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A Simple and Comprehensive Vulnerability Scanner for Containers, Suitable for CI
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GitHub release CircleCI Go Report Card License: AGPL v3

A Simple and Comprehensive Vulnerability Scanner for Containers, Suitable for CI

Accuracy Comparison

The number of vulnerabilities detected on Alpine Linux (as of 2019/05/12)

See Comparison with other scanners for details.

TOC

Abstract

Trivy (tri pronounced like trigger, vy pronounced like envy) is a simple and comprehensive vulnerability scanner for containers. Trivy detects vulnerabilities of OS packages (Alpine, RHEL, CentOS, etc.) and application dependencies (Bundler, Composer, npm, yarn etc.). Trivy is easy to use. Just install the binary and you're ready to scan. All you need to do for scanning is to specify an image name of container.

It is considered to be used in CI. Before pushing to a container registry, you can scan your local container image easily. See here for details.

Features

  • Detect comprehensive vulnerabilities
    • OS packages (Alpine, Red Hat Universal Base Image, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Debian and Ubuntu)
    • Application dependencies (Bundler, Composer, Pipenv, Poetry, npm, yarn and Cargo)
  • Simple
  • Easy installation
    • No need for prerequirements such as installation of DB, libraries, etc.
    • apt-get install, yum install and brew install is possible (See Installation)
  • High accuracy
  • DevSecOps
    • Suitable for CI such as Travis CI, CircleCI, Jenkins, etc.
    • See CI Example

Installation

RHEL/CentOS

Add repository setting to /etc/yum.repos.d.

$ sudo vim /etc/yum.repos.d/trivy.repo
[trivy]
name=Trivy repository
baseurl=https://knqyf263.github.io/trivy-repo/rpm/releases/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1
$ sudo yum -y update
$ sudo yum -y install trivy

or

$ rpm -ivh https://github.com/knqyf263/trivy/releases/download/v0.0.15/trivy_0.0.15_Linux-64bit.rpm

Debian/Ubuntu

Replace [CODE_NAME] with your code name

CODE_NAME: wheezy, jessie, stretch, buster, trusty, xenial, bionic

$ sudo apt-get install apt-transport-https gnupg
$ wget -qO - https://knqyf263.github.io/trivy-repo/deb/public.key | sudo apt-key add -
$ echo deb https://knqyf263.github.io/trivy-repo/deb [CODE_NAME] main | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/trivy.list
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install trivy

or

$ sudo apt-get install rpm
$ wget https://github.com/knqyf263/trivy/releases/download/v0.0.15/trivy_0.0.15_Linux-64bit.deb
$ sudo dpkg -i trivy_0.0.15_Linux-64bit.deb

Mac OS X / Homebrew

You can use homebrew on Mac OS.

$ brew install knqyf263/trivy/trivy

Binary (Including Windows)

Get the latest version from this page, and download the archive file for your operating system/architecture. Unpack the archive, and put the binary somewhere in your $PATH (on UNIX-y systems, /usr/local/bin or the like). Make sure it has execution bits turned on.

You need to install rpm command for scanning RHEL/CentOS.

From source

$ go get -u github.com/knqyf263/trivy

Quick Start

Simply specify an image name (and a tag). The latest tag should be avoided as problems occur with cache.. See Clear image caches

Basic

$ trivy [YOUR_IMAGE_NAME]

For example:

$ trivy python:3.4-alpine
Result
2019-05-16T01:20:43.180+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T01:20:53.029+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

Docker

Replace [YOUR_CACHE_DIR] with the cache directory on your machine.

$ docker run --rm -v [YOUR_CACHE_DIR]:/root/.cache/ knqyf263/trivy [YOUR_IMAGE_NAME]

Example for macOS:

$ docker run --rm -v $HOME/Library/Caches:/root/.cache/ knqyf263/trivy python:3.4-alpine

If you would like to scan the image on your host machine, you need to mount docker.sock.

$ docker run --rm -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock \
    -v $HOME/Library/Caches:/root/.cache/ knqyf263/trivy python:3.4-alpine

Please re-pull latest knqyf263/trivy if an error occured.

Result
2019-05-16T01:20:43.180+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T01:20:53.029+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

Examples

Scan an image

Simply specify an image name (and a tag).

$ trivy knqyf263/test-image:1.2.3
Result
2019-05-16T12:58:55.967+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:59:03.150+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:03.156+0900    INFO    Updating bundler Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:04.941+0900    INFO    Detecting bundler vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:04.942+0900    INFO    Updating cargo Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:05.967+0900    INFO    Detecting cargo vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:05.967+0900    INFO    Updating composer Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:07.834+0900    INFO    Detecting composer vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:07.834+0900    INFO    Updating npm Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:10.285+0900    INFO    Detecting npm vulnerabilities...
2019-05-16T12:59:10.285+0900    INFO    Updating pipenv Security DB...
2019-05-16T12:59:11.487+0900    INFO    Detecting pipenv vulnerabilities...

