Table of Contents
- Kubeflow components versions
- Release process
- Frequently Asked Questions
This repo is owned by the Manifests Working Group. If you are a contributor authoring or editing the packages please see Best Practices.
The Kubeflow Manifests repository is organized under three (3) main directories, which include manifests for installing:
||Kubeflow's official components, as maintained by the respective Kubeflow WGs|
||Common services, as maintained by the Manifests WG|
||3rd party contributed applications, which are maintained externally and are not part of a Kubeflow WG|
distributions directory contains manifests for specific, opinionated distributions of Kubeflow, and will be phased out during the 1.4 release, since going forward distributions will maintain their manifests on their respective external repositories.
tests directories will also be gradually phased out.
Starting from Kubeflow 1.3, all components should be deployable using
kustomize only. Any automation tooling for deployment on top of the manifests should be maintained externally by distribution owners.
Kubeflow components versions
Kubeflow Version: latest
This repo periodically syncs all official Kubeflow components from their respective upstream repos. The following matrix shows the git version that we include for each component:
|Component||Local Manifests Path||Upstream Revision|
|Profiles + KFAM||apps/profiles/upstream||v1.7.0-rc.0|
|Jupyter Web App||apps/jupyter/jupyter-web-app/upstream||v1.7.0-rc.0|
|Tensorboards Web App||apps/tensorboard/tensorboards-web-app/upstream||v1.7.0-rc.0|
|Volumes Web App||apps/volumes-web-app/upstream||v1.7.0-rc.0|
|KServe Models Web App||contrib/kserve/models-web-app||v0.10.0|
|Kubeflow Tekton Pipelines||apps/kfp-tekton/upstream||v1.5.1|
The following is also a matrix with versions from common components that are used from the different projects of Kubeflow:
|Component||Local Manifests Path||Upstream Revision|
The Manifests WG provides two options for installing Kubeflow official components and common services with kustomize. The aim is to help end users install easily and to help distribution owners build their opinionated distributions from a tested starting point:
- Single-command installation of all components under
- Multi-command, individual components installation for
Option 1 targets ease of deployment for end users.
Option 2 targets customization and ability to pick and choose individual components.
example directory contains an example kustomization for the single command to be able to run.
firstname.lastname@example.org) and password (
12341234). For any production Kubeflow deployment, you should change the default password by following the relevant section.
1.25) with a default StorageClass
⚠️Kubeflow is not compatible with earlier versions of Kustomize. This is because we need the
sortOptionsfield, which is only available in Kustomize 5 and onwards #2388.
kubectl apply commands may fail on the first try. This is inherent in how Kubernetes and
kubectl work (e.g., CR must be created after CRD becomes ready). The solution is to simply re-run the command until it succeeds. For the single-line command, we have included a bash one-liner to retry the command.
The reason we do
awk '!/well-defined/' is because there's a regression in Kustomize 5 and a line is printed in stdout and not stderr kubernetes-sigs/kustomize#5039. We'll remove this command once a future patch version of Kustomize is available.
Install with a single command
You can install all Kubeflow official components (residing under
apps) and all common services (residing under
common) using the following command:
while ! kustomize build example | awk '!/well-defined/' | kubectl apply -f -; do echo "Retrying to apply resources"; sleep 10; done
Once, everything is installed successfully, you can access the Kubeflow Central Dashboard by logging in to your cluster.
Congratulations! You can now start experimenting and running your end-to-end ML workflows with Kubeflow.
Install individual components
In this section, we will install each Kubeflow official component (under
apps) and each common service (under
common) separately, using just
If all the following commands are executed, the result is the same as in the above section of the single command installation. The purpose of this section is to:
- Provide a description of each component and insight on how it gets installed.
- Enable the user or distribution owner to pick and choose only the components they need.
We've seen errors like the following when applying the kustomizations of different components:
error: resource mapping not found for name: "<RESOURCE_NAME>" namespace: "<SOME_NAMESPACE>" from "STDIN": no matches for kind "<CRD_NAME>" in version "<CRD_FULL_NAME>" ensure CRDs are installed first
This is because a kustomization applies both a CRD and a CR very quickly, and the CRD
Established yet. You can learn more about this in kubernetes/kubectl#1117 and helm/helm#4925.
