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%%% Copyright (c) 2005-2006, A2Z Development USA, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
%%%
%%% The contents of this file are subject to the Erlang Public License,
%%% Version 1.1, (the "License"); you may not use this file except in
%%% compliance with the License. You should have received a copy of the
%%% Erlang Public License along with this software. If not, it can be
%%% retrieved via the world wide web at http://www.erlang.org/.
%%%
%%% Software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS"
%%% basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See
%%% the License for the specific language governing rights and limitations
%%% under the License.
%%%
%%% The Initial Developer of the Original Code is A2Z Development USA, Inc.
%%% All Rights Reserved.
-module(json2).
-export([encode/1, decode_string/1, decode/2]).
-export([is_obj/1, obj_new/0, obj_fetch/2, obj_find/2, obj_is_key/2]).
-export([obj_store/3, obj_from_list/1, obj_fold/3]).
-export([test/0]).
-author("Jim Larson <jalarson@amazon.com>, Robert Wai-Chi Chu <robchu@amazon.com>").
-author("Gaspar Chilingarov <nm@web.am>, Gurgen Tumanyan <barbarian@armkb.com>").
-author("Steve Vinoski <vinoski@ieee.org>").
-vsn("3").
%%% JavaScript Object Notation ("JSON", http://www.json.org) is a simple
%%% data syntax meant as a lightweight alternative to other representations,
%%% such as XML. JSON is natively supported by JavaScript, but many
%%% other languages have conversion libraries available.
%%%
%%% This module translates JSON types into the following Erlang types:
%%%
%%% JSON Erlang
%%% ---- ------
%%% number number
%%% string string
%%% array {array, ElementList}
%%% object tagged proplist with string keys (i.e. {struct, PropList} )
%%% true, false, null atoms 'true', 'false', and 'null'
%%%
%%% Character Sets: the external representation, and the internal
%%% representation of strings, are lists of UTF-8 code units.
%%%
%%% Numbers: Thanks to Erlang's bignums, JSON-encoded integers of any
%%% size can be parsed. Conversely, extremely large integers may
%%% be JSON-encoded. This may cause problems for interoperability
%%% with JSON parsers which can't handle arbitrary-sized integers.
%%% Erlang's floats are of fixed precision and limited range, so
%%% syntactically valid JSON floating-point numbers could silently
%%% lose precision or noisily cause an overflow. However, most
%%% other JSON libraries are likely to behave in the same way.
%%%
%%% Strings: If we represented JSON string data as Erlang binaries,
%%% we would have to choose a particular unicode format. Instead,
%%% we use lists of UTF-16 code units, which applications may then
%%% change to binaries in their application-preferred manner.
%%%
%%% Arrays: Because of the string decision above, and Erlang's
%%% lack of a distinguished string datatype, JSON arrays map
%%% to {array, ArrayElementList}, where ArrayElementList -> list.
%%%
%%% Objects: Though not explicitly stated in the JSON "spec",
%%% JSON's JavaScript heritage mandates that member names must
%%% be unique within an object. The object/tuple ambiguity is
%%% not a problem, since the atom 'struct' is not an
%%% allowable value. Object keys may be atoms or strings on
%%% encoding but are always decoded as strings.
%%%
%%% ENCODING
%% Encode an erlang number, string, tuple, or object to JSON syntax, as a
%% possibly deep list of UTF-8 code units, throwing a runtime error in the
%% case of un-convertible input.
%% Note: object keys may be either strings or atoms.
encode(true) -> "true";
encode(false) -> "false";
encode(null) -> "null";
encode(undefined) -> "null";
encode(B) when is_binary(B) -> encode_string(B);
encode(I) when is_integer(I) -> integer_to_list(I);
encode(F) when is_float(F) -> float_to_list(F);
encode(L) when is_list(L) ->
case is_string(L) of
yes -> encode_string(L);
unicode -> encode_string(xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(L));
no -> encode({array, L})
end;
encode({array, Props}) when is_list(Props) -> encode_array(Props);
encode({struct, Props} = T) when is_list(Props) -> encode_object(T);
encode(Bad) -> exit({json_encode, {bad_term, Bad}}).