knqyf263/test-image:1.2.3 (alpine 3.7.1)
========================================
Total: 26 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 3, MEDIUM: 16, HIGH: 5, CRITICAL: 2)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |              TITLE               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| curl    | CVE-2018-14618   | CRITICAL | 7.61.0-r0         | 7.61.1-r0     | curl: NTLM password overflow     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via integer overflow             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16839   | HIGH     |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Integer overflow leading   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | to heap-based buffer overflow in |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Curl_sasl_create_plain_message() |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3822    |          |                   | 7.61.1-r2     | curl: NTLMv2 type-3 header       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | stack buffer overflow            |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16840   |          |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Use-after-free when        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | closing "easy" handle in         |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Curl_close()                     |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16842   | MEDIUM   |                   |               | curl: Heap-based buffer          |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | over-read in the curl tool       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | warning formatting               |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16890   |          |                   | 7.61.1-r2     | curl: NTLM type-2 heap           |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds buffer read        |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3823    |          |                   |               | curl: SMTP end-of-response       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds read               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| git     | CVE-2018-17456   | HIGH     | 2.15.2-r0         | 2.15.3-r0     | git: arbitrary code execution    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via .gitmodules                  |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-19486   |          |                   |               | git: Improper handling of        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | PATH allows for commands to be   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | executed from...                 |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| libssh2 | CVE-2019-3855    | CRITICAL | 1.8.0-r2          | 1.8.1-r0      | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | transport read resulting in      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out of bounds write...           |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3859    | MEDIUM   |                   |               | libssh2: Unchecked use of        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | _libssh2_packet_require and      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | _libssh2_packet_requirev         |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out-of-bounds       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | read                             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3858    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Zero-byte allocation    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with a specially crafted SFTP    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packed leading to an...          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3863    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | in user authenticate             |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | keyboard interactive allows      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds writes             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3862    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds memory    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | comparison with specially        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | crafted message channel          |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | request                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3860    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds reads     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with specially crafted SFTP      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packets                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3857    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | SSH packet processing channel    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out of...           |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3861    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds reads     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with specially crafted SSH       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packets                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3856    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | keyboard interactive handling    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out of bounds...    |
+---------+------------------+          +-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| libxml2 | CVE-2018-14567   |          | 2.9.7-r0          | 2.9.8-r1      | libxml2: Infinite loop when      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | --with-lzma is used allows for   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | denial of service...             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-14404   |          |                   |               | libxml2: NULL pointer            |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | dereference in                   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | xpath.c:xmlXPathCompOpEval()     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | can allow attackers to cause     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | a...                             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-9251    | LOW      |                   |               | libxml2: infinite loop in        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | xz_decomp function in xzlib.c    |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| openssh | CVE-2019-6109    | MEDIUM   | 7.5_p1-r9         | 7.5_p1-r10    | openssh: Missing character       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | encoding in progress display     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | allows for spoofing of scp...    |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-6111    |          |                   |               | openssh: Improper validation     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | of object names allows           |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | malicious server to overwrite    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | files...                         |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-20685   | LOW      |                   |               | openssh: scp client improper     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | directory name validation        |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| sqlite  | CVE-2018-20346   | MEDIUM   | 3.21.0-r1         | 3.25.3-r0     | sqlite: Multiple flaws in        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sqlite which can be triggered    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via corrupted internal...        |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| tar     | CVE-2018-20482   | LOW      | 1.29-r1           | 1.31-r0       | tar: Infinite read loop in       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sparse_dump_region function in   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sparse.c                         |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+

ruby-app/Gemfile.lock
=====================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+----------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
|       LIBRARY        | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+----------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| rails-html-sanitizer | CVE-2018-3741    | MEDIUM   | 1.0.3             | >= 1.0.4      | rubygem-rails-html-sanitizer:  |
|                      |                  |          |                   |               | non-whitelisted attributes     |
|                      |                  |          |                   |               | are present in sanitized       |
|                      |                  |          |                   |               | output when input with         |
|                      |                  |          |                   |               | specially-crafted...           |
+----------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

rust-app/Cargo.lock
===================
Total: 3 (UNKNOWN: 3, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 0, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+-------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID  | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+-------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| ammonia | RUSTSEC-2019-0001 | UNKNOWN  | 1.9.0             | >= 2.1.0      | Uncontrolled recursion leads   |
|         |                   |          |                   |               | to abort in HTML serialization |
+---------+-------------------+          +-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | RUSTSEC-2016-0001 |          | 0.8.3             | >= 0.9.0      | SSL/TLS MitM vulnerability due |
|         |                   |          |                   |               | to insecure defaults           |
+         +-------------------+          +                   +---------------+--------------------------------+
|         | RUSTSEC-2018-0010 |          |                   | >= 0.10.9     | Use after free in CMS Signing  |
+---------+-------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

php-app/composer.lock
=====================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+-------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------+
|      LIBRARY      | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION |    FIXED VERSION    |             TITLE              |
+-------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------+
| guzzlehttp/guzzle | CVE-2016-5385    | MEDIUM   | 6.2.0             | 6.2.1, 4.2.4, 5.3.1 | PHP: sets environmental        |
|                   |                  |          |                   |                     | variable based on user         |
|                   |                  |          |                   |                     | supplied Proxy request header  |
+-------------------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------------+--------------------------------+