If you bump into this error we advise to re-apply the kustomization of the component.
cert-manager is used by many Kubeflow components to provide certificates for admission webhooks.
kustomize build common/cert-manager/cert-manager/base | kubectl apply -f - kubectl wait --for=condition=ready pod -l 'app in (cert-manager,webhook)' --timeout=180s -n cert-manager kustomize build common/cert-manager/kubeflow-issuer/base | kubectl apply -f -
In case you get this error:
Error from server (InternalError): error when creating "STDIN": Internal error occurred: failed calling webhook "webhook.cert-manager.io": failed to call webhook: Post "https://cert-manager-webhook.cert-manager.svc:443/mutate?timeout=10s": dial tcp 10.96.202.64:443: connect: connection refused
This is because the webhook is not yet ready to receive request. Wait a couple seconds and retry applying the manfiests.
For more troubleshooting info also check out https://cert-manager.io/docs/troubleshooting/webhook/
Istio is used by many Kubeflow components to secure their traffic, enforce network authorization and implement routing policies.
kustomize build common/istio-1-16/istio-crds/base | kubectl apply -f - kustomize build common/istio-1-16/istio-namespace/base | kubectl apply -f - kustomize build common/istio-1-16/istio-install/base | kubectl apply -f -
Dex is an OpenID Connect Identity (OIDC) with multiple authentication backends. In this default installation, it includes a static user with email
email@example.com. By default, the user's password is
12341234. For any production Kubeflow deployment, you should change the default password by following the relevant section.
kustomize build common/dex/overlays/istio | kubectl apply -f -
The OIDC AuthService extends your Istio Ingress-Gateway capabilities, to be able to function as an OIDC client:
kustomize build common/oidc-authservice/base | kubectl apply -f -
Knative is used by the KServe official Kubeflow component.
Install Knative Serving:
kustomize build common/knative/knative-serving/overlays/gateways | kubectl apply -f - kustomize build common/istio-1-16/cluster-local-gateway/base | kubectl apply -f -
Optionally, you can install Knative Eventing which can be used for inference request logging:
kustomize build common/knative/knative-eventing/base | kubectl apply -f -
Create the namespace where the Kubeflow components will live in. This namespace
Install kubeflow namespace:
kustomize build common/kubeflow-namespace/base | kubectl apply -f -
Create the Kubeflow ClusterRoles,
kubeflow-admin. Kubeflow components aggregate permissions to these
Install kubeflow roles:
kustomize build common/kubeflow-roles/base | kubectl apply -f -
Kubeflow Istio Resources
Create the Istio resources needed by Kubeflow. This kustomization currently
creates an Istio Gateway named
kubeflow-gateway, in namespace
If you want to install with your own Istio, then you need this kustomization as
Install istio resources:
kustomize build common/istio-1-16/kubeflow-istio-resources/base | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Multi-User Kubeflow Pipelines official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/pipeline/upstream/env/cert-manager/platform-agnostic-multi-user | awk '!/well-defined/' | kubectl apply -f -
This installs argo with the safe-to use runasnonroot emissary executor. Please note that the installer is still responsible to analyze the security issues that arise when containers are run with root access and to decide if the kubeflow pipeline main containers are run as runasnonroot. It is strongly recommended that the pipelines main containers are installed and run as runasnonroot and without any special capabilities to mitigate security risks.
Do not use the deprecated and insecure PNS executor anymore
kustomize build apps/pipeline/upstream/env/platform-agnostic-multi-user-pns | kubectl apply -f -
Refer to argo workflow executor documentation for further reasoning.
Multi-User Kubeflow Pipelines dependencies
- Istio + Kubeflow Istio Resources
- Kubeflow Roles
- OIDC Auth Service (or cloud provider specific auth service)
- Profiles + KFAM
Alternative: Kubeflow Pipelines Standalone
You can install Kubeflow Pipelines Standalone which
- does not support multi user separation
- has no dependencies on the other services mentioned here
You can learn more about their differences in Installation Options for Kubeflow Pipelines .
Besides installation instructions in Kubeflow Pipelines Standalone documentation, you need to apply two virtual services to expose Kubeflow Pipelines UI and Metadata API in kubeflow-gateway.
KFServing was rebranded to KServe.
