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/*
Copyright 2014 The Kubernetes Authors.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
*/
package cache
import (
"errors"
"fmt"
"sync"
"k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/util/sets"
"k8s.io/klog"
)
// NewDeltaFIFO returns a Store which can be used process changes to items.
//
// keyFunc is used to figure out what key an object should have. (It's
// exposed in the returned DeltaFIFO's KeyOf() method, with bonus features.)
//
// 'keyLister' is expected to return a list of keys that the consumer of
// this queue "knows about". It is used to decide which items are missing
// when Replace() is called; 'Deleted' deltas are produced for these items.
// It may be nil if you don't need to detect all deletions.
// TODO: consider merging keyLister with this object, tracking a list of
// "known" keys when Pop() is called. Have to think about how that
// affects error retrying.
// NOTE: It is possible to misuse this and cause a race when using an
// external known object source.
// Whether there is a potential race depends on how the comsumer
// modifies knownObjects. In Pop(), process function is called under
// lock, so it is safe to update data structures in it that need to be
// in sync with the queue (e.g. knownObjects).
//
// Example:
// In case of sharedIndexInformer being a consumer
// (https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/0cdd940f/staging/
// src/k8s.io/client-go/tools/cache/shared_informer.go#L192),
// there is no race as knownObjects (s.indexer) is modified safely
// under DeltaFIFO's lock. The only exceptions are GetStore() and
// GetIndexer() methods, which expose ways to modify the underlying
// storage. Currently these two methods are used for creating Lister
// and internal tests.
//
// Also see the comment on DeltaFIFO.
func NewDeltaFIFO(keyFunc KeyFunc, knownObjects KeyListerGetter) *DeltaFIFO {
f := &DeltaFIFO{
items: map[string]Deltas{},
queue: []string{},
keyFunc: keyFunc,
knownObjects: knownObjects,
}
f.cond.L = &f.lock
return f
}
// DeltaFIFO is like FIFO, but allows you to process deletes.
//
// DeltaFIFO is a producer-consumer queue, where a Reflector is
// intended to be the producer, and the consumer is whatever calls
// the Pop() method.
//
// DeltaFIFO solves this use case:
// * You want to process every object change (delta) at most once.
// * When you process an object, you want to see everything
// that's happened to it since you last processed it.
// * You want to process the deletion of objects.
// * You might want to periodically reprocess objects.
//
// DeltaFIFO's Pop(), Get(), and GetByKey() methods return
// interface{} to satisfy the Store/Queue interfaces, but it
// will always return an object of type Deltas.
//
// A note on threading: If you call Pop() in parallel from multiple
// threads, you could end up with multiple threads processing slightly
// different versions of the same object.
//
// A note on the KeyLister used by the DeltaFIFO: It's main purpose is
// to list keys that are "known", for the purpose of figuring out which
// items have been deleted when Replace() or Delete() are called. The deleted
// object will be included in the DeleteFinalStateUnknown markers. These objects
// could be stale.
type DeltaFIFO struct {
// lock/cond protects access to 'items' and 'queue'.
lock sync.RWMutex
cond sync.Cond
// We depend on the property that items in the set are in
// the queue and vice versa, and that all Deltas in this
// map have at least one Delta.
items map[string]Deltas
queue []string
// populated is true if the first batch of items inserted by Replace() has been populated
// or Delete/Add/Update was called first.
populated bool
// initialPopulationCount is the number of items inserted by the first call of Replace()
initialPopulationCount int
// keyFunc is used to make the key used for queued item
// insertion and retrieval, and should be deterministic.
keyFunc KeyFunc
// knownObjects list keys that are "known", for the
// purpose of figuring out which items have been deleted
// when Replace() or Delete() is called.
knownObjects KeyListerGetter
// Indication the queue is closed.
// Used to indicate a queue is closed so a control loop can exit when a queue is empty.
// Currently, not used to gate any of CRED operations.
closed bool
closedLock sync.Mutex
}
var (
_ = Queue(&DeltaFIFO{}) // DeltaFIFO is a Queue
)
var (
// ErrZeroLengthDeltasObject is returned in a KeyError if a Deltas
// object with zero length is encountered (should be impossible,
// but included for completeness).