node-app/package-lock.json
==========================
Total: 4 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 3, HIGH: 1, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| jquery  | CVE-2019-5428    | MEDIUM   | 3.3.9             | >=3.4.0       | Modification of                |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)  |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +--------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-11358   |          |                   |               | js-jquery: prototype pollution |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | in object's prototype leading  |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | to denial of service or...     |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| lodash  | CVE-2018-16487   | HIGH     | 4.17.4            | >=4.17.11     | lodash: Prototype pollution in |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | utilities function             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +---------------+                                +
|         | CVE-2018-3721    | MEDIUM   |                   | >=4.17.5      |                                |
|         |                  |          |                   |               |                                |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

python-app/Pipfile.lock
=======================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |               TITLE                |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+------------------------------------+
| django  | CVE-2019-6975    | MEDIUM   | 2.0.9             | 2.0.11        | python-django:                     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | memory exhaustion in               |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | django.utils.numberformat.format() |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+------------------------------------+

Scan an image file

$ docker save ruby:2.3.0-alpine3.9 -o ruby-2.3.0.tar
$ trivy --input ruby-2.3.0.tar
Result
2019-05-16T12:45:57.332+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:45:59.119+0900    INFO    Detecting Debian vulnerabilities...

ruby-2.3.0.tar (debian 8.4)
===========================
Total: 7447 (UNKNOWN: 5, LOW: 326, MEDIUM: 5695, HIGH: 1316, CRITICAL: 105)

+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|           LIBRARY            |  VULNERABILITY ID   | SEVERITY |     INSTALLED VERSION      |          FIXED VERSION           |                        TITLE                        |
+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| apt                          | CVE-2019-3462       | CRITICAL | 1.0.9.8.3                  | 1.0.9.8.5                        | Incorrect sanitation of the                         |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | 302 redirect field in HTTP                          |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | transport method of...                              |
+                              +---------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-1252       | MEDIUM   |                            | 1.0.9.8.4                        | The apt package in Debian                           |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | jessie before 1.0.9.8.4, in                         |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | Debian unstable before...                           |
+                              +---------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2011-3374       | LOW      |                            |                                  |                                                     |
+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| bash                         | CVE-2016-7543       | HIGH     | 4.3-11                     | 4.3-11+deb8u1                    | bash: Specially crafted                             |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | SHELLOPTS+PS4 variables allows                      |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | command substitution                                |
+                              +---------------------+          +                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2019-9924       |          |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: BASH_CMD is writable in                       |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | restricted bash shells                              |
+                              +---------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-0634       | MEDIUM   |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u1                    | bash: Arbitrary code execution                      |
|                              |                     |          |                            |                                  | via malicious hostname                              |
+                              +---------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-9401       | LOW      |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: popd controlled free                          |
+                              +---------------------+          +                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | TEMP-0841856-B18BAF |          |                            |                                  |                                                     |
+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------
...

Save the results as JSON

$ trivy -f json -o results.json golang:1.12-alpine
Result
2019-05-16T01:46:31.777+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T01:47:03.007+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...
JSON
[
  {
    "Target": "php-app/composer.lock",
    "Vulnerabilities": null
  },
  {
    "Target": "node-app/package-lock.json",
    "Vulnerabilities": [
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-16487",
        "PkgName": "lodash",
        "InstalledVersion": "4.17.4",
        "FixedVersion": "\u003e=4.17.11",
        "Title": "lodash: Prototype pollution in utilities function",
        "Description": "A prototype pollution vulnerability was found in lodash \u003c4.17.11 where the functions merge, mergeWith, and defaultsDeep can be tricked into adding or modifying properties of Object.prototype.",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2018-16487",
        ]
      }
    ]
  },
  {
    "Target": "trivy-ci-test (alpine 3.7.1)",
    "Vulnerabilities": [
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-16840",
        "PkgName": "curl",
        "InstalledVersion": "7.61.0-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "7.61.1-r1",
        "Title": "curl: Use-after-free when closing \"easy\" handle in Curl_close()",
        "Description": "A heap use-after-free flaw was found in curl versions from 7.59.0 through 7.61.1 in the code related to closing an easy handle. ",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2018-16840",
        ]
      },
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2019-3822",
        "PkgName": "curl",
        "InstalledVersion": "7.61.0-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "7.61.1-r2",
        "Title": "curl: NTLMv2 type-3 header stack buffer overflow",
        "Description": "libcurl versions from 7.36.0 to before 7.64.0 are vulnerable to a stack-based buffer overflow. ",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://curl.haxx.se/docs/CVE-2019-3822.html",
          "https://lists.apache.org/thread.html/8338a0f605bdbb3a6098bb76f666a95fc2b2f53f37fa1ecc89f1146f@%3Cdevnull.infra.apache.org%3E"
        ]
      },
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-16839",
        "PkgName": "curl",
        "InstalledVersion": "7.61.0-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "7.61.1-r1",
        "Title": "curl: Integer overflow leading to heap-based buffer overflow in Curl_sasl_create_plain_message()",
        "Description": "Curl versions 7.33.0 through 7.61.1 are vulnerable to a buffer overrun in the SASL authentication code that may lead to denial of service.",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://github.com/curl/curl/commit/f3a24d7916b9173c69a3e0ee790102993833d6c5",
        ]
      },
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-19486",
        "PkgName": "git",
        "InstalledVersion": "2.15.2-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "2.15.3-r0",
        "Title": "git: Improper handling of PATH allows for commands to be executed from the current directory",
        "Description": "Git before 2.19.2 on Linux and UNIX executes commands from the current working directory (as if '.' were at the end of $PATH) in certain cases involving the run_command() API and run-command.c, because there was a dangerous change from execvp to execv during 2017.",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "https://usn.ubuntu.com/3829-1/",
        ]
      },
      {
        "VulnerabilityID": "CVE-2018-17456",
        "PkgName": "git",
        "InstalledVersion": "2.15.2-r0",
        "FixedVersion": "2.15.3-r0",
        "Title": "git: arbitrary code execution via .gitmodules",
        "Description": "Git before 2.14.5, 2.15.x before 2.15.3, 2.16.x before 2.16.5, 2.17.x before 2.17.2, 2.18.x before 2.18.1, and 2.19.x before 2.19.1 allows remote code execution during processing of a recursive \"git clone\" of a superproject if a .gitmodules file has a URL field beginning with a '-' character.",
        "Severity": "HIGH",
        "References": [
          "http://www.securitytracker.com/id/1041811",
        ]
      }
    ]
  },
  {
    "Target": "python-app/Pipfile.lock",
    "Vulnerabilities": null
  },
  {
    "Target": "ruby-app/Gemfile.lock",
    "Vulnerabilities": null
  },
  {
    "Target": "rust-app/Cargo.lock",
    "Vulnerabilities": null
  }
]

