NSString *)clientIdentifier
secret:(NSString *)clientSecret
tokenIdentifier:(NSString *)tokenIdentifier
secret:(NSString *)tokenSecret
verifier:(NSString *)verifier
[self buildPostBody];
NSMutableArray *oauthParameters = [NSMutableArray array];
// Add what we know now to the OAuth parameters
if (self.authenticationRealm)
[oauthParameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"realm", @"key", self.authenticationRealm, @"value", nil]];
[oauthParameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"oauth_version", @"key", oauthVersion, @"value", nil]];
[oauthParameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"oauth_consumer_key", @"key", clientIdentifier, @"value", nil]];
if (tokenIdentifier != nil)
[oauthParameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"oauth_token", @"key", tokenIdentifier, @"value", nil]];
if (verifier != nil)
[oauthParameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"oauth_verifier", @"key", verifier, @"value", nil]];
[oauthParameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"oauth_signature_method", @"key", oauthSignatureMethodName[signatureMethod], @"value", nil]];
[oauthParameters addObjectsFromArray:[self oauthGenerateTimestampAndNonce]];
[oauthParameters addObjectsFromArray:[self oauthAdditionalParametersForMethod:signatureMethod]];
// Construct the signature base string
NSString *baseStringURI = [self oauthBaseStringURI];
NSString *requestParameterString = [self oauthRequestParameterString:oauthParameters];
NSString *baseString = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@&%@&%@", [[self requestMethod] uppercaseString], [baseStringURI encodeForURL], [requestParameterString encodeForURL]];
// Generate the signature
NSString *signature;
switch (signatureMethod) {
case ASIOAuthPlaintextSignatureMethod:
signature = [self oauthGeneratePlaintextSignatureFor:baseString withClientSecret:clientSecret andTokenSecret:tokenSecret];
case ASIOAuthHMAC_SHA1SignatureMethod:
signature = [self oauthGenerateHMAC_SHA1SignatureFor:baseString withClientSecret:clientSecret andTokenSecret:tokenSecret];
[oauthParameters addObject:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"oauth_signature", @"key", signature, @"value", nil]];
// Set the Authorization header
NSMutableArray *oauthHeader = [NSMutableArray array];
for (NSDictionary *param in oauthParameters)
[oauthHeader addObject:[NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@=\"%@\"", [[param objectForKey:@"key"] encodeForURL], [[param objectForKey:@"value"] encodeForURL]]];
[self addRequestHeader:@"Authorization" value:[NSString stringWithFormat:@"OAuth %@", [oauthHeader componentsJoinedByString:@", "]]];
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