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package Mojolicious;
use Mojo::Base 'Mojo';
# "Fry: Shut up and take my money!"
use Carp ();
use Mojo::Exception;
use Mojo::Log;
use Mojo::Util;
use Mojolicious::Commands;
use Mojolicious::Controller;
use Mojolicious::Plugins;
use Mojolicious::Renderer;
use Mojolicious::Routes;
use Mojolicious::Sessions;
use Mojolicious::Static;
use Mojolicious::Types;
use Mojolicious::Validator;
use Scalar::Util ();
use Time::HiRes ();
has commands => sub {
my $commands = Mojolicious::Commands->new(app => shift);
Scalar::Util::weaken $commands->{app};
return $commands;
has controller_class => 'Mojolicious::Controller';
has log => sub {
my $self = shift;
# Check if we have a log directory that is writable
my $log = Mojo::Log->new;
my $home = $self->home;
my $mode = $self->mode;
$log->path($home->child('log', "$mode.log"))
if -d $home->child('log') && -w _;
# Reduced log output outside of development mode
return $mode eq 'development' ? $log : $log->level('info');
has 'max_request_size';
has mode => sub { $ENV{MOJO_MODE} || $ENV{PLACK_ENV} || 'development' };
has moniker => sub { Mojo::Util::decamelize ref shift };
has plugins => sub { Mojolicious::Plugins->new };
has renderer => sub { Mojolicious::Renderer->new };
has routes => sub { Mojolicious::Routes->new };
has secrets => sub {
my $self = shift;
# Warn developers about insecure default
$self->log->debug('Your secret passphrase needs to be changed');
# Default to moniker
return [$self->moniker];
has sessions => sub { Mojolicious::Sessions->new };
has static => sub { Mojolicious::Static->new };
has types => sub { Mojolicious::Types->new };
has validator => sub { Mojolicious::Validator->new };
our $CODENAME = 'Doughnut';
our $VERSION = '7.34';
my $self = shift;
my ($package, $method) = our $AUTOLOAD =~ /^(.+)::(.+)$/;
Carp::croak "Undefined subroutine &${package}::$method called"
unless Scalar::Util::blessed $self && $self->isa(__PACKAGE__);
# Call helper with fresh controller
Carp::croak qq{Can't locate object method "$method" via package "$package"}
unless my $helper = $self->renderer->get_helper($method);
return $self->build_controller->$helper(@_);
sub build_controller {
my ($self, $tx) = @_;
$tx ||= $self->build_tx;
# Embedded application
my $stash = {};
if (my $sub = $tx->can('stash')) { ($stash, $tx) = ($tx->$sub, $tx->tx) }
# Build default controller
my $defaults = $self->defaults;
@$stash{keys %$defaults} = values %$defaults;
my $c
= $self->controller_class->new(app => $self, stash => $stash, tx => $tx);
Scalar::Util::weaken $c->{app};
return $c;
sub build_tx {
my $self = shift;
my $tx = Mojo::Transaction::HTTP->new;
my $max = $self->max_request_size;
$tx->req->max_message_size($max) if defined $max;
$self->plugins->emit_hook(after_build_tx => $tx, $self);
return $tx;
sub defaults { Mojo::Util::_stash(defaults => @_) }
sub dispatch {
my ($self, $c) = @_;
my $plugins = $self->plugins->emit_hook(before_dispatch => $c);
# Try to find a static file
my $tx = $c->tx;
$self->static->dispatch($c) and $plugins->emit_hook(after_static => $c)
unless $tx->res->code;
# Start timer (ignore static files)
my $stash = $c->stash;
unless ($stash->{'mojo.static'} || $stash->{'mojo.started'}) {
my $req = $c->req;
my $method = $req->method;
my $path = $req->url->path->to_abs_string;
$self->log->debug(qq{$method "$path"});
$stash->{'mojo.started'} = [Time::HiRes::gettimeofday];
# Routes
$plugins->emit_hook(before_routes => $c);
unless $tx->res->code || $self->routes->dispatch($c) || $tx->res->code;
sub handler {
my $self = shift;
# Dispatcher has to be last in the chain
and $self->hook(around_action => sub { $_[2]($_[1]) })
and $self->hook(around_dispatch => sub { $_[1]->app->dispatch($_[1]) })
unless $self->{dispatch};
# Process with chain
my $c = $self->build_controller(@_);
Scalar::Util::weaken $c->{tx};
$self->plugins->emit_chain(around_dispatch => $c);
# Delayed response
$self->log->debug('Nothing has been rendered, expecting delayed response')
unless $c->stash->{'mojo.rendered'};