Filter the vulnerabilities by severities

$ trivy --severity HIGH,CRITICAL ruby:2.3.0
Result
2019-05-16T01:51:46.255+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T01:51:49.213+0900    INFO    Detecting Debian vulnerabilities...

ruby:2.3.0 (debian 8.4)
=======================
Total: 1785 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 0, HIGH: 1680, CRITICAL: 105)

+-----------------------------+------------------+----------+---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|           LIBRARY           | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY |     INSTALLED VERSION     |          FIXED VERSION           |                      TITLE                      |
+-----------------------------+------------------+----------+---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| apt                         | CVE-2019-3462    | CRITICAL | 1.0.9.8.3                 | 1.0.9.8.5                        | Incorrect sanitation of the                     |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | 302 redirect field in HTTP                      |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | transport method of...                          |
+-----------------------------+------------------+----------+---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| bash                        | CVE-2019-9924    | HIGH     | 4.3-11                    | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: BASH_CMD is writable in                   |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | restricted bash shells                          |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2016-7543    |          |                           | 4.3-11+deb8u1                    | bash: Specially crafted                         |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | SHELLOPTS+PS4 variables allows                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | command substitution                            |
+-----------------------------+------------------+          +---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| binutils                    | CVE-2017-8421    |          | 2.25-5                    |                                  | binutils: Memory exhaustion in                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | objdump via a crafted PE file                   |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2017-14930   |          |                           |                                  | binutils: Memory leak in                        |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | decode_line_info                                |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2017-7614    |          |                           |                                  | binutils: NULL                                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | pointer dereference in                          |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | bfd_elf_final_link function                     |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2014-9939    |          |                           |                                  | binutils: buffer overflow in                    |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | ihex.c                                          |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2017-13716   |          |                           |                                  | binutils: Memory leak with the                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | C++ symbol demangler routine                    |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | in libiberty                                    |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2018-12699   |          |                           |                                  | binutils: heap-based buffer                     |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | overflow in finish_stab in                      |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | stabs.c                                         |
+-----------------------------+------------------+          +---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| bsdutils                    | CVE-2015-5224    |          | 2.25.2-6                  |                                  | util-linux: File name                           |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | collision due to incorrect                      |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | mkstemp use                                     |
+                             +------------------+          +                           +----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+
|                             | CVE-2016-2779    |          |                           |                                  | util-linux: runuser tty hijack                  |
|                             |                  |          |                           |                                  | via TIOCSTI ioctl                               |
+-----------------------------+------------------+----------+---------------------------+----------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------+

Filter the vulnerabilities by type

$ trivy --vuln-type os ruby:2.3.0

Available values:

  • library
  • os
Result
2019-05-22T19:36:50.530+0200	�[34mINFO�[0m	Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-22T19:36:51.681+0200	�[34mINFO�[0m	Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...
2019-05-22T19:36:51.685+0200	�[34mINFO�[0m	Updating npm Security DB...
2019-05-22T19:36:52.389+0200	�[34mINFO�[0m	Detecting npm vulnerabilities...
2019-05-22T19:36:52.390+0200	�[34mINFO�[0m	Updating pipenv Security DB...
2019-05-22T19:36:53.406+0200	�[34mINFO�[0m	Detecting pipenv vulnerabilities...