ErrZeroLengthDeltasObject = errors.New("0 length Deltas object; can't get key")
)
// Close the queue.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Close() {
f.closedLock.Lock()
defer f.closedLock.Unlock()
f.closed = true
f.cond.Broadcast()
}
// KeyOf exposes f's keyFunc, but also detects the key of a Deltas object or
// DeletedFinalStateUnknown objects.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) KeyOf(obj interface{}) (string, error) {
if d, ok := obj.(Deltas); ok {
if len(d) == 0 {
return "", KeyError{obj, ErrZeroLengthDeltasObject}
}
obj = d.Newest().Object
}
if d, ok := obj.(DeletedFinalStateUnknown); ok {
return d.Key, nil
}
return f.keyFunc(obj)
}
// Return true if an Add/Update/Delete/AddIfNotPresent are called first,
// or an Update called first but the first batch of items inserted by Replace() has been popped
func (f *DeltaFIFO) HasSynced() bool {
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
return f.populated && f.initialPopulationCount == 0
}
// Add inserts an item, and puts it in the queue. The item is only enqueued
// if it doesn't already exist in the set.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Add(obj interface{}) error {
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
f.populated = true
return f.queueActionLocked(Added, obj)
}
// Update is just like Add, but makes an Updated Delta.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Update(obj interface{}) error {
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
f.populated = true
return f.queueActionLocked(Updated, obj)
}
// Delete is just like Add, but makes an Deleted Delta. If the item does not
// already exist, it will be ignored. (It may have already been deleted by a
// Replace (re-list), for example.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Delete(obj interface{}) error {
id, err := f.KeyOf(obj)
if err != nil {
return KeyError{obj, err}
}
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
f.populated = true
if f.knownObjects == nil {
if _, exists := f.items[id]; !exists {
// Presumably, this was deleted when a relist happened.
// Don't provide a second report of the same deletion.
return nil
}
} else {
// We only want to skip the "deletion" action if the object doesn't
// exist in knownObjects and it doesn't have corresponding item in items.
// Note that even if there is a "deletion" action in items, we can ignore it,
// because it will be deduped automatically in "queueActionLocked"
_, exists, err := f.knownObjects.GetByKey(id)
_, itemsExist := f.items[id]
if err == nil && !exists && !itemsExist {
// Presumably, this was deleted when a relist happened.
// Don't provide a second report of the same deletion.
return nil
}
}
return f.queueActionLocked(Deleted, obj)
}
// AddIfNotPresent inserts an item, and puts it in the queue. If the item is already
// present in the set, it is neither enqueued nor added to the set.
//
// This is useful in a single producer/consumer scenario so that the consumer can
// safely retry items without contending with the producer and potentially enqueueing
// stale items.
//
// Important: obj must be a Deltas (the output of the Pop() function). Yes, this is
// different from the Add/Update/Delete functions.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) AddIfNotPresent(obj interface{}) error {
deltas, ok := obj.(Deltas)
if !ok {
return fmt.Errorf("object must be of type deltas, but got: %#v", obj)
}
id, err := f.KeyOf(deltas.Newest().Object)
if err != nil {
return KeyError{obj, err}
}
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
f.addIfNotPresent(id, deltas)
return nil
}
// addIfNotPresent inserts deltas under id if it does not exist, and assumes the caller
// already holds the fifo lock.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) addIfNotPresent(id string, deltas Deltas) {
f.populated = true
if _, exists := f.items[id]; exists {
return
}
f.queue = append(f.queue, id)
f.items[id] = deltas
f.cond.Broadcast()
}
// re-listing and watching can deliver the same update multiple times in any
// order. This will combine the most recent two deltas if they are the same.
func dedupDeltas(deltas Deltas) Deltas {
n := len(deltas)
if n < 2 {
return deltas
}
a := &deltas[n-1]
b := &deltas[n-2]
if out := isDup(a, b); out != nil {
d := append(Deltas{}, deltas[:n-2]...)
return append(d, *out)
}
return deltas
}
// If a & b represent the same event, returns the delta that ought to be kept.
// Otherwise, returns nil.
// TODO: is there anything other than deletions that need deduping?
func isDup(a, b *Delta) *Delta {
if out := isDeletionDup(a, b); out != nil {
return out
}
// TODO: Detect other duplicate situations? Are there any?
return nil
}
// keep the one with the most information if both are deletions.
func isDeletionDup(a, b *Delta) *Delta {
if b.Type != Deleted || a.Type != Deleted {
return nil
}
// Do more sophisticated checks, or is this sufficient?
if _, ok := b.Object.(DeletedFinalStateUnknown); ok {
return a
}
return b
}
// willObjectBeDeletedLocked returns true only if the last delta for the
// given object is Delete. Caller must lock first.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) willObjectBeDeletedLocked(id string) bool {
deltas := f.items[id]
return len(deltas) > 0 && deltas[len(deltas)-1].Type == Deleted
}
// queueActionLocked appends to the delta list for the object.