%% Encode an Erlang string to JSON.
%% Accumulate strings in reverse.
encode_string(B) when is_binary(B) -> encode_string(binary_to_list(B));
encode_string(S) -> encode_string(S, [$"]).
encode_string([], Acc) -> lists:reverse([$" | Acc]);
encode_string([C | Cs], Acc) ->
case C of
$" -> encode_string(Cs, [$", $\\ | Acc]);
% (don't escape solidus on encode)
$\\ -> encode_string(Cs, [$\\, $\\ | Acc]);
$\b -> encode_string(Cs, [$b, $\\ | Acc]); % note missing \
$\f -> encode_string(Cs, [$f, $\\ | Acc]);
$\n -> encode_string(Cs, [$n, $\\ | Acc]);
$\r -> encode_string(Cs, [$r, $\\ | Acc]);
$\t -> encode_string(Cs, [$t, $\\ | Acc]);
C when C >= 0, C < $\s ->
% Control characters must be unicode-encoded.
Hex = lists:flatten(io_lib:format("~4.16.0b", [C])),
encode_string(Cs, lists:reverse(Hex) ++ "u\\" ++ Acc); % "
C when C =< 16#FFFF -> encode_string(Cs, [C | Acc]);
_ -> exit({json_encode, {bad_char, C}})
end.
%% Encode an Erlang object as a JSON object, allowing string or atom keys.
%% Note that order is irrelevant in both internal and external object
%% representations. Nevertheless, the output will respect the order
%% of the input.
encode_object({struct, _Props} = Obj) ->
M = obj_fold(fun({Key, Value}, Acc) ->
S = case Key of
B when is_binary(B) -> encode_string(B);
L when is_list(L) ->
case is_string(L) of
yes -> encode_string(L);
unicode -> encode_string(xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(L));
no -> exit({json_encode, {bad_key, Key}})
end;
A when is_atom(A) -> encode_string(atom_to_list(A));
_ -> exit({json_encode, {bad_key, Key}})
end,
V = encode(Value),
case Acc of
[] -> [S, $:, V];
_ -> [Acc, $,, S, $:, V]
end
end, [], Obj),
[${, M, $}].
%% Encode an Erlang tuple as a JSON array.
%% Order *is* significant in a JSON array!
encode_array(T) ->
M = lists:foldl(fun(E, Acc) ->
V = encode(E),
case Acc of
[] -> V;
_ -> [Acc, $,, V]
end
end, [], T),
[$[, M, $]].
%%% SCANNING
%%%
%%% Scanning funs return either:
%%% {done, Result, LeftOverChars}
%%% if a complete token is recognized, or
%%% {more, Continuation}
%%% if more input is needed.
%%% Result is {ok, Term}, 'eof', or {error, Reason}.
%%% Here, the Continuation is a simple Erlang string.
%%%
%%% Currently, error handling is rather crude - errors are recognized
%%% by match failures. EOF is handled only by number scanning, where
%%% it can delimit a number, and otherwise causes a match failure.
%%%
%%% Tokens are one of the following
%%% JSON string -> erlang string
%%% JSON number -> erlang number
%%% true, false, null -> erlang atoms
%%% { } [ ] : , -> lcbrace rcbrace lsbrace rsbrace colon comma
token([]) -> {more, []};
token(eof) -> {done, eof, []};
token("true" ++ Rest) -> {done, {ok, true}, Rest};
token("tru") -> {more, "tru"};
token("tr") -> {more, "tr"};
token("t") -> {more, "t"};
token("false" ++ Rest) -> {done, {ok, false}, Rest};
token("fals") -> {more, "fals"};
token("fal") -> {more, "fal"};
token("fa") -> {more, "fa"};
token("f") -> {more, "f"};
token("null" ++ Rest) -> {done, {ok, null}, Rest};
token("nul") -> {more, "nul"};
token("nu") -> {more, "nu"};
token("n") -> {more, "n"};
token([C | Cs] = Input) ->
case C of
$\s -> token(Cs); % eat whitespace
$\t -> token(Cs); % eat whitespace
$\n -> token(Cs); % eat whitespace
$\r -> token(Cs); % eat whitespace
$" -> scan_string(Input);
$- -> scan_number(Input);
D when D >= $0, D =< $9-> scan_number(Input);
${ -> {done, {ok, lcbrace}, Cs};
$} -> {done, {ok, rcbrace}, Cs};
$[ -> {done, {ok, lsbrace}, Cs};
$] -> {done, {ok, rsbrace}, Cs};
$: -> {done, {ok, colon}, Cs};
$, -> {done, {ok, comma}, Cs};
_ -> {done, {error, {bad_char, C}}, Cs}
end.