ruby:2.3.0 (debian 8.4)
Total: 4751 (UNKNOWN: 1, LOW: 150, MEDIUM: 3504, HIGH: 1013, CRITICAL: 83)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |              TITLE               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| curl    | CVE-2018-14618   | CRITICAL | 7.61.0-r0         | 7.61.1-r0     | curl: NTLM password overflow     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via integer overflow             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16839   | HIGH     |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Integer overflow leading   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | to heap-based buffer overflow in |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Curl_sasl_create_plain_message() |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3822    |          |                   | 7.61.1-r2     | curl: NTLMv2 type-3 header       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | stack buffer overflow            |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16840   |          |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Use-after-free when        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | closing "easy" handle in         |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | Curl_close()                     |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3823    | MEDIUM   |                   | 7.61.1-r2     | curl: SMTP end-of-response       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds read               |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16890   |          |                   |               | curl: NTLM type-2 heap           |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds buffer read        |
+         +------------------+          +                   +---------------+----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-16842   |          |                   | 7.61.1-r1     | curl: Heap-based buffer          |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | over-read in the curl tool       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | warning formatting               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| git     | CVE-2018-17456   | HIGH     | 2.15.2-r0         | 2.15.3-r0     | git: arbitrary code execution    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via .gitmodules                  |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-19486   |          |                   |               | git: Improper handling of        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | PATH allows for commands to be   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | executed from...                 |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| libssh2 | CVE-2019-3855    | CRITICAL | 1.8.0-r2          | 1.8.1-r0      | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | transport read resulting in      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out of bounds write...           |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3861    | MEDIUM   |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds reads     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with specially crafted SSH       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packets                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3857    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | SSH packet processing channel    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out of...           |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3856    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow in     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | keyboard interactive handling    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out of bounds...    |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3863    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Integer overflow        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | in user authenticate             |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | keyboard interactive allows      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | out-of-bounds writes             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3862    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds memory    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | comparison with specially        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | crafted message channel          |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | request                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3860    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Out-of-bounds reads     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with specially crafted SFTP      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packets                          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3858    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Zero-byte allocation    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with a specially crafted SFTP    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | packed leading to an...          |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-3859    |          |                   |               | libssh2: Unchecked use of        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | _libssh2_packet_require and      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | _libssh2_packet_requirev         |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | resulting in out-of-bounds       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | read                             |
+---------+------------------+          +-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| libxml2 | CVE-2018-14404   |          | 2.9.7-r0          | 2.9.8-r1      | libxml2: NULL pointer            |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | dereference in                   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | xpath.c:xmlXPathCompOpEval()     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | can allow attackers to cause     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | a...                             |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-14567   |          |                   |               | libxml2: Infinite loop when      |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | --with-lzma is used allows for   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | denial of service...             |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-9251    | LOW      |                   |               | libxml2: infinite loop in        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | xz_decomp function in xzlib.c    |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| openssh | CVE-2019-6109    | MEDIUM   | 7.5_p1-r9         | 7.5_p1-r10    | openssh: Missing character       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | encoding in progress display     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | allows for spoofing of scp...    |
+         +------------------+          +                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2019-6111    |          |                   |               | openssh: Improper validation     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | of object names allows           |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | malicious server to overwrite    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | files...                         |
+         +------------------+----------+                   +               +----------------------------------+
|         | CVE-2018-20685   | LOW      |                   |               | openssh: scp client improper     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | directory name validation        |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| sqlite  | CVE-2018-20346   | MEDIUM   | 3.21.0-r1         | 3.25.3-r0     | CVE-2018-20505 CVE-2018-20506    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sqlite: Multiple flaws in        |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sqlite which can be triggered    |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | via...                           |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+
| tar     | CVE-2018-20482   | LOW      | 1.29-r1           | 1.31-r0       | tar: Infinite read loop in       |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sparse_dump_region function in   |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | sparse.c                         |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+----------------------------------+

Skip an update of vulnerability DB

Trivy always updates vulnerability database when it starts operating. This is usually fast as it is a difference update. But if you want to skip even that, use the --skip-update option.

$ trivy --skip-update python:3.4-alpine3.9
Result
2019-05-16T12:48:08.703+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

Update only you are specified distributions

By default, Trivy always updates vulnerability database of all distribution. Use the --only-update option if you want to update only specified distributions.

$ trivy --only-update alpine,debian python:3.4-alpine3.9
$ trivy --only-update alpine python:3.4-alpine3.9
Result
2019-05-21T19:37:06.301+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-21T19:37:07.793+0900    INFO    Updating alpine data...
2019-05-21T19:37:08.127+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

Ignore unfixed vulnerabilities

By default, Trivy also detects unpatched/unfixed vulnerabilities. This means you can't fix these vulnerabilities even if you update all packages. If you would like to ignore them, use the --ignore-unfixed option.