Install the KServe component:
kustomize build contrib/kserve/kserve | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Models web app:
kustomize build contrib/kserve/models-web-app/overlays/kubeflow | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Katib official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/katib/upstream/installs/katib-with-kubeflow | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Central Dashboard official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/centraldashboard/upstream/overlays/kserve | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Admission Webhook for PodDefaults:
kustomize build apps/admission-webhook/upstream/overlays/cert-manager | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Notebook Controller official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/jupyter/notebook-controller/upstream/overlays/kubeflow | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Jupyter Web App official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/jupyter/jupyter-web-app/upstream/overlays/istio | kubectl apply -f -
Profiles + KFAM
Install the Profile Controller and the Kubeflow Access-Management (KFAM) official Kubeflow components:
kustomize build apps/profiles/upstream/overlays/kubeflow | kubectl apply -f -
Volumes Web App
Install the Volumes Web App official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/volumes-web-app/upstream/overlays/istio | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Tensorboards Web App official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/tensorboard/tensorboards-web-app/upstream/overlays/istio | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Tensorboard Controller official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/tensorboard/tensorboard-controller/upstream/overlays/kubeflow | kubectl apply -f -
Install the Training Operator official Kubeflow component:
kustomize build apps/training-operator/upstream/overlays/kubeflow | kubectl apply -f -
Finally, create a new namespace for the the default user (named
kustomize build common/user-namespace/base | kubectl apply -f -
Connect to your Kubeflow Cluster
After installation, it will take some time for all Pods to become ready. Make sure all Pods are ready before trying to connect, otherwise you might get unexpected errors. To check that all Kubeflow-related Pods are ready, use the following commands:
kubectl get pods -n cert-manager kubectl get pods -n istio-system kubectl get pods -n auth kubectl get pods -n knative-eventing kubectl get pods -n knative-serving kubectl get pods -n kubeflow kubectl get pods -n kubeflow-user-example-com
The default way of accessing Kubeflow is via port-forward. This enables you to get started quickly without imposing any requirements on your environment. Run the following to port-forward Istio's Ingress-Gateway to local port
kubectl port-forward svc/istio-ingressgateway -n istio-system 8080:80
After running the command, you can access the Kubeflow Central Dashboard by doing the following:
- Open your browser and visit
http://localhost:8080. You should get the Dex login screen.
- Login with the default user's credential. The default email address is
firstname.lastname@example.org the default password is
NodePort / LoadBalancer / Ingress
In order to connect to Kubeflow using NodePort / LoadBalancer / Ingress, you need to setup HTTPS. The reason is that many of our web apps (e.g., Tensorboard Web App, Jupyter Web App, Katib UI) use Secure Cookies, so accessing Kubeflow with HTTP over a non-localhost domain does not work.
Exposing your Kubeflow cluster with proper HTTPS is a process heavily dependent on your environment. For this reason, please take a look at the available Kubeflow distributions, which are targeted to specific environments, and select the one that fits your needs.
If you absolutely need to expose Kubeflow over HTTP, you can disable the
Secure Cookies feature by setting the
APP_SECURE_COOKIES environment variable to
false in every relevant web app. This is not recommended, as it poses security risks.
Change default user password
For security reasons, we don't want to use the default password for the default Kubeflow user when installing in security-sensitive environments. Instead, you should define your own password before deploying. To define a password for the default user:
Pick a password for the default user, with email
email@example.com, and hash it using
python3 -c 'from passlib.hash import bcrypt; import getpass; print(bcrypt.using(rounds=12, ident="2y").hash(getpass.getpass()))'
common/dex/base/config-map.yamland fill the relevant field with the hash of the password you chose:
... staticPasswords: - email: firstname.lastname@example.org hash: <enter the generated hash here>
The Manifest Working Group releases Kubeflow based on the release timeline. The community and the release team work closely with the Manifest Working Group to define the specific dates at the start of the release cycle and follow the release versioning policy, as defined in the Kubeflow release handbook.
Frequently Asked Questions
- Q: What versions of Istio, Knative, Cert-Manager, Argo, ... are compatible with Kubeflow?
A: Please refer to each individual component's documentation for a dependency compatibility range. For Istio, Knative, Dex, Cert-Manager and OIDC-AuthService, the versions in
commonare the ones we have validated.
- Q: Can I use earlier version of Kustomize with Kubeflow manifests?
A: The manual installation instructions work with Kustomize 3.2. To use the one-liner installation you'll need to comment out the
sortOptionssection in the