sub helper { shift->renderer->add_helper(@_) }
sub hook { shift->plugins->on(@_) }
sub new {
my $self = shift->SUPER::new(@_);
my $home = $self->home;
push @{$self->renderer->paths}, $home->child('templates');
push @{$self->static->paths}, $home->child('public');
# Default to controller and application namespace
my $r = $self->routes->namespaces(["@{[ref $self]}::Controller", ref $self]);
# Hide controller attributes/methods
$r->hide(qw(app continue cookie every_cookie every_param));
$r->hide(qw(every_signed_cookie finish flash helpers match on param));
$r->hide(qw(redirect_to render render_later render_maybe render_to_string));
$r->hide(qw(rendered req res respond_to send session signed_cookie stash));
$r->hide(qw(tx url_for validation write write_chunk));
for qw(HeaderCondition DefaultHelpers TagHelpers EPLRenderer EPRenderer);
# Exception handling should be first in chain
$self->hook(around_dispatch => \&_exception);
return $self;
sub plugin {
my $self = shift;
$self->plugins->register_plugin(shift, $self, @_);
sub start {
my $self = shift;
$_->warmup for $self->static, $self->renderer;
return $self->commands->run(@_ ? @_ : @ARGV);
sub startup { }
sub _exception {
my ($next, $c) = @_;
local $SIG{__DIE__}
= sub { ref $_[0] ? CORE::die $_[0] : Mojo::Exception->throw(shift) };
$c->helpers->reply->exception($@) unless eval { $next->(); 1 };
=encoding utf8
=head1 NAME
Mojolicious - Real-time web framework
# Application
package MyApp;
use Mojo::Base 'Mojolicious';
# Route
sub startup {
my $self = shift;
# Controller
package MyApp::Controller::Foo;
use Mojo::Base 'Mojolicious::Controller';
# Action
sub hello {
my $self = shift;
$self->render(text => 'Hello World!');
An amazing real-time web framework built on top of the powerful L<Mojo> web
development toolkit. With support for RESTful routes, plugins, commands,
Perl-ish templates, content negotiation, session management, form validation,
testing framework, static file server, C<CGI>/C<PSGI> detection, first class
Unicode support and much more for you to discover.
Take a look at our excellent documentation in L<Mojolicious::Guides>!
=head1 HOOKS
L<Mojolicious> will emit the following hooks in the listed order.
=head2 after_build_tx
Emitted right after the transaction is built and before the HTTP request gets
$app->hook(after_build_tx => sub {
my ($tx, $app) = @_;
This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it makes some
rather advanced features such as upload progress bars possible. Note that this
hook will not work for embedded applications, because only the host application
gets to build transactions. (Passed the transaction and application object)
=head2 around_dispatch
Emitted right after a new request has been received and wraps around the whole
dispatch process, so you have to manually forward to the next hook if you want
to continue the chain. Default exception handling with
L<Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers/"reply-E<gt>exception"> is the first hook
in the chain and a call to L</"dispatch"> the last, yours will be in between.
$app->hook(around_dispatch => sub {
my ($next, $c) = @_;
This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it allows you to,
for example, customize application-wide exception handling, consider it the
sledgehammer in your toolbox. (Passed a callback leading to the next hook and
the default controller object)
=head2 before_dispatch
Emitted right before the static file server and router start their work.
$app->hook(before_dispatch => sub {
my $c = shift;
Very useful for rewriting incoming requests and other preprocessing tasks.
(Passed the default controller object)
=head2 after_static
Emitted after a static file response has been generated by the static file
$app->hook(after_static => sub {
my $c = shift;
Mostly used for post-processing static file responses. (Passed the default
controller object)
=head2 before_routes
Emitted after the static file server determined if a static file should be
served and before the router starts its work.