scan_string([$" | Cs] = Input) ->
scan_string(Cs, [], Input).
%% Accumulate in reverse order, save original start-of-string for continuation.
scan_string([], _, X) -> {more, X};
scan_string(eof, _, X) -> {done, {error, missing_close_quote}, X};
scan_string([$" | Rest], A, _) -> {done, {ok, lists:reverse(A)}, Rest};
scan_string([$\\], _, X) -> {more, X};
scan_string([$\\, $u, U1, U2, U3, U4 | Rest], A, X) ->
scan_string(Rest, [uni_char([U1, U2, U3, U4]) | A], X);
scan_string([$\\, $u | _], _, X) -> {more, X};
scan_string([$\\, C | Rest], A, X) ->
scan_string(Rest, [esc_to_char(C) | A], X);
scan_string([C | Rest], A, X) ->
scan_string(Rest, [C | A], X).
%% Given a list of hex characters, convert to the corresponding integer.
uni_char(HexList) ->
erlang:list_to_integer(HexList, 16).
esc_to_char($") -> $";
esc_to_char($/) -> $/;
esc_to_char($\\) -> $\\;
esc_to_char($b) -> $\b;
esc_to_char($f) -> $\f;
esc_to_char($n) -> $\n;
esc_to_char($r) -> $\r;
esc_to_char($t) -> $\t.
scan_number([]) -> {more, []};
scan_number(eof) -> {done, {error, incomplete_number}, []};
scan_number([$-, $- | _Ds]) -> {done, {error, invalid_number}, []};
scan_number([$- | Ds] = Input) ->
case scan_number(Ds) of
{more, _Cont} -> {more, Input};
{done, {ok, N}, CharList} -> {done, {ok, -1 * N}, CharList};
{done, Other, Chars} -> {done, Other, Chars}
end;
scan_number([D | Ds] = Input) when D >= $0, D =< $9 ->
scan_number(Ds, D - $0, Input).
%% Numbers don't have a terminator, so stop at the first non-digit,
%% and ask for more if we run out.
scan_number([], _A, X) -> {more, X};
scan_number(eof, A, _X) -> {done, {ok, A}, eof};
scan_number([$.], _A, X) -> {more, X};
scan_number([$., D | Ds], A, X) when D >= $0, D =< $9 ->
scan_fraction([D | Ds], A, X);
scan_number([D | Ds], A, X) when A > 0, D >= $0, D =< $9 ->
% Note that nonzero numbers can't start with "0".
scan_number(Ds, 10 * A + (D - $0), X);
scan_number([D | Ds], A, X) when D == $E; D == $e ->
scan_exponent_begin(Ds, integer_to_list(A) ++ ".0", X);
scan_number([D | _] = Ds, A, _X) when D < $0; D > $9 ->
{done, {ok, A}, Ds}.
scan_fraction(Ds, I, X) -> scan_fraction(Ds, [], I, X).
