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                    WaoN - a wave-to-notes transcriber 0.11

    Copyright (C) 1998-2015 Kengo Ichiki <>
                            All Rights Reserved

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
    Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.


                  Project URL:


                       is a Wave-to-Notes transcriber
                       (last updated on Aug. 8, 2015)
What's new?

     * Aug. 8, 2015: waon-0.11 released
     * Mar. 3, 2013: move the project from sourceforce to github.
     * Jan. 1, 2012: add "Demo" section.
     * Dec. 27, 2011: waon-0.10 released. (Release Note)
         waon: the quality of result is improved by cleaning up useless notes.
         gwaon: horizontal keyboard is added on the spectrum pane.
What is WaoN?

   WaoN is a Wave-to-Notes transcriber, that is, the inverse of
   'timidity' (and its descendants timidity++, and timidity with Gtk+).
   ("WaoN" also has a meaning of harmony of notes or chord in Japanese!)
   My original intention is to pick up voicing of harmony from sound of
   my favorite pianists. (I have no talent to do so, but computer will
   :-) But there is no functional application of this kind on Unix
   platform, as far as I know. So that I start writing WaoN by myself.

   Currently, WaoN contains three programs:
     * waon: transcriber (wav-to-mid converter)
     * pv: phase vocoder for time-streching and pitch-shifting
     * gwaon: GUI for waon and pv

   WaoN is released under the GNU General Public License.

     * read wav file and write standard MIDI file format 0.
     * stdin/stdout can be used as input/output file.
     * no explicit limits of number of notes at a time or along the time.
     * patch file (wav) can be used.
     * pitch shift.

   I believe that WaoN is able to be built on any platforms.
   I am developing this project currently on Mac OS X (and,
   before that, on FreeBSD).

   Since version 0.11, Win32 binaries (built on MinGW) are ready.


   WaoN's native format as sound-input is WAV, and that as note-output is
   standard MIDI format 0. If you have SoX, you can use almost all sound
   format as input. In addition, if you have timidity or some midi player
   which could read standard MIDI file from stdin, you can play resultant
   midi file on time. See also Tips.
Screenshot ("WaoN" is not a GUI application but ... :-)

$ ./waon --help
WaoN - a Wave-to-Notes transcriber, Version 0.11

Copyright (C) 1998-2013 Kengo Ichiki <>

WaoN is a Wave-to-Notes transcriber,
that is, a converter from sound file to midi file.

Usage: ./waon [option ...]

  -h --help	print this help.
  -v, --version	print version information.
  -i --input	input wav file (default: stdin)
  -o --output	output mid file (default: 'output.mid')
	options -i and -o have argument '-' as stdin/stdout
  -p --patch	patch file (default: no patch)
  -n		sampling number from WAV in 1 step (default: 2048)
  -w --window	0 no window
		1 parzen window
		2 welch window
		3 hanning window (default)
		4 hamming window
		5 blackman window
		6 steeper 30-dB/octave rolloff window
  -s --shift	shift number from WAV in 1 step
		(default: 1/4 of the value in -n option)
  -nophase	don't use phase diff to improve freq estimation.
		(default: use the correction)
  -c --cutoff	log10 of cut-off ratio to scale velocity of note
		(default: -5.0)
  -r --relative	log10 of cut-off ratio relative to the average.
		(default: no relative cutoff
		= absolute cutoff with the value in -c option)
  -k --peak	peak threshold for note-on, which ranges [0,127]
		(default: 128 = no peak-search = search only first on-event)
  -t --top	top note [midi #] (default: 103 = G7)
  -b --bottom	bottom note [midi #] (default: 28 = E1)
	Here middle C (261 Hz) = C4 = midi 60. Midi # ranges [0,127].
  -a --adjust	adjust-pitch param, which is suggested by WaoN after analysis.
		unit is half-note, that is, +1 is half-note up,
		and -0.5 is quater-note down. (default: 0)
  -psub-n	number of averaging bins in one side.
		that is, for n, (i-n,...,i,...,i+n) are averaged
		(default: 0)
  -psub-f	factor to the average, where the power is modified as
		p[i] = (sqrt(p[i]) - f * sqrt(ave[i]))^2
		(default: 0.0)
  -oct	factor to the octave removal, where the power is modified as
		p[i] = (sqrt(p[i]) - f * sqrt(oct[i]))^2
		(default: 0.0)

$ ./waon -i duet-suite.wav -n 1024 -p piano1.wav -r 1
WaoN : Reading Wave file: Microsoft PCM format,
        1 channel, 11025 samp/sec, 11025 byte/sec, 1 block align,
        8 bits/samp, 9922500 data bytes.
WaoN : Reading Wave file: Microsoft PCM format,
        1 channel, 44100 samp/sec, 88200 byte/sec, 2 block align,
        16 bits/samp, 106848 data bytes.
WaoN : end of file.
WaoN : difference of pitch = -0.077538 ( + 0.000000 )
WaoN : # of notes = 26617


