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Tensorflow implementation of Neural Ordinary Differential Equations

This is simple implementation of Neural Ordinary Differential Equations paper.

  • Example result of probability density transformation using CNFs (two moons dataset). The first image shows continuous transformation from unit gaussian to two moons. Second image shows training loss, initial samples from two moons and target unit gaussian evolution during training.


Published Google slides presentation and other materials:


Notebooks are related with the content of the slides


  • tested on tensorflow==1.12


This implementation supports few fixed grid solvers (however adaptive forward integration mode is also possible with tensorflow odeint call).

Implemented solvers (only explicit):

  • Euler
  • Midpoint
  • RK4

It should be easy to implement any other solver (I believe). For example this is how RK4 solver is implemented:

def rk4_step(func, dt, state):
    k1 = func(state)
    k2 = func(euler_update(state, k1, dt / 2))
    k3 = func(euler_update(state, k2, dt / 2))
    k4 = func(euler_update(state, k3, dt))

    return zip_map(
        zip(state, k1, k2, k3, k4),
        lambda h, dk1, dk2, dk3, dk4:
            h + dt * (dk1 + 2 * dk2 + 2 * dk3 + dk4) / 6,

Reverse mode is implemented with adjoint method or can be computed with explicit backpropagation through graph.


Forward and reverse mode with Keras API

Example usage with Keras API:

import neural_ode

class NNModule(tf.keras.Model):
    def __init__(self, num_filters):
        super(NNModule, self).__init__(name="Module")
        self.dense_1 = Dense(num_filters, activation="tanh")
        self.dense_2 = Dense(num_filters, activation="tanh")

    def call(self, inputs, **kwargs):
        t, x = inputs
        h = self.dense_1(x)
        return self.dense_2(h)

# create model and ode solver
model = NNModule(num_filters=3)
ode = NeuralODE(
    model, t=np.linspace(0, 1.0, 20),
x0 = tf.random_normal(shape=[12, 3])

with tf.GradientTape() as g:
    xN = ode.forward(x0)
    # some loss function here e.g. L2
    loss = xN ** 2

# reverse mode with adjoint method
dLoss = g.gradient(loss, xN)
x0_rec, dLdx0, dLdW = ode.backward(xN, dLoss)
# this is equivalent to:
dLdx0, *dLdW = g.gradient(loss, [x0, *model.weights])


For full and optimized code see notebook about CNFs:

num_samples = 512
cnf_net = CNF(input_dim=2, hidden_dim=32, n_ensemble=16)
ode = NeuralODE(model=cnf_net, t=np.linspace(0, 1, 10))

for _ in ranage(1000):
    x0 = tf.to_float(make_moons(n_samples=num_samples, noise=0.08)[0])
    logdet0 = tf.zeros([num_samples, 1])
    h0 = tf.concat([x0, logdet0], axis=1)

    hN = ode.forward(inputs=h0)
    with tf.GradientTape() as g:
        xN, logdetN = hN[:, :2], hN[:, 2]
        mle = tf.reduce_sum(p0.log_prob(xN), -1)
        loss = - tf.reduce_mean(mle - logdetN)

    h0_rec, dLdh0, dLdW = ode.backward(hN, g.gradient(loss, hN))
    optimizer.apply_gradients(zip(dLdW, cnf_net.weights))


One can convert NeuralODE calls to static graph with tf.function (tf>=1.12) or defunc (tf 1.12). Here is example:

from neural_ode import defun_neural_ode
ode = NeuralODE(model=some_model, t=t_grid, solver=some_solver)
ode = defun_neural_ode(ode)
# first call will take some time
outputs = ode.forward(inputs=some_inputs)
# second call will be much faster
outputs = ode.forward(inputs=some_inputs)


For more examples see file.



  • no adaptive solver for reverse mode
  • no implicit solvers
  • tensorflow eager mode seems to be slow even after functionalization of the graph
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