scan_fraction([], _Fs, _I, X) -> {more, X};
scan_fraction(eof, Fs, I, _X) ->
R = list_to_float(lists:append([integer_to_list(I), ".",
lists:reverse(Fs)])),
{done, {ok, R}, eof};
scan_fraction([D | Ds], Fs, I, X) when D >= $0, D =< $9 ->
scan_fraction(Ds, [D | Fs], I, X);
scan_fraction([D | Ds], Fs, I, X) when D == $E; D == $e ->
R = lists:append([integer_to_list(I), ".", lists:reverse(Fs)]),
scan_exponent_begin(Ds, R, X);
scan_fraction(Rest, Fs, I, _X) ->
R = list_to_float(lists:append([integer_to_list(I), ".",
lists:reverse(Fs)])),
{done, {ok, R}, Rest}.
scan_exponent_begin(Ds, R, X) ->
scan_exponent_begin(Ds, [], R, X).
scan_exponent_begin([], _Es, _R, X) -> {more, X};
scan_exponent_begin(eof, _Es, _R, X) -> {done, {error, missing_exponent}, X};
scan_exponent_begin([D | Ds], Es, R, X) when D == $-;
D == $+;
D >= $0, D =< $9 ->
scan_exponent(Ds, [D | Es], R, X).
scan_exponent([], _Es, _R, X) -> {more, X};
scan_exponent(eof, Es, R, _X) ->
X = list_to_float(lists:append([R, "e", lists:reverse(Es)])),
{done, {ok, X}, eof};
scan_exponent([D | Ds], Es, R, X) when D >= $0, D =< $9 ->
scan_exponent(Ds, [D | Es], R, X);
scan_exponent(Rest, Es, R, _X) ->
X = list_to_float(lists:append([R, "e", lists:reverse(Es)])),
{done, {ok, X}, Rest}.
%%% PARSING
%%%
%%% The decode function takes a char list as input, but
%%% interprets the end of the list as only an end to the available
%%% input, and returns a "continuation" requesting more input.
%%% When additional characters are available, they, and the
%%% continuation, are fed into decode/2. You can use the atom 'eof'
%%% as a character to signal a true end to the input stream, and
%%% possibly flush out an unfinished number. The decode_string/1
%%% function appends 'eof' to its input and calls decode/1.
%%%
%%% Parsing and scanning errors are handled only by match failures.
%%% The external caller must take care to wrap the call in a "catch"
%%% or "try" if better error-handling is desired. Eventually parse
%%% or scan errors will be returned explicitly with a description,
%%% and someday with line numbers too.
%%%
%%% The parsing code uses a continuation-passing style to allow
%%% for the parsing to suspend at any point and be resumed when
%%% more input is available.
%%% See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuation_passing_style
%% Return the first JSON value decoded from the input string.
%% The string must contain at least one complete JSON value.
decode_string(CharList) ->
{done, V, _} = decode([], CharList ++ eof),
V.
%% Attempt to decode a JSON value from the input string
%% and continuation, using empty list for the initial continuation.
%% Return {done, Result, LeftoverChars} if a value is recognized,
%% or {more, Continuation} if more input characters are needed.
%% The Result can be {ok, Value}, eof, or {error, Reason}.
%% The Continuation is then fed as an argument to decode/2 when
%% more input is available.
%% Use the atom 'eof' instead of a char list to signal
%% a true end to the input, and may flush a final number.
decode([], CharList) ->
decode(first_continuation(), CharList);
decode(Continuation, CharList) ->
{OldChars, Kt} = Continuation,
get_token(OldChars ++ CharList, Kt).
first_continuation() ->
{[], fun
(eof, Cs) ->
{done, eof, Cs};
(T, Cs) ->
parse_value(T, Cs, fun(V, C2) ->
{done, {ok, V}, C2}
end)
end}.
%% Continuation Kt must accept (TokenOrEof, Chars)
get_token(Chars, Kt) ->
case token(Chars) of
{done, {ok, T}, Rest} -> Kt(T, Rest);
{done, eof, Rest} -> Kt(eof, Rest);
{done, {error, Reason}, Rest} -> {done, {error, Reason}, Rest};
{more, X} -> {more, {X, Kt}}
end.