   I think that the default setting (2048 samples for FFT, no window,
   etc) is enough to judge how "WaoN" works.
   Here are some more tips.
   Ex.1) if you need more resolution in time, use -s (--shift) option as
          $ ./waon -i waltz4DB.wav -o waltz4DB.mid -w 3 -n 4096 -s 2048
   Ex.2) you can use stdin and stdout, so that you can use timidity to
          play resultant midi file on time.
          $ cat dolphineD.wav | ./waon -i - -o - | timidity -id -
   Ex.3) if you want to analyse MP3,
          $ mpg123 -m -s reflectD.mp3 | sox -t raw -r 44100 -s -w - -t
          wav - | ./waon -i -

   available at
   You need FFTW library to compile WaoN. (Of course, you could use your
   favorite FFT routine easily by modifying WaoN's source a little bit.)

    1. ...

    1. improve algorithms -- partly done by phase vocoder technique.
       current focus is on time-domain.
    2. give some examples and instructions.

     * Aug. 8, 2015 : waon-0.11 released.
     * Mar. 3, 2013: move the project from sourceforce to github.
     * Jan. 1, 2012: add "Demo" section.
     * Dec. 27, 2011: waon-0.10 released. (Release Note)
         waon: the quality of result is improved by cleaning up useless notes.
         gwaon: horizontal keyboard is added on the spectrum pane.
     * Apr. 21, 2010 : David Millis sent me a patch for waon MinGW port.
     * Nov. 4, 2007 : waon-0.9 released. (Release Note)
          + add manual pages (waon.1, pv.1, gwaon.1).
          + clean the codes.
          + pv:
               . add the interactive curses mode with real-time time-strech
                 and pitch-shift.
               . add no-fft scheme (just for fun).
          + gwaon: update about window and the GUI, adding buttons for
            each function.
     * Oct 9, 2007 : ports for FreeBSD is now available.
     * Mar 10, 2007 : waon-0.8 released. (Release Note)
          + pv: rate and pitch options can work together.
          + gWaoN: add pitch-shift scale.
     * Mar 1, 2007 : waon-0.7 released!
          + WaoN:
               . bug fixed for the procedure in phase-diff correction.
               . add two functionalities, drum-removal (by options -psub-n,
                 -psub-f) and octave removal (by option -oct).
               . set hanning window as the default window.
               . set phase-diff correction as the default, and cut --phase
                 option and add -nophase option, instead.
          + pv: set hanning window as the default window.
     * Feb 24, 2007 : waon-0.6 released!
          + gWaoN: use ao libary, loop-play, play-position indicator,
            loose phase lock PV.
          + pv: bug fixed on loose phase lock, use ao libary, pitch-shifting.
          + WaoN: get rid of my old sox-derived code.
     * Feb 16, 2007 : waon-0.5 released!
          + this release is for gWaoN functionality enhancement.
     * Feb 13, 2007 :
          + pv is added in the CVS Repository.
          + waon-0.4 released!
     * Feb 10, 2007 : gWaoN is in the CVS Repository.
     * Feb 8, 2007 : waon-0.3 is out!
          + add "--phase" option to improve freq estimations by phase-vocoder
          + use libsndfile for input.
     * Sep 22, 2006 : waon-0.2 is out!
          + stereo wav can be handled properly.
          + work with either FFTW version 2 or 3.
     * Sep 20, 2006 : move to sourceforge.
     * Feb 2, 2005 : Victor Liu sent me a patch for FFTW3. thanks!
     * Jan 9, 2004 : LOGO is made.
     * Dec 21, 2003 : update URLs of source and mirror site.
     * Mar 15, 2002 :
          + change URL.
          + revise and add some links only (again. no update on program, sorry.)
     * Mar 4, 2000 :
          + long time no update...
          + revise and add some links only (no update on program, sorry.)
     * Jan 10, 1999 : start gWaoN page.
     * Jan 6, 1999 : add BUGS section, update TODO list.
     * Dec 29, 1998 : first release of "WaoN" version 0.1. See download
     * Dec 13, 1998 :
          + catch up with the state before the accident at last; equal to
            that on Dec 5, 1996.
          + change the name of this project and development is
            concentrated on non GUI version.
     * Nov 26, 1998 :
          + signed up geocities to have web page for this project.
          + delete programs by accident ;-<
     * Oct 1998 : start writing Gtk+ programs of GUI for 'wav2mid'.
     * Dec 5, 1996 : freeze developing the first generation.
     * Dec 3, 1996 : start original program named 'wav2mid'.
         Copyright (C) 1998-2015 Kengo Ichiki. All rights reserved. 


a Wave-to-Notes transcriber




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