Skip to content
This repository

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP

This package contains JavaScript implementations of common data structures with idiomatic interfaces.

Fetching latest commit…

Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time

README.md

build status

Collections

This package contains JavaScript implementations of common data structures with idiomatic iterfaces, including extensions for Array and Object.

  • List(values, equals, content): an ordered collection of values with fast insertion and deletion and forward and backward traversal, backed by a cyclic doubly linked list with a head node. Lists support most of the Array interface, except that they use and return nodes instead of integer indicies in analogous functions.
  • Set(values, equals, hash, content): a collection of unique values. The set can be iterated in the order of insertion. With a good hash function for the stored values, insertion and removal are fast regardless of the size of the collection Values may be objects. The equals and hash functions can be overridden to provide alternate definitions of "unique". This collection is intended to be replaced by a native implementation that does not rely on hash. Set is backed by FastSet and List.
  • Map(map, equals, hash, content): a collection of key and value items with unique keys. Keys may be objects. The collection iterates in the order of insertion. This collection is intended to be replaced by a native implementation that does not rely on hash. Map is backed by Set.
  • MultiMap(map, content, equals, hash): a collection of keys mapped to collections of values. The default content collection is an Array, but it can be a List or any other array-like object. MultiMap inherits Map but overrides the content constructor.
  • SortedSet(values, equals, compare, content): a collection of unique values stored in stored order, backed by a splay tree. The equals and compare functions can be overridden to provide alternate definitions of "unique".
  • SortedMap(map, equals, compare, content): a collection of key value pairs stored in sorted order, backed by a sorted set. SortedMap is backed by SortedSet and the AbstractMap mixin.
  • LruSet(values, maxLength, equals, hash, content): a cache with the Least-Recently-Used strategy for truncating its content when it’s length exceeds maxLength. LruSet is backed by a Set and takes advantage of the already tracked insertion order. Both getting and setting a value constitute usage, but checking whether the set has a value and iterating values do not.
  • LruMap(map, maxLength, equals, hash, content): a cache of items backed by an LruSet.
  • FastSet(values, equals, hash, content): a collection of unique values stored like a hash table. The underlying storage is a Dict that maps hashes to lists of values that share the same hash. Values may be objects. The equals and hash functions can be overridden to provide alternate definitions of "unique". This collection is intended to be replaced by a native implementation that does not rely on hash.
  • FastMap(map, equals, hash, content): a collection of key and value items with unique keys, backed by a set. Keys may be objects. This collection is intended to be replaced by a native implementation that does not rely on hash. FastMap is backed by FastSet and the AbstractMap mixin.
  • Dict(values, content): a collection of string to value mappings backed by a plain JavaScript object. The keys are mangled to prevent collisions with JavaScript properties.
  • WeakMap(): a non-iterable collection of key value pairs. Keys must objects and do not benefit from hash functions. Some engines already implement WeakMap. The non-iterable requirement makes it possible for weak maps to collect garbage when the key is no longer available, without betraying when the key is collected. The shimmed implementation undetectably annotates the given key and thus does not necessarily leak memory, but cannot collect certain reference graphs. This WeakMap shim was implemented by Mark Miller of Google.
  • Iterator(iterable): a wrapper for any iterable that implements iterate or iterator the implements next, providing a rich lazy traversal interface.
  • Array(): an ordered collection of values with fast random access, push, and pop, but slow splice. The array module provides extensions so it hosts all the expressiveness of other collections. The array-shim module shims EcmaScript 5 methods onto the array prototype if they are not natively implemented.
  • Object(): can be used as a mapping of owned string keys to arbitrary values. The object module provides extensions for the Object constructor that support the map collection interface and can delegate to methods of collections, allowing them to gracefully handle both object literals and collections.

For all of these constructors, the argument values is an optional collection of initial values, and may be an array. If the values are in a map collection, the the values are taken, but the keys are ignored.

The map argument is an optional collection to copy shallowly into the new mapping. The map may be an object literal. If map implements keys, it is treated as a mapping itself and copied. Otherwise, if map implements forEach, it may be any collection of [key, value] pairs.

equals(x, y), compare(x, y), and hash(value) are all optional arguments overriding the meaning of equality, comparability, and consistent hashing for the purposes of the collection. equals must return a boolean. compare must return an integer with the same relationship to zero as x to y. hash should consistently return the same string for any given object.