$app->hook(before_routes => sub {
my $c = shift;
Mostly used for custom dispatchers and collecting metrics. (Passed the default
controller object)
=head2 around_action
Emitted right before an action gets executed and wraps around it, so you have to
manually forward to the next hook if you want to continue the chain. Default
action dispatching is the last hook in the chain, yours will run before it.
$app->hook(around_action => sub {
my ($next, $c, $action, $last) = @_;
return $next->();
This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it allows you for
example to pass additional arguments to actions or handle return values
differently. Note that this hook can trigger more than once for the same
request if there are nested routes. (Passed a callback leading to the next hook,
the current controller object, the action callback and a flag indicating if this
action is an endpoint)
=head2 before_render
Emitted before content is generated by the renderer. Note that this hook can
trigger out of order due to its dynamic nature, and with embedded applications
will only work for the application that is rendering.
$app->hook(before_render => sub {
my ($c, $args) = @_;
Mostly used for pre-processing arguments passed to the renderer. (Passed the
current controller object and the render arguments)
=head2 after_render
Emitted after content has been generated by the renderer that will be assigned
to the response. Note that this hook can trigger out of order due to its
dynamic nature, and with embedded applications will only work for the
application that is rendering.
$app->hook(after_render => sub {
my ($c, $output, $format) = @_;
Mostly used for post-processing dynamically generated content. (Passed the
current controller object, a reference to the content and the format)
=head2 after_dispatch
Emitted in reverse order after a response has been generated. Note that this
hook can trigger out of order due to its dynamic nature, and with embedded
applications will only work for the application that is generating the response.
$app->hook(after_dispatch => sub {
my $c = shift;
Useful for rewriting outgoing responses and other post-processing tasks.
(Passed the current controller object)
L<Mojolicious> inherits all attributes from L<Mojo> and implements the
following new ones.
=head2 commands
my $commands = $app->commands;
$app = $app->commands(Mojolicious::Commands->new);
Command line interface for your application, defaults to a
L<Mojolicious::Commands> object.
# Add another namespace to load commands from
push @{$app->commands->namespaces}, 'MyApp::Command';
=head2 controller_class
my $class = $app->controller_class;
$app = $app->controller_class('Mojolicious::Controller');
Class to be used for the default controller, defaults to
L<Mojolicious::Controller>. Note that this class needs to have already been
loaded before the first request arrives.
=head2 log
my $log = $app->log;
$app = $app->log(Mojo::Log->new);
The logging layer of your application, defaults to a L<Mojo::Log> object. The
level will default to C<debug> if the L</mode> is C<development>, or C<info>
otherwise. All messages will be written to C<STDERR>, or a C<log/$mode.log> file
if a C<log> directory exists.
# Log debug message
$app->log->debug('It works');
=head2 max_request_size
my $max = $app->max_request_size;
$app = $app->max_request_size(16777216);
Maximum request size in bytes, defaults to the value of
L<Mojo::Message/"max_message_size">. Setting the value to C<0> will allow
requests of indefinite size. Note that increasing this value can also
drastically increase memory usage, should you for example attempt to parse an
excessively large request body with the methods L<Mojo::Message/"dom"> or
=head2 mode
my $mode = $app->mode;
$app = $app->mode('production');
The operating mode for your application, defaults to a value from the
C<MOJO_MODE> and C<PLACK_ENV> environment variables or C<development>.
=head2 moniker
my $moniker = $app->moniker;
$app = $app->moniker('foo_bar');
Moniker of this application, often used as default filename for configuration
files and the like, defaults to decamelizing the application class with
=head2 plugins
my $plugins = $app->plugins;
$app = $app->plugins(Mojolicious::Plugins->new);
The plugin manager, defaults to a L<Mojolicious::Plugins> object. See the
L</"plugin"> method below if you want to load a plugin.