%% Continuation Kv must accept (Value, Chars)
parse_value(eof, C, _Kv) -> {done, {error, premature_eof}, C};
parse_value(true, C, Kv) -> Kv(true, C);
parse_value(false, C, Kv) -> Kv(false, C);
parse_value(null, C, Kv) -> Kv(null, C);
parse_value(S, C, Kv) when is_list(S) -> Kv(S, C);
parse_value(N, C, Kv) when is_number(N) -> Kv(N, C);
parse_value(lcbrace, C, Kv) -> parse_object(C, Kv);
parse_value(lsbrace, C, Kv) -> parse_array(C, Kv);
parse_value(_, C, _Kv) -> {done, {error, syntax_error}, C}.
%% Continuation Kv must accept (Value, Chars)
parse_object(Chars, Kv) ->
get_token(Chars, fun(T, C2) ->
Obj = obj_new(),
case T of
rcbrace -> Kv(Obj, C2); % empty object
_ -> parse_object(Obj, T, C2, Kv) % token must be string
end
end).
parse_object(_Obj, eof, C, _Kv) ->
{done, {error, premature_eof}, C};
parse_object(Obj, S, C, Kv) when is_list(S) -> % S is member name
get_token(C, fun
(colon, C2) ->
parse_object2(Obj, S, C2, Kv);
(T, C2) ->
{done, {error, {expecting_colon, T}}, C2}
end);
parse_object(_Obj, M, C, _Kv) ->
{done, {error, {member_name_not_string, M}}, C}.
parse_object2(Obj, S, C, Kv) ->
get_token(C, fun
(eof, C2) ->
{done, {error, premature_eof}, C2};
(T, C2) ->
parse_value(T, C2, fun(V, C3) -> % V is member value
Obj2 = obj_store(S, V, Obj),
get_token(C3, fun
(rcbrace, C4) -> % "}" end of object
{struct, PropList1} = Obj2,
Kv({struct, lists:reverse(PropList1)}, C4);
(comma, C4) -> % "," another member follows
get_token(C4, fun(T3, C5) ->
parse_object(Obj2, T3, C5, Kv)
end);
(eof, C4) ->
{done, {error, premature_eof}, C4};
(T2, C4) ->
{done, {error, {expecting_comma_or_curly, T2}}, C4}
end)
end)
end).
%% Continuation Kv must accept (Value, Chars)
parse_array(C, Kv) ->
get_token(C, fun
(eof, C2) -> {done, {error, premature_eof}, C2};
(rsbrace, C2) -> Kv({array, []}, C2); % empty array
(T, C2) -> parse_array([], T, C2, Kv)
end).
parse_array(E, T, C, Kv) ->
parse_value(T, C, fun(V, C2) ->
E2 = [V | E],
get_token(C2, fun
(rsbrace, C3) -> % "]" end of array
Kv({array, lists:reverse(E2)}, C3);
(comma, C3) -> % "," another value follows
get_token(C3, fun(T3, C4) ->
parse_array(E2, T3, C4, Kv)
end);
(eof, C3) ->
{done, {error, premature_eof}, C3};
(T2, C3) ->
{done, {error, {expecting_comma_or_close_array, T2}}, C3}
end)
end).
%%% OBJECTS
%%%
%%% We'll use tagged property lists as the internal representation
%%% of JSON objects. Unordered lists perform worse than trees for
%%% lookup and modification of members, but we expect objects to be
%%% have only a few members. Lists also print better.
%% Is this a proper JSON object representation?
is_obj({struct, Props}) when is_list(Props) ->
lists:all(fun
({Member, _Value}) when is_atom(Member); is_list(Member) -> true;
(_) -> false
end, Props);
is_obj(_) ->
false.
%% Create a new, empty object.
obj_new() ->
{struct, []}.
%% Fetch an object member's value, expecting it to be in the object.
%% Return value, runtime error if no member found with that name.
obj_fetch(Key, {struct, Props}) when is_list(Props) ->
case proplists:get_value(Key, Props) of
undefined ->
exit({struct_no_key, Key});
Value ->
Value
end.