The default equals operator is implemented in terms of ===, but treats NaN as equal to itself and -0 as distinct from +0. It also delegates to an equals method of either the left or right argument if one exists. The default equality operator is shimmed as Object.equals.

The default compare operator is implemented in terms of < and >. It delegates to the compare method of either the left or right argument if one exists. It inverts the result if it uses the falls to the right argument. The default comparator is shimmed as Object.compare.

THe default hash operator uses toString for values and provides a Unique Label for arbitrary objects. The default hash is shimmed as Object.hash.

The default content function is Function.noop, which returns undefined. The content function is used when you get a nonexistant value from any collection. The content function becomes a member of the collection object, so content is called with the collection as this, so you can also use it to guarantee that default values in a collection are retained, as in MultiMap.

Collection Methods

Where these methods coincide with the specification of an existing method of Array, Array is noted as an implementation. Array+ refers to shimmed arrays, as installed with the array module. Object refers to methods implemented on the Object constructor function, as opposed to the Object.prototype. Object+ in turn refers to methods shimmed on the object constructor by the object module. These functions accept the object as the first argument instead of the this implied argument.

  • has(key): (Map, SortedMap, WeakMap) whether a value for the given key exists.
  • has(value, opt_equals): (List, Set, SortedSet, Array+, Object+) whether a value exists. collection. This is slow for list (linear), but fast (logarithmic) for Set and SortedSet.
  • get(key): (Map, SortedMap, WeakMap, Array+, Object+) the value for a key. If a Map or SortedMap lacks a key, returns content(key).
  • get(value): (List, Set, SortedSet) gets the equivalent value, or falls back to content(value).
  • set(key, value): (Map, SortedMap, WeakMap, Array+, Object+) sets the value for a key.
  • add(value): (List, Set, SortedSet) adds a value. Sets silently drop the value if an equivalent value already exists.
  • add(value, key): (Map, SortedMap, Array+) sets the value for a key, convenient in conjunction with forEach due to the callback argument order.
  • addEach(values): (List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+) adds all values or key value pairs to this collection. Works for arrays and objects as well as any other collection.
  • delete(key): (Map, SortedMap, WeakMap, Array+) deletes the value for a given key. Returns whether the key was found.
  • delete(value): (List, Set, SortedSet) deletes a value. Returns whether the value was found.
  • indexOf(value): (Array, SortedSet): Returns the position in the collection of a value, or -1 if it is not found. For an Array this takes linear time. For a SortedSet, this takes ammortized logarithmic time since it incrementally updates the number of nodes under each subtree as it rotates.
  • find(value, opt_equals): (List, SortedSet, Array+) finds a value. For List and SortedSet, returns the node at which the value was found. For SortedSet, the optional equals argument is ignored.
  • findLast(value, opt_equals): (List, Array+) finds the last equivalent value, returning the node at which the value was found.
  • findLeast(): (SortedSet) finds the smallest value, returning the node at which it was found, or undefined. This is fast (logarithmic) and performs no rotations.
  • findLeastGreaterThan(value): (SortedSet) finds the smallest value greater than the given value. This is fast (logarithic) but does cause rotations.
  • findLeastGreaterThanOrEqual(value): (SortedSet) finds the smallest value greater than or equal to the given value. This is fast (logarithmic) but does cause rotations.
  • findGreatest(): (SortedSet)
  • findGreatestLessThan(value): (SortedSet)
  • findGreatestLessThanOrEqual(value): (SortedSet)
  • push(...values): (Array, List)
  • pop(): (Array, List)
  • shift(): (Array, List)
  • unshift(...values): (Array, List)
  • slice(start, end): (Array, List) returns an array of the values contained in the half-open interval [start, end), that is, including the start and excluding the end. For lists and arrays, both terms may be numeric positive or negative indicies. For a list, either term may be a node.
  • splice(start, length, ...values): (Array, List) Works as with an array, but for a list, the start may be an index or a node.
  • swap(start, length, values): (List, Array+) performs a splice without variadic arguments.
  • clear(): (List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+, Object+) Deletes the all values.
  • sort(opt_compare): (Array) sorts a collection in place. The comparator by only be a function. The default comparator coerces unlike types rather than fail to compare.
  • sorted(opt_compare, opt_by, opt_order): (List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+) returns a sorted version of the collection as an array. Of map-like objects, only the values are produced. Accepts an optional comparator, relation, and order. The comparator may be a function that compares two arguments returning a number relative to zero indicating the direction of the comparison, where zero means either equal or incomparable. The comparator may alternately be an object with {compare, by} properties. The default comparator is Object.compare if shimmed by the object module, or the simple compare function provided by the operators module which delegates polymorphically to compare methods of either operand, or falls back to > and < but only for like types. The by relation returns a mapped value for a value in the collection on by which to compare values. sorted uses the by to compute the mapping exactly once, instead of once or twice as can happen in the course of sorting. The optional order property can be specified as -1 for descending order, defaults to 1 for ascending, and 0 results in a stable sort, changing nothing.