$ trivy --ignore-unfixed ruby:2.3.0
Result
2019-05-16T12:49:52.656+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:50:14.786+0900    INFO    Detecting Debian vulnerabilities...

ruby:2.3.0 (debian 8.4)
=======================
Total: 4730 (UNKNOWN: 1, LOW: 145, MEDIUM: 3487, HIGH: 1014, CRITICAL: 83)

+------------------------------+------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|           LIBRARY            | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY |     INSTALLED VERSION      |          FIXED VERSION           |                        TITLE                        |
+------------------------------+------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| apt                          | CVE-2019-3462    | CRITICAL | 1.0.9.8.3                  | 1.0.9.8.5                        | Incorrect sanitation of the                         |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | 302 redirect field in HTTP                          |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | transport method of...                              |
+                              +------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-1252    | MEDIUM   |                            | 1.0.9.8.4                        | The apt package in Debian                           |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | jessie before 1.0.9.8.4, in                         |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | Debian unstable before...                           |
+------------------------------+------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
| bash                         | CVE-2019-9924    | HIGH     | 4.3-11                     | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: BASH_CMD is writable in                       |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | restricted bash shells                              |
+                              +------------------+          +                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-7543    |          |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u1                    | bash: Specially crafted                             |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | SHELLOPTS+PS4 variables allows                      |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | command substitution                                |
+                              +------------------+----------+                            +                                  +-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-0634    | MEDIUM   |                            |                                  | bash: Arbitrary code execution                      |
|                              |                  |          |                            |                                  | via malicious hostname                              |
+                              +------------------+----------+                            +----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                              | CVE-2016-9401    | LOW      |                            | 4.3-11+deb8u2                    | bash: popd controlled free                          |
+------------------------------+------------------+----------+----------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+
...

Specify exit code

By default, Trivy exits with code 0 even when vulnerabilities are detected. Use the --exit-code option if you want to exit with a non-zero exit code.

$ trivy --exit-code 1 python:3.4-alpine3.9
Result
2019-05-16T12:51:43.500+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:52:00.387+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 1 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 1, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| LIBRARY | VULNERABILITY ID | SEVERITY | INSTALLED VERSION | FIXED VERSION |             TITLE              |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| openssl | CVE-2019-1543    | MEDIUM   | 1.1.1a-r1         | 1.1.1b-r1     | openssl: ChaCha20-Poly1305     |
|         |                  |          |                   |               | with long nonces               |
+---------+------------------+----------+-------------------+---------------+--------------------------------+

This option is useful for CI/CD. In the following example, the test will fail only when a critical vulnerability is found.

$ trivy --exit-code 0 --severity MEDIUM,HIGH ruby:2.3.0
$ trivy --exit-code 1 --severity CRITICAL ruby:2.3.0

Ignore the specified vulnerabilities

Use .trivyignore.

$ cat .trivyignore
# Accept the risk
CVE-2018-14618

# No impact in our settings
CVE-2019-1543

$ trivy python:3.4-alpine3.9
Result
2019-05-16T12:53:10.076+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:53:28.134+0900    INFO    Detecting Alpine vulnerabilities...

python:3.4-alpine3.9 (alpine 3.9.2)
===================================
Total: 0 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 0, MEDIUM: 0, HIGH: 0, CRITICAL: 0)

Clear image caches

The --clear-cache option removes image caches. This option is useful if the image which has the same tag is updated (such as when using latest tag).

$ trivy --clear-cache python:3.7
Result
2019-05-16T12:55:24.749+0900    INFO    Removing image caches...
2019-05-16T12:55:24.769+0900    INFO    Updating vulnerability database...
2019-05-16T12:56:14.055+0900    INFO    Detecting Debian vulnerabilities...

python:3.7 (debian 9.9)
=======================
Total: 3076 (UNKNOWN: 0, LOW: 127, MEDIUM: 2358, HIGH: 578, CRITICAL: 13)

+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+--------------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
|           LIBRARY            |  VULNERABILITY ID   | SEVERITY |    INSTALLED VERSION     |  FIXED VERSION   |                         TITLE                         |
+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+--------------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| apt                          | CVE-2011-3374       | LOW      | 1.4.9                    |                  |                                                       |
+------------------------------+---------------------+          +--------------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| bash                         | TEMP-0841856-B18BAF |          | 4.4-5                    |                  |                                                       |
+------------------------------+---------------------+----------+--------------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
...

Reset

The --reset option removes all caches and database. After this, it takes a long time as the vulnerability database needs to be rebuilt locally.

$ trivy --reset
Result
2019-05-16T13:05:31.935+0900    INFO    Resetting...

Continuous Integration (CI)

Scan your image built in Travis CI/CircleCI. The test will fail if a vulnerability is found. When you don't want to fail the test, specify --exit-code 0 .