%% Fetch an object member's value, or indicate that there is no such member.
%% Return {ok, Value} or 'error'.
obj_find(Key, {struct, Props}) when is_list(Props) ->
case proplists:get_value(Key, Props) of
undefined ->
error;
Value ->
{ok, Value}
end.
obj_is_key(Key, {struct, Props}) ->
proplists:is_defined(Key, Props).
%% Store a new member in an object. Returns a new object.
obj_store(Key, Value, {struct, Props}) when is_list(Props) ->
{struct, [{Key, Value} | proplists:delete(Key, Props)]}.
%% Create an object from a list of Key/Value pairs.
obj_from_list(Props) ->
Obj = {struct, Props},
case is_obj(Obj) of
true -> Obj;
false -> exit(json_bad_object)
end.
%% Fold Fun across object, with initial accumulator Acc.
%% Fun should take (Value, Acc) as arguments and return Acc.
obj_fold(Fun, Acc, {struct, Props}) ->
lists:foldl(Fun, Acc, Props).
is_string([]) -> yes;
is_string(List) -> is_string(List, non_unicode).
is_string([C|Rest], non_unicode) when is_integer(C), C >= 0, C =< 255 ->
is_string(Rest, non_unicode);
is_string([C|Rest], _) when is_integer(C), C =< 65000 ->
is_string(Rest, unicode);
is_string([], non_unicode) -> yes;
is_string([], unicode) -> unicode;
is_string(_, _) -> no.
%%% TESTING
%%%
%%% We can't expect to round-trip from JSON -> Erlang -> JSON,
%%% due to the degrees of freedom in the JSON syntax: whitespace,
%%% and ordering of object members. We can, however, expect to
%%% round-trip from Erlang -> JSON -> Erlang, so the JSON parsing
%%% tests will in fact test the Erlang equivalence of the
%%% JSON -> Erlang -> JSON -> Erlang coding chain.
%% Test driver. Return 'ok' or {failed, Failures}.
test() ->
E2Js = e2j_test_vec(),
Failures =
lists:foldl(
fun({E, J}, Fs) ->
case (catch test_e2j(E, J)) of
ok ->
case (catch round_trip(E)) of
ok ->
case (catch round_trip_one_char(E)) of
ok ->
Fs;
Reason ->
[{round_trip_one_char, E, Reason} |
Fs]
end;
Reason ->
[{round_trip, E, Reason} | Fs]
end;
Reason ->
[{erlang_to_json, E, J, Reason} | Fs]
end;
(end_of_tests, Fs) ->
Fs
end, [], E2Js),
case Failures of
[] -> ok;
_ -> {failed, Failures}
end.
%% Test for conversion from Erlang to JSON. Note that unequal strings
%% may represent equal JSON data, due to discretionary whitespace,
%% object member order, trailing zeroes in floating point, etc.
%% Legitimate changes to the encoding routines may require tweaks to
%% the reference JSON strings in e2j_test_vec().
%% This clause handles floats specially due to the need for fuzzy matching
%% to avoid slight differences due to conversions. Rather than direct
%% comparison as done in the more general clause below, here we allow a
%% small relative difference between expected and actual.
test_e2j(E, J) when is_float(E) ->
J2 = lists:flatten(encode(E)),
E2 = list_to_float(J2),
E1 = list_to_float(J),
Rel = abs(E2 - E1)/E,
true = Rel < 0.005,
ok;
test_e2j(E, J) ->
J2 = lists:flatten(encode(E)),
J = J2, % raises error if unequal
ok.
%% Test that Erlang -> JSON -> Erlang round-trip yields equivalent term.
round_trip(E) ->
J2 = lists:flatten(encode(E)),
{ok, E2} = decode_string(J2),
true = equiv(E, E2), % raises error if false
ok.
%% Round-trip with one character at a time to test all continuations.
round_trip_one_char(E) ->
J = lists:flatten(encode(E)),
{done, {ok, E2}, _} = lists:foldl(fun(C, Ret) ->
case Ret of
{done, _, _} -> Ret;
{more, Cont} -> decode(Cont, [C])
end
end, {more, first_continuation()}, J ++ [eof]),
true = equiv(E, E2), % raises error if false
ok.