  • reverse(): (Array, List) reverses a collection in place.
  • reversed(): (Array, List) returns a collection of the same type with this collection's contents in reverse order.
  • concat(...iterables): (Array, Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap) Produces a new collection of the same type containing all the values of itself and the values of any number of other collections. Favors the last of duplicate values. For map-like objects, the given iterables are treated as map-like objects and each successively updates the result. Array is like a map from index to value. List, Set, and SortedSet are like maps from nodes to values.
  • keys(): (Map, SortedMap, Object) returns an array of the keys
  • values(): (Map, SortedMap, Object+) returns an array of the values
  • items(): (Map, SortedMap, Object) returns an array of [key, value] pairs for each item
  • reduce(callback(result, value, key, object, depth), basis, thisp): (Array, Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap)
  • reduceRight(callback(result, value, key, object, depth), basis, thisp): (Array, List, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap)
  • forEach(callback(value, key, object, depth), thisp): (Array, Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Object+) calls the callback for each value in the collection. The iteration of lists is resilient to changes to the list. Particularly, nodes added after the current node will be visited and nodes added before the current node will be ignored, and no node will be visited twice.
  • map(callback(value, key, object, depth), thisp): (Array, Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Object+)
  • toArray(): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+)
  • toObject(): (Iterator, Map, SortedMap, Array+) converts any collection to an object, treating this collection as a map-like object. Array is like a map from index to value.
  • filter(callback(value, key, object, depth), thisp): (Array, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap)
  • every(callback(value, key, object, depth), thisp): (Array, Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap) whether every value passes a given guard. Stops evaluating the guard after the first failure. Iterators stop consuming after the the first failure.
  • some(callback(value, key, object, depth), thisp): (Array, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap) whether there is a value that passes a given guard. Stops evaluating the guard after the first success. Iterators stop consuming after the first success.
  • any(): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+) whether any value is truthy
  • all(): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+) whether all values are truthy
  • min(): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+) the smallest value. This is fast for sorted collections (logarithic), but slow for everything else (linear).
  • max(): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+) the largest value. This is fast for sorted collections (logarithic), but slow for everything else (linear).
  • one(): (List, SortedSet, Array+) any single value, or throws an exception if there are no values. This is very fast (constant) for all collections. For a sorted set, the value is not deterministic.
  • only(): (List, SortedSet, Array+) the one and only value, or throws an exception if there are no values or more than one value.
  • sum(): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+)
  • average(): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+)
  • flatten(): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+)
  • zip(...collections): (List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+)
  • enuemrate(zero): (Iterator, TODO List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+)
  • sorted(compare): (List, Set, Map, Array+)
  • clone(depth, memo): (List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+, Object+) replicates the collection. If Object.clone is shimmed, clones the values deeply, to the specified depth, using the given memo to resolve reference cycles (which must the has and set parts of the Map interface, allowing objects for keys)
  • constructClone(values): (Iterator, List, Set, Map, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+) replicates a collection shallowly. This is used by each clone implementation to create a new collection of the same type, with the same options (equals, compare, hash options), but it leaves the job of deeply cloning the values to the more general clone method.
  • equals(that): (List, Set, Array+, TODO SortedSet, Map, SortedMap)
  • compare(that): (Object+, TODO)
  • iterate(): (List, Set, SortedSet, SortedMap, Array+) Produces an iterator with a next method. You may elect to get richer iterators by wrapping this iterator with an Iterator from the iterator module. Iteration order of lists is resilient to changes to the list.
  • iterate(start, end): (Array+) returns an iterator for all values at indicies in the half-open interval [start, end), that is, greater than start, and less than end.
  • iterate(start, end): (SortedSet) returns an iterator for all values in the half-open interval [start, end), that is, greater than start, and less than end. The iterator is resilient against changes to the data.
  • log(charmap, stringify): (Set, Map, SortedSet) writes a tree describing the internal state of the data structure to the console.
  • splay(value): (SortedSet) rotates the internal splay tree such that the root node is less than or equal to the given value.