Note: It will take a while for the first time (faster by cache after the second time)

Travis CI

$ cat .travis.yml
services:
  - docker

env:
  global:
    - COMMIT=${TRAVIS_COMMIT::8}

before_install:
  - docker build -t trivy-ci-test:${COMMIT} .
  - export VERSION=$(curl --silent "https://api.github.com/repos/knqyf263/trivy/releases/latest" | grep '"tag_name":' | sed -E 's/.*"v([^"]+)".*/\1/')
  - wget https://github.com/knqyf263/trivy/releases/download/v${VERSION}/trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
  - tar zxvf trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
script:
  - ./trivy --exit-code 0 --severity HIGH --quiet --auto-refresh trivy-ci-test:${COMMIT}
  - ./trivy --exit-code 1 --severity CRITICAL --quiet --auto-refresh trivy-ci-test:${COMMIT}
cache:
  directories:
    - $HOME/.cache/trivy

Example: https://travis-ci.org/knqyf263/trivy-ci-test
Repository: https://github.com/knqyf263/trivy-ci-test

CircleCI

$ cat .circleci/config.yml
jobs:
  build:
    docker:
      - image: docker:18.09-git
    steps:
      - checkout
      - setup_remote_docker
      - restore_cache:
          key: vulnerability-db
      - run:
          name: Build image
          command: docker build -t trivy-ci-test:${CIRCLE_SHA1} .
      - run:
          name: Install trivy
          command: |
            apk add --update curl
            VERSION=$(
                curl --silent "https://api.github.com/repos/knqyf263/trivy/releases/latest" | \
                grep '"tag_name":' | \
                sed -E 's/.*"v([^"]+)".*/\1/'
            )

            wget https://github.com/knqyf263/trivy/releases/download/v${VERSION}/trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
            tar zxvf trivy_${VERSION}_Linux-64bit.tar.gz
            mv trivy /usr/local/bin
      - run:
          name: Scan the local image with trivy
          command: trivy --exit-code 0 --quiet --auto-refresh trivy-ci-test:${CIRCLE_SHA1}
      - save_cache:
          key: vulnerability-db
          paths:
            - $HOME/.cache/trivy
workflows:
  version: 2
  release:
    jobs:
      - build

Example: https://circleci.com/gh/knqyf263/trivy-ci-test
Repository: https://github.com/knqyf263/trivy-ci-test

Authorization for Private Docker Registry

Trivy can download images from private registry, without installing Docker and any 3rd party tools. That's because it's easy to run in a CI process.

All you have to do is install Trivy and set ENV vars. But, I can't recommend using ENV vars in your local machine to you.

Docker Hub

Docker Hub needs TRIVY_AUTH_URL, TRIVY_USERNAME and TRIVY_PASSWORD. You don't need to set ENV vars when download from public repository.

export TRIVY_AUTH_URL=https://registry.hub.docker.com
export TRIVY_USERNAME={DOCKERHUB_USERNAME}
export TRIVY_PASSWORD={DOCKERHUB_PASSWORD}

Amazon ECR (Elastic Container Registry)

Trivy uses AWS SDK. You don't need to install aws CLI tool. You can use AWS CLI's ENV Vars.

GCR (Google Container Registry)

Trivy uses Google Cloud SDK. You don't need to install gcloud command.

If you want to use target project's repository, you can settle via GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIAL.

# must set TRIVY_USERNAME empty char
export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS=/path/to/credential.json

Self Hosted Registry (BasicAuth)

BasicAuth server needs TRIVY_USERNAME and TRIVY_PASSWORD.

export TRIVY_USERNAME={USERNAME}
export TRIVY_PASSWORD={PASSWORD}

# if you want to use 80 port, use NonSSL
export TRIVY_NON_SSL=true

Vulnerability Detection

OS Packages

The unfixed/unfixable vulnerabilities mean that the patch has not yet been provided on their distribution.

OS Supported Versions Target Packages Detection of unfixed vulnerabilities
Alpine Linux 2.2 - 2.7, 3.0 - 3.10 Installed by apk NO
Red Hat Universal Base Image 7, 8 Installed by yum/rpm YES
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, 7, 8 Installed by yum/rpm YES
CentOS 6, 7 Installed by yum/rpm YES
Debian GNU/Linux wheezy, jessie, stretch, buster Installed by apt/apt-get/dpkg YES
Ubuntu 12.04, 14.04, 16.04, 18.04, 18.10, 19.04 Installed by apt/apt-get/dpkg YES

Application Dependencies

Trivy automatically detects the following files in the container and scans vulnerabilities in the application dependencies.

  • Gemfile.lock
  • Pipfile.lock
  • poetry.lock
  • composer.lock
  • package-lock.json
  • yarn.lock
  • Cargo.lock

The path of these files does not matter.

Example: https://npm.pkg.github.com/knqyf263/trivy-ci-test/blob/master/Dockerfile

Usage

NAME:
  trivy - A simple and comprehensive vulnerability scanner for containers
USAGE:
  main [options] image_name
VERSION:
  0.0.15
OPTIONS:
  --format value, -f value    format (table, json) (default: "table")
  --input value, -i value     input file path instead of image name
  --severity value, -s value  severities of vulnerabilities to be displayed (comma separated) (default: "UNKNOWN,LOW,MEDIUM,HIGH,CRITICAL")
  --output value, -o value    output file name
  --exit-code value           Exit code when vulnerabilities were found (default: 0)
  --skip-update               skip db update
  --reset                     remove all caches and database
  --clear-cache, -c           clear image caches
  --quiet, -q                 suppress progress bar
  --ignore-unfixed            display only fixed vulnerabilities
  --refresh                   refresh DB (usually used after version update of trivy)
  --auto-refresh              refresh DB automatically when updating version of trivy
  --debug, -d                 debug mode
  --vuln-type value           comma-separated list of vulnerability types (os,library)
  --help, -h                  show help
  --version, -v               print the version

Comparison with other scanners

Overview

Scanner OS
Packages
Application
Dependencies
Easy to use Accuracy Suitable
for CI
Trivy
Clair ×
Anchore Engine
Quay × ×
MicroScanner ×
Docker Hub × × ×
GCR × ×

Accuracy

The following bar charts show the results of scanning composer:1.7.2 and crate:3.2.2 by container scanners. These images were selected randomly.