%% Test for equivalence of Erlang terms.
%% Due to arbitrary order of construction, equivalent objects might
%% compare unequal as erlang terms, so we need to carefully recurse
%% through aggregates (arrays and objects).
equiv({struct, Props1}, {struct, Props2}) ->
equiv_object(Props1, Props2);
equiv({array, ArrayList1}, {array, ArrayList2}) ->
equiv_array(ArrayList1, ArrayList2);
equiv(N1, N2) when is_number(N1), is_number(N2) -> N1 == N2;
equiv(S1, S2) when is_list(S1), is_list(S2) ->
case {is_string(S1), is_string(S2)} of
{unicode, unicode} ->
xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(S1) == xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(S2);
{unicode, _} ->
xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(S1) == S2;
{_, unicode} ->
S1 == xmerl_ucs:to_utf8(S2);
_ ->
S1 == S2
end;
equiv(true, true) -> true;
equiv(false, false) -> true;
equiv(null, null) -> true.
%% Object representation and traversal order is unknown.
%% Use the sledgehammer and sort property lists.
equiv_object(Props1, Props2) ->
L1 = lists:keysort(1, Props1),
L2 = lists:keysort(1, Props2),
Pairs = lists:zip(L1, L2),
true = lists:all(fun({{K1, V1}, {K2, V2}}) ->
equiv(K1, K2) and equiv(V1, V2)
end, Pairs).
%% Recursively compare array elements for equivalence.
equiv_array([], []) ->
true;
equiv_array(A1, A2) when length(A1) == length(A2) ->
lists:all(fun({E1,E2}) ->
equiv(E1, E2)
end, lists:zip(A1, A2)).
e2j_test_vec() -> [
{1, "1"},
{3.1416, "3.14160"}, % text representation may truncate, trail zeroes
{-1, "-1"},
{-3.1416, "-3.14160"},
{12.0e10, "1.20000e+11"},
{1.234E+10, "1.23400e+10"},
{-1.234E-10, "-1.23400e-10"},
{"foo", "\"foo\""},
{"foo" ++ [500] ++ "bar", [$", $f, $o, $o, $\307, $\264, $b, $a, $r, $"]},
{"foo" ++ [5] ++ "bar", "\"foo\\u0005bar\""},
{"", "\"\""},
{[], "\"\""},
{"\n\n\n", "\"\\n\\n\\n\""},
{obj_new(), "{}"},
{obj_from_list([{"foo", "bar"}]), "{\"foo\":\"bar\"}"},
{obj_from_list([{"foo", "bar"}, {"baz", 123}]),
"{\"foo\":\"bar\",\"baz\":123}"},
{{array, []}, "[]"},
{{array, [{array, []}]}, "[[]]"},
{{array, [1, "foo"]}, "[1,\"foo\"]"},
% json array in a json object
{obj_from_list([{"foo", {array, [123]}}]),
"{\"foo\":[123]}"},
% json object in a json object
{obj_from_list([{"foo", obj_from_list([{"bar", true}])}]),
"{\"foo\":{\"bar\":true}}"},
% fold evaluation order
{obj_from_list([{"foo", {array, []}},
{"bar", obj_from_list([{"baz", true}])},
{"alice", "bob"}]),
"{\"foo\":[],\"bar\":{\"baz\":true},\"alice\":\"bob\"}"},
% json object in a json array
{{array, [-123, "foo", obj_from_list([{"bar", {array, []}}]), null]},
"[-123,\"foo\",{\"bar\":[]},null]"},
end_of_tests
].
%%% TODO:
%%%
%%% Measure the overhead of the CPS-based parser by writing a conventional
%%% scanner-parser that expects all input to be available.
%%%
%%% Allow a compile-time option to decode object member names as atoms,
%%% to reduce the internal representation overheads when communicating
%%% with trusted peers.
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