# Add another namespace to load plugins from
push @{$app->plugins->namespaces}, 'MyApp::Plugin';
=head2 renderer
my $renderer = $app->renderer;
$app = $app->renderer(Mojolicious::Renderer->new);
Used to render content, defaults to a L<Mojolicious::Renderer> object. For more
information about how to generate content see
# Add another "templates" directory
push @{$app->renderer->paths}, '/home/sri/templates';
# Add another "templates" directory with higher precedence
unshift @{$app->renderer->paths}, '/home/sri/themes/blue/templates';
# Add another class with templates in DATA section
push @{$app->renderer->classes}, 'Mojolicious::Plugin::Fun';
=head2 routes
my $routes = $app->routes;
$app = $app->routes(Mojolicious::Routes->new);
The router, defaults to a L<Mojolicious::Routes> object. You use this in your
startup method to define the url endpoints for your application.
# Add routes
my $r = $app->routes;
$r->get('/foo/bar')->to('test#foo', title => 'Hello Mojo!');
# Add another namespace to load controllers from
push @{$app->routes->namespaces}, 'MyApp::MyController';
=head2 secrets
my $secrets = $app->secrets;
$app = $app->secrets([$bytes]);
Secret passphrases used for signed cookies and the like, defaults to the
L</"moniker"> of this application, which is not very secure, so you should
change it!!! As long as you are using the insecure default there will be debug
messages in the log file reminding you to change your passphrase. Only the
first passphrase is used to create new signatures, but all of them for
verification. So you can increase security without invalidating all your
existing signed cookies by rotating passphrases, just add new ones to the front
and remove old ones from the back.
# Rotate passphrases
$app->secrets(['new_passw0rd', 'old_passw0rd', 'very_old_passw0rd']);
=head2 sessions
my $sessions = $app->sessions;
$app = $app->sessions(Mojolicious::Sessions->new);
Signed cookie based session manager, defaults to a L<Mojolicious::Sessions>
object. You can usually leave this alone, see
L<Mojolicious::Controller/"session"> for more information about working with
session data.
# Change name of cookie used for all sessions
=head2 static
my $static = $app->static;
$app = $app->static(Mojolicious::Static->new);
For serving static files from your C<public> directories, defaults to a
L<Mojolicious::Static> object.
# Add another "public" directory
push @{$app->static->paths}, '/home/sri/public';
# Add another "public" directory with higher precedence
unshift @{$app->static->paths}, '/home/sri/themes/blue/public';
# Add another class with static files in DATA section
push @{$app->static->classes}, 'Mojolicious::Plugin::Fun';
=head2 types
my $types = $app->types;
$app = $app->types(Mojolicious::Types->new);
Responsible for connecting file extensions with MIME types, defaults to a
L<Mojolicious::Types> object.
# Add custom MIME type
$app->types->type(twt => 'text/tweet');
=head2 validator
my $validator = $app->validator;
$app = $app->validator(Mojolicious::Validator->new);
Validate values, defaults to a L<Mojolicious::Validator> object.
# Add validation check
$app->validator->add_check(foo => sub {
my ($validation, $name, $value) = @_;
return $value ne 'foo';
# Add validation filter
$app->validator->add_filter(quotemeta => sub {
my ($validation, $name, $value) = @_;
return quotemeta $value;
=head1 METHODS
L<Mojolicious> inherits all methods from L<Mojo> and implements the following
new ones.
=head2 build_controller
my $c = $app->build_controller;
my $c = $app->build_controller(Mojo::Transaction::HTTP->new);
my $c = $app->build_controller(Mojolicious::Controller->new);
Build default controller object with L</"controller_class">.
# Render template from application
my $foo = $app->build_controller->render_to_string(template => 'foo');
=head2 build_tx
my $tx = $app->build_tx;
Build L<Mojo::Transaction::HTTP> object and emit L</"after_build_tx"> hook.
=head2 defaults
my $hash = $app->defaults;
my $foo = $app->defaults('foo');
$app = $app->defaults({foo => 'bar', baz => 23});
$app = $app->defaults(foo => 'bar', baz => 23);
Default values for L<Mojolicious::Controller/"stash">, assigned for every new
# Remove value
my $foo = delete $app->defaults->{foo};
# Assign multiple values at once
$app->defaults(foo => 'test', bar => 23);
=head2 dispatch
The heart of every L<Mojolicious> application, calls the L</"static"> and
L</"routes"> dispatchers for every request and passes them a
L<Mojolicious::Controller> object.