Scanners: Clair, Quay, MicroScanner(Free), Docker Hub, Anchore Engine

See spreadsheet for details.

In this case, the union of vulnerabilities detected by all vulnerability scanners is used as a data set.

NOTE

  • There may be vulnerabilities that all scanners could not detect.
  • There may be a mistake because I have confirmed the correctness manually.

Alpine Linux

The results of composer:1.7.2 using Alpine Linux 3.7.1 (as of 2019/05/12).

Trivy has high accuracy and high precision, while GCR did not detect any vulnerability. Although Docker Hub has many True Positive, it also has many False Positive.

RHEL/CentOS

The results of crate:3.2.2 using CentOS 7.6.1810. (as of 2019/05/14).

The following chart includes only fixable vulnerabilities.

Most scanners only detect patched/fixable vulnerabilities on RHEL/CentOS, but Trivy also detects unpatched/unfixable vulnerabilities.

This graph includes unfixable vulnerabilities as well.

Other OS

In the case of other OS, the result is similar to other container scanners.

vs Clair

Clair uses alpine-secdb. However, the purpose of this database is to make it possible to know what packages has backported fixes. As README says, it is not a complete database of all security issues in Alpine.

Trivy collects vulnerability information in Alpine Linux from Alpine Linux Redmine. Then, those vulnerabilities will be saved on vuln-list.

alpine-secdb has 6959 vulnerabilities (as of 2019/05/12). vuln-list has 11101 vulnerabilities related with Alpine Linux (as of 2019/05/12). There is a difference in detection accuracy because the number of vulnerabilities is nearly doubled.

In addition, Trivy analyzes the middle layer as well and find out which version of the library was used for static linking.

Clair can not handle the following cases because it analyzes the image after applying all layers.

RUN apk add --no-cache sqlite-dev \
 && wget https://xxx/yyy.tar.gz \
 && tar zxvf yyy.tar.gz && cd yyy \
 && make && make install \
 && apk del sqlite-dev

And as many people know, it is difficult to select a Clair client because many clients are deprecated.

Finally, Trivy can also detect vulnerabilities in application dependent libraries such as Bundler, Composer, Pipenv, etc.

vs Anchore Engine

Similar to Clair, there is a difference in detection accuracy on Alpine Linux. Then, as noted above, Anchore Engine does not detect unfixable vulnerabilities on RHEL/CentOS, whereas Trivy does.

Also, Anchore Engine needs some steps to start scanning. Trivy is much easier to use.

vs Quay, Docker Hub, GCR

As Quay seems to use Clair internally, it has the same accuracy than Clair. Docker Hub can scan only official images. GCR hardly detects vulnerabilities on Alpine Linux. Also, it is locked to a specific registry.

Trivy can be used regardless of the registry. In addition, it is easy to be integrated with CI/CD services.

Q&A

Homebrew

Error: Your macOS keychain GitHub credentials do not have sufficient scope!

$ brew tap knqyf263/trivy
Error: Your macOS keychain GitHub credentials do not have sufficient scope!
Scopes they need: none
Scopes they have:
Create a personal access token:
https://github.com/settings/tokens/new?scopes=gist,public_repo&description=Homebrew
echo 'export HOMEBREW_GITHUB_API_TOKEN=your_token_here' >> ~/.zshrc

Try:

$ printf "protocol=https\nhost=github.com\n" | git credential-osxkeychain erase

Error: knqyf263/trivy/trivy 64 already installed

$ brew upgrade
...
Error: knqyf263/trivy/trivy 64 already installed

Try:

$ brew unlink trivy && brew uninstall trivy
($ rm -rf /usr/local/Cellar/trivy/64)
$ brew install knqyf263/trivy/trivy

Others

Detected version update of trivy. Please try again with --refresh option

Try again with --refresh option

$ trivy --refresh alpine:3.9

Unknown error

Try again with --reset option

$ trivy --reset

Related Projects

  • Remic
    • Vulnerability Scanner for Detecting Publicly Disclosed Vulnerabilities in Application Dependencies

Contribute

  1. fork a repository: github.com/knqyf263/trivy to github.com/you/repo
  2. get original code: go get github.com/knqyf263/trivy
  3. work on original code
  4. add remote to your repo: git remote add myfork https://github.com/you/repo.git
  5. push your changes: git push myfork
  6. create a new Pull Request

Credits

License

AGPLv3

Author

Teppei Fukuda (knqyf263)

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