Iterator

  • dropWhile(callback(value, index, iterator), thisp)
  • takeWhile(callback(value, index, iterator), thisp)
  • mapIterator(callback(value, index, iterator)): (Iterator) returns an iterator for a mapping on the source values. Values are consumed on demand.
  • filterIterator(callback(value, index, iterator)): (Iterator) returns an iterator for those values from the source that pass the given guard. Values are consumed on demand.

Iterator utilities

  • cycle(iterable, times)
  • concat(iterables)
  • transpose(iterables)
  • zip(...iterables): variadic transpose
  • chain(...iterables): variadic concat
  • range(start, stop, step): iterates from start to stop by step
  • count(start, step): iterates from start by step, indefinitely
  • repeat(value, times): repeats the given value either finite times or indefinitely

Observables

List, Set, and SortedSet can be observed for content changes.

A content change handler can have various forms. The simplest form is a function that accepts plus, minus, and index as arguments where plus is an array of added values, minus is an array of deleted values, and index is the position of the change or undefined. In that case, this will be the collection that dispatches the event.

Alternately, you can dispatch events to a handler object. If the handler has a handleContentChange function (for noticing a change after it has occurred) or a handleContentWillChange function (for noticing a change before it has occurred), the event will be dispatched to one of those. The function has the same (plus, minus, index) signature.

You can also dispatch change events to a DOM-compatible handleEvent(event) method, in which case the handler will receive an event with phase, currentTarget, target, plus, minus, and index properties. phase is either "before" or "after". The targets are both the collection in flux.

  • (plus, minus, index)
  • handleContentChange(plus, minus, index)
  • handleContentWillChange(plus, minus, index)
  • handleEvent({phase, currentTarget, target, plus, minus, index})

The methods of the collection for managing content changes are generic, in the observable module, and have the following forms:

  • addContentChangeListener(listener, beforeChange)
  • removeContentChangeListener(listener, beforeChange)
  • dispatchContentChange(plus, minus, index)
  • addBeforeContentChangeListener(listener)
  • removeBeforeContentChangeListener(listener)
  • dispatchBeforeContentChange(plus, minus, index)
  • getContentChangeDescriptor()

List

Lists are backed by a cyclic doubly-linked list with a head node. The nodes are returned by "find" methods and accepted by "slice" and "splice" as representatives of positions within the list. Their properties and methods are part of the interface of the structure.

  • prev: the previous node, or the head of the list if this is the first node
  • next: the next node, or the head of the list if this is the last node

Set and Map

Set and map are like hash tables, but not implemented with a block of memory as they would be in a lower-level language. Most of the work of providing fast insertion and lookup based on a hash is performed by the underlying plain JavaScript object. Each key of the object is a hash string and each value is a List of values with that hash. The inner list resolves collisions. With a good hash method, the use of the list can be avoided.

Sets and maps both have a log function that displays the internal structure of the bucket list in an NPM-style.

┣━┳ 1
┃ ┗━━ {"key":1,"value":"a"}
┣━┳ 2
┃ ┣━━ {"key":2,"value":"c"}
┃ ┗━━ {"key":2,"value":"d"}
┗━┳ 3
  ┗━━ {"key":3,"value":"b"}

Sorted Set and Sorted Map

A binary splay tree is a balanced binary tree that rotates the most frequently used items toward the root such that they can be accessed the most quickly. sorted-set and sorted-map are backed by a splay tree.