=head2 handler
Sets up the default controller and emits the L</"around_dispatch"> hook for
every request.
=head2 helper
$app->helper(foo => sub {...});
Add or replace a helper that will be available as a method of the controller
object and the application object, as well as a function in C<ep> templates. For
a full list of helpers that are available by default see
L<Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers> and L<Mojolicious::Plugin::TagHelpers>.
# Helper
$app->helper(cache => sub { state $cache = {} });
# Application
$app->cache->{foo} = 'bar';
my $result = $app->cache->{foo};
# Controller
$c->cache->{foo} = 'bar';
my $result = $c->cache->{foo};
# Template
% cache->{foo} = 'bar';
%= cache->{foo}
=head2 hook
$app->hook(after_dispatch => sub {...});
Extend L<Mojolicious> with hooks, which allow code to be shared with all
requests indiscriminately, for a full list of available hooks see L</"HOOKS">.
# Dispatchers will not run if there's already a response code defined
$app->hook(before_dispatch => sub {
my $c = shift;
$c->render(text => 'Skipped static file server and router!')
if $c->req->url->path->to_route =~ /do_not_dispatch/;
=head2 new
my $app = Mojolicious->new;
my $app = Mojolicious->new(moniker => 'foo_bar');
my $app = Mojolicious->new({moniker => 'foo_bar'});
Construct a new L<Mojolicious> application and call L</"startup">. Will
automatically detect your home directory. Also sets up the renderer, static file
server, a default set of plugins and an L</"around_dispatch"> hook with the
default exception handling.
=head2 plugin
$app->plugin('some_thing', foo => 23);
$app->plugin('some_thing', {foo => 23});
$app->plugin('SomeThing', foo => 23);
$app->plugin('SomeThing', {foo => 23});
$app->plugin('MyApp::Plugin::SomeThing', foo => 23);
$app->plugin('MyApp::Plugin::SomeThing', {foo => 23});
Load a plugin, for a full list of example plugins included in the
L<Mojolicious> distribution see L<Mojolicious::Plugins/"PLUGINS">.
=head2 start
Start the command line interface for your application. For a full list of
commands that are available by default see L<Mojolicious::Commands/"COMMANDS">.
Note that the options C<-h>/C<--help>, C<--home> and C<-m>/C<--mode>, which are
shared by all commands, will be parsed from C<@ARGV> during compile time.
# Always start daemon
$app->start('daemon', '-l', 'http://*:8080');
=head2 startup
This is your main hook into the application, it will be called at application
startup. Meant to be overloaded in a subclass.
sub startup {
my $self = shift;
In addition to the L</"ATTRIBUTES"> and L</"METHODS"> above you can also call
helpers on L<Mojolicious> objects. This includes all helpers from
L<Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers> and L<Mojolicious::Plugin::TagHelpers>.
Note that application helpers are always called with a new default controller
object, so they can't depend on or change controller state, which includes
request, response and stash.
# Call helper
say $app->dumper({foo => 'bar'});
# Longer version
say $app->build_controller->helpers->dumper({foo => 'bar'});
The L<Mojolicious> distribution includes a few files with different licenses
that have been bundled for internal use.
=head2 Mojolicious Artwork
Copyright (C) 2010-2017, Sebastian Riedel.
Licensed under the CC-SA License, Version 4.0
=head2 jQuery
Copyright (C) jQuery Foundation.
Licensed under the MIT License, L<>.
=head2 prettify.js
Copyright (C) 2006, 2013 Google Inc..
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0
Every major release of L<Mojolicious> has a code name, these are the ones that
have been used in the past.
7.0, C<Doughnut> (U+1F369)
6.0, C<Clinking Beer Mugs> (U+1F37B)
5.0, C<Tiger Face> (U+1F42F)
4.0, C<Top Hat> (U+1F3A9)
3.0, C<Rainbow> (U+1F308)
2.0, C<Leaf Fluttering In Wind> (U+1F343)
1.4, C<Smiling Face With Sunglasses> (U+1F60E)
1.3, C<Tropical Drink> (U+1F379)
1.1, C<Smiling Cat Face With Heart-Shaped Eyes> (U+1F63B)
1.0, C<Snowflake> (U+2744)
Some of the work on this distribution has been sponsored by
L<The Perl Foundation|>, thank you!