// Caller must lock first.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) queueActionLocked(actionType DeltaType, obj interface{}) error {
id, err := f.KeyOf(obj)
if err != nil {
return KeyError{obj, err}
}
// If object is supposed to be deleted (last event is Deleted),
// then we should ignore Sync events, because it would result in
// recreation of this object.
if actionType == Sync && f.willObjectBeDeletedLocked(id) {
return nil
}
newDeltas := append(f.items[id], Delta{actionType, obj})
newDeltas = dedupDeltas(newDeltas)
if len(newDeltas) > 0 {
if _, exists := f.items[id]; !exists {
f.queue = append(f.queue, id)
}
f.items[id] = newDeltas
f.cond.Broadcast()
} else {
// We need to remove this from our map (extra items in the queue are
// ignored if they are not in the map).
delete(f.items, id)
}
return nil
}
// List returns a list of all the items; it returns the object
// from the most recent Delta.
// You should treat the items returned inside the deltas as immutable.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) List() []interface{} {
f.lock.RLock()
defer f.lock.RUnlock()
return f.listLocked()
}
func (f *DeltaFIFO) listLocked() []interface{} {
list := make([]interface{}, 0, len(f.items))
for _, item := range f.items {
list = append(list, item.Newest().Object)
}
return list
}
// ListKeys returns a list of all the keys of the objects currently
// in the FIFO.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) ListKeys() []string {
f.lock.RLock()
defer f.lock.RUnlock()
list := make([]string, 0, len(f.items))
for key := range f.items {
list = append(list, key)
}
return list
}
// Get returns the complete list of deltas for the requested item,
// or sets exists=false.
// You should treat the items returned inside the deltas as immutable.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Get(obj interface{}) (item interface{}, exists bool, err error) {
key, err := f.KeyOf(obj)
if err != nil {
return nil, false, KeyError{obj, err}
}
return f.GetByKey(key)
}
// GetByKey returns the complete list of deltas for the requested item,
// setting exists=false if that list is empty.
// You should treat the items returned inside the deltas as immutable.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) GetByKey(key string) (item interface{}, exists bool, err error) {
f.lock.RLock()
defer f.lock.RUnlock()
d, exists := f.items[key]
if exists {
// Copy item's slice so operations on this slice
// won't interfere with the object we return.
d = copyDeltas(d)
}
return d, exists, nil
}
// Checks if the queue is closed
func (f *DeltaFIFO) IsClosed() bool {
f.closedLock.Lock()
defer f.closedLock.Unlock()
return f.closed
}
// Pop blocks until an item is added to the queue, and then returns it. If
// multiple items are ready, they are returned in the order in which they were
// added/updated. The item is removed from the queue (and the store) before it
// is returned, so if you don't successfully process it, you need to add it back
// with AddIfNotPresent().
// process function is called under lock, so it is safe update data structures
// in it that need to be in sync with the queue (e.g. knownKeys). The PopProcessFunc
// may return an instance of ErrRequeue with a nested error to indicate the current
// item should be requeued (equivalent to calling AddIfNotPresent under the lock).
//
// Pop returns a 'Deltas', which has a complete list of all the things
// that happened to the object (deltas) while it was sitting in the queue.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Pop(process PopProcessFunc) (interface{}, error) {
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
for {
for len(f.queue) == 0 {
// When the queue is empty, invocation of Pop() is blocked until new item is enqueued.
// When Close() is called, the f.closed is set and the condition is broadcasted.
// Which causes this loop to continue and return from the Pop().
if f.IsClosed() {
return nil, FIFOClosedError
}
f.cond.Wait()
}
id := f.queue[0]
f.queue = f.queue[1:]
if f.initialPopulationCount > 0 {
f.initialPopulationCount--
}
item, ok := f.items[id]
if !ok {
// Item may have been deleted subsequently.
continue
}
delete(f.items, id)
err := process(item)
if e, ok := err.(ErrRequeue); ok {
f.addIfNotPresent(id, item)
err = e.Err
}
// Don't need to copyDeltas here, because we're transferring
// ownership to the caller.
return item, err
}
}
// Replace will delete the contents of 'f', using instead the given map.
// 'f' takes ownership of the map, you should not reference the map again
// after calling this function. f's queue is reset, too; upon return, it
// will contain the items in the map, in no particular order.
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Replace(list []interface{}, resourceVersion string) error {
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
keys := make(sets.String, len(list))
for _, item := range list {
key, err := f.KeyOf(item)
if err != nil {
return KeyError{item, err}
}
keys.Insert(key)
if err := f.queueActionLocked(Sync, item); err != nil {
return fmt.Errorf("couldn't enqueue object: %v", err)
}
}
if f.knownObjects == nil {
// Do deletion detection against our own list.
queuedDeletions := 0
for k, oldItem := range f.items {
if keys.Has(k) {
continue
}
var deletedObj interface{}
if n := oldItem.Newest(); n != nil {
deletedObj = n.Object
}
queuedDeletions++
if err := f.queueActionLocked(Deleted, DeletedFinalStateUnknown{k, deletedObj}); err != nil {
return err
}
}
if !f.populated {
f.populated = true
// While there shouldn't be any queued deletions in the initial
// population of the queue, it's better to be on the safe side.