All map implementations use an underlying set implementation. Any map can be implemented trivially atop a set by wrapping compare, equals, or hash to operate on the key of an item.

The sorted set has a root node. Each node has a left and right property, which may be null. Nodes are returned by all of the "find" functions, and provided as the key argument to callbacks.

Both sorted-set and sorted-map implement a log function which can produce NPM-style visualizations of the internal state of the sorted tree.

> set.log(SortedSet.ascii)
  .-+ -3
  | '-- -2
.-+ -1
+ 0
| .-- 1
'-+ 2
  '-- 3
> set.log(SortedSet.unicodeRound)
  ╭━┳ -3
  ┃ ╰━━ -2
╭━┻ -1
╋ 0
┃ ╭━┳ 1
┃ ┃ ╰━━ 2
╰━┻ 3

Map and SortedMap

Maps share most of their implementation through abstract-map, delegating to an itemSet property and overriding their operators to follow the key property of each item in the set. The set does most of the work.

Object Shim

The collection methods on the Object constructor all polymorphically defer to the corresponding method of any object that implements the method of the same name. So, Object.has can be used to check whether a key exists on an object, or in any collection that implements has. This permits the Object interface to be agnostic of the input type.

The object module additionally provides an Object.empty frozen object that can be reused as a default empty object to reduce unnecessary allocations.

Object.isObject(value) tests whether it is safe to attempt to access properties of a given value.

Object.is(a, b) compares objects for exact identity and is a good alternative to Object.equals in many collections.

Object.getValueOf(value) safely and idempotently returns the value of an object or value by only calling the valueOf() if the value implements that method.

Object.owns is a shorthand for Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call.

Coupling

These collections strive to maximize overlapping implementations where possible, but also be as loosely coupled as possible so developers only pay for the features they need in the cost of download or execution time.

For example, the default operators are simple, but much more powerful operators can be shimmed, enhancing all of the collections.

Also, collections supply a clone method, but it can only do shallow clones unless you shim Object.clone with the object module. Object.clone works fine by itself, but can only resolve reference cycles if you provide a map (WeakMap or Map) as its memo argument.

Another example, every collection provides an iterate implementation, but each is only obligated to return an iterator that implements next. For a much richer iterator, you can buy the iterator module and use Iterate(collection) to get a much richer interface.

References

  • a SplayTree impementation buried in Fedor Indutny’s super-secret Callgrind. This implementation uses parent references.
  • a SplayTree implementation adapted by Paolo Fragomeni from the V8 project and based on the top-down splaying algorithm from "Self-adjusting Binary Search Trees" by Sleator and Tarjan. This does not use or require parent references, so I favored it over Fedor Indutny’s style.
  • the interface of ECMAScript harmony simple maps and sets
  • a SplayTree implementation from JavaScript data structures mainted by Derrick Burns that supports change-resilient iterators and a comprehensive set of introspection functions.

Future work

Goals

  • comprehensive specs and spec coverage tests
  • shallow change dispatch and listeners for all collections (needed: List, Set, SortedSet)
  • item change dispatch and listeners for Map, SortedMap, FastMap
  • object shim for defineProperties
  • track indicies in sorted set
  • remove iterator dependency of Set

More methods

  • equals
  • compare
  • fast list splicing
  • set intersection, union, difference, symmetric difference
  • indexOf and lastIndexOf for List

More possible collections

  • arc-set (adaptive replacement cache)
  • arc-map
  • sorted-array (shallow wrapper for an array that manages add and delete with a binary search and splice)
  • sorted-list (sorted, can contain duplicates, perhaps backed by splay tree with relaxation on the uniqueness invariant)
  • sorted-multi-map (sorted, can contain duplicate entries, perhaps backed by sorted-list)
  • ordered-set (preserves traversal order based on insertion, unique values)
  • ordered-map (preserves traversal order based on insertion, unique keys)
  • string-set (set of strings, backed by a trie)
  • dict (string-map, map of strings to values, backed by a string set)
  • immutable-* (mutation functions return new objects that largely share the previous version's internal state, some perhaps backed by a hash trie)
  • array heap implementation
  • binary heap implementation
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.