Sebastian Riedel, C<>
Current members of the core team in alphabetical order:
=over 2
Jan Henning Thorsen, C<>
Joel Berger, C<>
Marcus Ramberg, C<>
The following members of the core team are currently on hiatus:
=over 2
Abhijit Menon-Sen, C<>
Glen Hinkle, C<>
=head1 CREDITS
In alphabetical order:
=over 2
Adam Kennedy
Adriano Ferreira
Al Newkirk
Alex Efros
Alex Salimon
Alexey Likhatskiy
Anatoly Sharifulin
Andre Parker
Andre Vieth
Andreas Jaekel
Andreas Koenig
Andrew Fresh
Andrew Nugged
Andrey Khozov
Andrey Kuzmin
Andy Grundman
Aristotle Pagaltzis
Ashley Dev
Ask Bjoern Hansen
Audrey Tang
Ben Tyler
Ben van Staveren
Benjamin Erhart
Bernhard Graf
Breno G. de Oliveira
Brian Duggan
Brian Medley
Burak Gursoy
Ch Lamprecht
Charlie Brady
Chas. J. Owens IV
Christian Hansen
Curt Tilmes
Dan Book
Daniel Kimsey
Danijel Tasov
Danny Thomas
David Davis
David Webb
Diego Kuperman
Dmitriy Shalashov
Dmitry Konstantinov
Dominik Jarmulowicz
Dominique Dumont
Douglas Christopher Wilson
Eugen Konkov
Eugene Toropov
Gisle Aas
Graham Barr
Graham Knop
Henry Tang
Hideki Yamamura
Hiroki Toyokawa
Ian Goodacre
Ilya Chesnokov
James Duncan
Jan Jona Javorsek
Jan Schmidt
Jaroslav Muhin
Jesse Vincent
Johannes Plunien
John Kingsley
Jonathan Yu
Josh Leder
Kazuhiro Shibuya
Kevin Old
Kitamura Akatsuki
Klaus S. Madsen
Knut Arne Bjorndal
Lars Balker Rasmussen
Lee Johnson
Leon Brocard
Magnus Holm
Maik Fischer
Mark Fowler
Mark Grimes
Mark Stosberg
Marty Tennison
Matt S Trout
Matthew Lineen
Maksym Komar
Maxim Vuets
Michael Gregorowicz
Michael Harris
Mike Magowan
Mirko Westermeier
Mons Anderson
Moritz Lenz
Neil Watkiss
Nic Sandfield
Nils Diewald
Oleg Zhelo
Olivier Mengue
Pascal Gaudette
Paul Evans
Paul Tomlin
Pavel Shaydo
Pedro Melo
Peter Edwards
Pierre-Yves Ritschard
Piotr Roszatycki
Quentin Carbonneaux
Rafal Pocztarski
Randal Schwartz
Richard Elberger
Rick Delaney
Robert Hicks
Robin Lee
Roland Lammel
Roy Storey
Ryan Jendoubi
Salvador Fandino
Sascha Kiefer
Scott Wiersdorf
Sergey Zasenko
Simon Bertrang
Simone Tampieri
Shu Cho
Skye Shaw
Stanis Trendelenburg
Steffen Ullrich
Stephan Kulow
Stephane Este-Gracias
Steve Atkins
Tatsuhiko Miyagawa
Terrence Brannon
Tianon Gravi
Tomas Znamenacek
Tudor Constantin
Ulrich Habel
Ulrich Kautz
Uwe Voelker
Viacheslav Tykhanovskyi
Victor Engmark
Viliam Pucik
Wes Cravens
Yaroslav Korshak
Yuki Kimoto
Zak B. Elep
Zoffix Znet
Copyright (C) 2008-2017, Sebastian Riedel and others.
This program is free software, you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the terms of the Artistic License version 2.0.
=head1 SEE ALSO
L<>, L<Mojolicious::Guides>,