f.initialPopulationCount = len(list) + queuedDeletions
}
return nil
}
// Detect deletions not already in the queue.
knownKeys := f.knownObjects.ListKeys()
queuedDeletions := 0
for _, k := range knownKeys {
if keys.Has(k) {
continue
}
deletedObj, exists, err := f.knownObjects.GetByKey(k)
if err != nil {
deletedObj = nil
klog.Errorf("Unexpected error %v during lookup of key %v, placing DeleteFinalStateUnknown marker without object", err, k)
} else if !exists {
deletedObj = nil
klog.Infof("Key %v does not exist in known objects store, placing DeleteFinalStateUnknown marker without object", k)
}
queuedDeletions++
if err := f.queueActionLocked(Deleted, DeletedFinalStateUnknown{k, deletedObj}); err != nil {
return err
}
}
if !f.populated {
f.populated = true
f.initialPopulationCount = len(list) + queuedDeletions
}
return nil
}
// Resync will send a sync event for each item
func (f *DeltaFIFO) Resync() error {
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
if f.knownObjects == nil {
return nil
}
keys := f.knownObjects.ListKeys()
for _, k := range keys {
if err := f.syncKeyLocked(k); err != nil {
return err
}
}
return nil
}
func (f *DeltaFIFO) syncKey(key string) error {
f.lock.Lock()
defer f.lock.Unlock()
return f.syncKeyLocked(key)
}
func (f *DeltaFIFO) syncKeyLocked(key string) error {
obj, exists, err := f.knownObjects.GetByKey(key)
if err != nil {
klog.Errorf("Unexpected error %v during lookup of key %v, unable to queue object for sync", err, key)
return nil
} else if !exists {
klog.Infof("Key %v does not exist in known objects store, unable to queue object for sync", key)
return nil
}
// If we are doing Resync() and there is already an event queued for that object,
// we ignore the Resync for it. This is to avoid the race, in which the resync
// comes with the previous value of object (since queueing an event for the object
// doesn't trigger changing the underlying store <knownObjects>.
id, err := f.KeyOf(obj)
if err != nil {
return KeyError{obj, err}
}
if len(f.items[id]) > 0 {
return nil
}
if err := f.queueActionLocked(Sync, obj); err != nil {
return fmt.Errorf("couldn't queue object: %v", err)
}
return nil
}
// A KeyListerGetter is anything that knows how to list its keys and look up by key.
type KeyListerGetter interface {
KeyLister
KeyGetter
}
// A KeyLister is anything that knows how to list its keys.
type KeyLister interface {
ListKeys() []string
}
// A KeyGetter is anything that knows how to get the value stored under a given key.
type KeyGetter interface {
GetByKey(key string) (interface{}, bool, error)
}
// DeltaType is the type of a change (addition, deletion, etc)
type DeltaType string
const (
Added DeltaType = "Added"
Updated DeltaType = "Updated"
Deleted DeltaType = "Deleted"
// The other types are obvious. You'll get Sync deltas when:
// * A watch expires/errors out and a new list/watch cycle is started.
// * You've turned on periodic syncs.
// (Anything that trigger's DeltaFIFO's Replace() method.)
Sync DeltaType = "Sync"
)
// Delta is the type stored by a DeltaFIFO. It tells you what change
// happened, and the object's state after* that change.
//
// [*] Unless the change is a deletion, and then you'll get the final
// state of the object before it was deleted.
type Delta struct {
Type DeltaType
Object interface{}
}
// Deltas is a list of one or more 'Delta's to an individual object.
// The oldest delta is at index 0, the newest delta is the last one.
type Deltas []Delta
// Oldest is a convenience function that returns the oldest delta, or
// nil if there are no deltas.
func (d Deltas) Oldest() *Delta {
if len(d) > 0 {
return &d[0]
}
return nil
}
// Newest is a convenience function that returns the newest delta, or
// nil if there are no deltas.
func (d Deltas) Newest() *Delta {
if n := len(d); n > 0 {
return &d[n-1]
}
return nil
}
// copyDeltas returns a shallow copy of d; that is, it copies the slice but not
// the objects in the slice. This allows Get/List to return an object that we
// know won't be clobbered by a subsequent modifications.
func copyDeltas(d Deltas) Deltas {
d2 := make(Deltas, len(d))
copy(d2, d)
return d2
}
// DeletedFinalStateUnknown is placed into a DeltaFIFO in the case where
// an object was deleted but the watch deletion event was missed. In this
// case we don't know the final "resting" state of the object, so there's
// a chance the included `Obj` is stale.
type DeletedFinalStateUnknown struct {
Key string
Obj interface{}
}
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