A leader/replica setup with separate replica pools, originally forked from schoefmax/multi_db
Ruby
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
lib
spec
.gitignore
.travis.yml
Gemfile
LICENSE
README.md
Rakefile
replica_pools.gemspec

README.md

ReplicaPools

Easy Single Leader / Multiple Replica Setup for use in Ruby/Rails projects

Build
Status

Overview

ReplicaPools replaces ActiveRecord's connection with a proxy that routes database interactions to the proper connection. Safe (whitelisted) methods may go to the current replica, and all other methods go to the leader connection.

ReplicaPools also provides helpers so you can customize your replica strategy. You can organize replicas into pools and cycle through them (e.g. in a before_filter). You can make the connection default to the leader, or the default replica pool, and then use block helpers to temporarily change the behavior (e.g. in an around_filter).

  • Uses a naming convention in database.yml to designate replica pools.
  • Defaults to a given replica pool, but may also be configured to default to leader.
  • Routes database interactions (queries) to the right connection
    • Whitelisted queries go to the current connection (might be a replica).
    • All queries inside a transaction run on leader.
    • All other queries are also sent to the leader connection.
  • Supports ActiveRecord's in-memory query caching.
  • Helper methods can be used to easily load balance replicas, route traffic to different replica pools, or run directly against leader. (examples below)

Not Supported

  • Sharding.
  • Automatic load balancing strategies.
  • Replica weights. You can accomplish this in your own load balancing strategy.
  • Whitelisting models that always use leader.
  • Blacklisting poorly performing replicas. This could cause load spikes on your leader. Whatever provisions your database.yml should make this choice.

Installation and Setup

Add to your Gemfile:

gem 'replica_pools'

Adding Replicas

Add entries to your database.yml in the form of <environment>_pool_<pool_name>_name_<db_name>

For example:

# Leader connection for production environment
production:
  adapter: mysql
  database: myapp_production
  username: root
  password:
  host: localhost

# Default pool for production environment
production_pool_default_name_replica1:
  adapter: mysql
  database: replica_db1
  username: root
  password:
  host: 10.0.0.2
production_pool_default_name_replica2:
  ...

# Special pool for production environment
production_pool_admin_name_replica1:
  ...
production_pool_admin_name_another_replica:
  ...

Simulating Replicas

If you don't have any replicas (e.g. in your development environment), ReplicaPools will create a default pool containing only leader. But if you want to mimic your production environment more closely you can create a read-only mysql user and use it like a replica.

# Development connection
development: &dev
  adapter: mysql
  database: myapp_development
  username: root
  password:
  host: localhost

development_pool_default_name_replica1:
  username: readonly
  <<: &dev

Don't do this in your test environment if you use transactional tests though! The replica connections won't be able to see any fixtures or factory data.

Configuring

Add a config/initializers/replica_pools.rb if you want to change config settings:

ReplicaPools.config.defaults_to_leader = true

Usage

Toggle to next replica:

ReplicaPools.next_replica!

Specify a pool besides the default:

ReplicaPools.with_pool('other_pool') { #do stuff }

Specifically use the leader for a call:

ReplicaPools.with_leader { #do stuff }

Load Balancing

If you have multiple replicas in a pool and you'd like to load balance requests between them, you can easily accomplish this with a before_filter:

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
  after_filter    :switch_to_next_replica

  protected

  def switch_to_next_replica
    ReplicaPools.next_replica!
  end
end

Specialty Pools

If you have specialized replica pools and would like to use them for different controllers or actions, you can use an around_filter:

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
  around_filter   :use_special_replicas

  protected

  def use_special_replicas
    ReplicaPools.with_pool('special'){ yield }
  end
end

Replica Lag

By default, writes are sent to the leader and reads are sent to replicas. But replicas might lag behind the leader by seconds or even minutes. So if you write to leader during a request you probably want to read from leader in that request as well. You may even want to read from the leader on the next request, to cover redirects.

Here's one way to accomplish that:

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base

  around_filter   :stick_to_leader_for_updates
  around_filter   :use_leader_for_redirect #goes with above

  def stick_to_leader_for_updates
    if request.get?
      yield
    else
      ReplicaPools.with_leader { yield }
      session[:stick_to_leader] = 1
    end
  end

  def use_leader_for_redirect
    if session[:stick_to_leader]
      session[:stick_to_leader] = nil
      ReplicaPools.with_leader { yield }
    else
      yield
    end
  end
end

Running specs

If you haven't already, install the rspec gem, then set up your database with a test database and a read_only user.

To match spec/config/database.yml, you can run:

rake bootstrap

From the plugin directory, run:

rspec spec

Authors

Author: Dan Drabik, Lance Ivy

Copyright (c) 2012-2013, Kickstarter

Released under the MIT license

See also

MultiDb

The project is based on:

Masochism

The original leader/replica plugin: