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title authors owning-sig participating-sigs reviewers approvers editor creation-date last-updated status see-also replaces superseded-by
Local Persistent Volumes
msau42
vishh
dhirajh
ianchakeres
sig-storage
sig-storage
saad-ali
jsafrane
gnufied
saad-ali
TBD
2019-01-24
2019-01-24
implementable

Local Persistent Volumes

Table of Contents

Summary

This document presents a detailed design for supporting persistent local storage, as outlined in Local Storage Overview.

This KEP replaces the original design proposal and has been updated to reflect the current implementation.

Motivation

In Kubernetes, there are two main types of storage: remote and local.

Remote storage is typically used with persistent volumes where the data can persist beyond the lifetime of the pod.

Local storage is typically used with ephemeral volumes where the data only persists during the lifetime of the pod.

There is increasing demand for using local storage as persistent volumes, especially for distributed filesystems and databases such as GlusterFS and Cassandra. The main motivations for using persistent local storage, instead of persistent remote storage include:

  • Performance: Local SSDs achieve higher IOPS and throughput than many remote storage solutions.

  • Cost: Operational costs may be reduced by leveraging existing local storage, especially in bare metal environments. Network storage can be expensive to setup and maintain, and it may not be necessary for certain applications.

Goals

  • Allow pods to mount any local block or filesystem based volume.
  • Allow pods to mount dedicated local disks, or channeled partitions as volumes for IOPS isolation.
  • Allow pods do access local volumes without root privileges.
  • Allow pods to access local volumes without needing to understand the storage layout on every node.
  • Persist local volumes and provide data gravity for pods. Any pod using the local volume will be scheduled to the same node that the local volume is on.
  • Allow pods to specify local storage as part of a Deployment or StatefulSet.
  • Allow administrators to set up and configure local volumes with simple methods.
  • Do not require administrators to manage the local volumes once provisioned for a node.

Non-Goals

  • Node preparation to setup disks for an environment including, but not limited to: partitioning, RAID, and formatting.
  • Allow pods to release their local volume bindings and lose that volume's data during failure conditions, such as node, storage or scheduling failures, where the volume is not accessible for some user-configurable time.
  • Dynamic provisioning of local volumes.
  • Provide data availability for a local volume beyond its local node.
  • Support the use of HostPath volumes and Local PVs on the same volume.

Background

Use Cases

Distributed filesystems and databases

Many distributed filesystem and database implementations, such as Cassandra and GlusterFS, utilize the local storage on each node to form a storage cluster. These systems typically have a replication feature that sends copies of the data to other nodes in the cluster in order to provide fault tolerance in case of node failures. Non-distributed, but replicated databases, like MySQL, can also utilize local storage to store replicas.

The main motivations for using local persistent storage are performance and cost. Since the application handles data replication and fault tolerance, these application pods do not need networked storage to provide shared access to data. In addition, installing a high-performing NAS or SAN solution can be more expensive, and more complex to configure and maintain than utilizing local disks, especially if the node was already pre-installed with disks. Datacenter infrastructure and operational costs can be reduced by increasing storage utilization.

These distributed systems are generally stateful, infrastructure applications that provide data services to higher-level applications. They are expected to run in a cluster with many other applications potentially sharing the same nodes. Therefore, they expect to have high priority and node resource guarantees. They typically are deployed using StatefulSets, custom controllers, or operators.

Caching

Caching is one of the recommended use cases for ephemeral local storage. The cached data is backed by persistent storage, so local storage data durability is not required. However, there is a use case for persistent local storage to achieve data gravity for large caches. For large caches, if a pod restarts, rebuilding the cache can take a long time. As an example, rebuilding a 100GB cache from a hard disk with 150MB/s read throughput can take around 10 minutes. If the service gets restarted and all the pods have to restart, then performance and availability can be impacted while the pods are rebuilding. If the cache is persisted, then cold startup latencies are reduced.

Content-serving applications and producer/consumer workflows commonly utilize caches for better performance. They are typically deployed using Deployments, and could be isolated in its own cluster, or shared with other applications.

Environments

Baremetal

In a baremetal environment, nodes may be configured with multiple local disks of varying capacity, speeds and mediums. Mediums include spinning disks (HDDs) and solid-state drives (SSDs), and capacities of each disk can range from hundreds of GBs to tens of TB. Multiple disks may be arranged in JBOD or RAID configurations to consume as persistent storage.

Currently, the methods to use the additional disks are to:

  • Configure a distributed filesystem
  • Configure a HostPath volume

It is also possible to configure a NAS or SAN on a node as well. Speeds and capacities will widely vary depending on the solution.

GCE/GKE

GCE and GKE both have a local SSD feature that can create a VM instance with up to 8 fixed-size 375GB local SSDs physically attached to the instance host and appears as additional disks in the instance. The local SSDs have to be configured at the VM creation time and cannot be dynamically attached to an instance later. If the VM gets shutdown, terminated, pre-empted, or the host encounters a non-recoverable error, then the SSD data will be lost. If the guest OS reboots, or a live migration occurs, then the SSD data will be preserved.

EC2

In EC2, the instance store feature attaches local HDDs or SSDs to a new instance as additional disks. HDD capacities can go up to 24 2TB disks for the largest configuration. SSD capacities can go up to 8 800GB disks or 2 2TB disks for the largest configurations. Data on the instance store only persists across instance reboot.

Limitations of current volumes

The following is an overview of existing volume types in Kubernetes, and how they cannot completely address the use cases for local persistent storage.

  • EmptyDir: A temporary directory for a pod that is created under the kubelet root directory. The contents are deleted when a pod dies. Limitations:

    • Volume lifetime is bound to the pod lifetime. Pod failure is more likely than node failure, so there can be increased network and storage activity to recover data via replication and data backups when a replacement pod is started.
    • Multiple disks are not supported unless the administrator aggregates them into a spanned or RAID volume. In this case, all the storage is shared, and IOPS guarantees cannot be provided.
    • There is currently no method of distinguishing between HDDs and SDDs. The “medium” field could be expanded, but it is not easily generalizable to arbitrary types of mediums.
  • HostPath: A direct mapping to a specified directory on the node. The directory is not managed by the cluster. Limitations:

    • Admin needs to manually setup directory permissions for the volume’s users.
    • Admin has to manage the volume lifecycle manually and do cleanup of the data and directories.
    • All nodes have to have their local storage provisioned the same way in order to use the same pod template.
    • There can be path collision issues if multiple pods get scheduled to the same node that want the same path
    • If node affinity is specified, then the user has to do the pod scheduling manually.
  • Provider’s block storage (GCE PD, AWS EBS, etc): A remote disk that can be attached to a VM instance. The disk’s lifetime is independent of the pod’s lifetime. Limitations:

    • Doesn’t meet performance requirements. Performance benchmarks on GCE show that local SSD can perform better than SSD persistent disks:

      • 16x read IOPS
      • 11x write IOPS
      • 6.5x read throughput
      • 4.5x write throughput
  • Networked filesystems (NFS, GlusterFS, etc): A filesystem reachable over the network that can provide shared access to data. Limitations:

    • Requires more configuration and setup, which adds operational burden and cost.
    • Requires a high performance network to achieve equivalent performance as local disks, especially when compared to high-performance SSDs.

Due to the current limitations in the existing volume types, a new method for providing persistent local storage should be considered.

Proposal

User Stories

PVC Users

A user can create a PVC and get access to a local disk just by specifying the appropriate StorageClass.

Cluster Administrator

A cluster administrator can easily expose local disks as PVs to their end users.

Implementation Details/Notes/Constraints

Local Volume Plugin

A new volume plugin will be introduced to represent logical block partitions and filesystem mounts that are local to a node. Some examples include whole disks, disk partitions, RAID volumes, LVM volumes, or even directories in a shared partition. Multiple Local volumes can be created on a node, and is accessed through a local mount point or path that is bind-mounted into the container. It is only consumable as a PersistentVolumeSource because the PV interface solves the pod spec portability problem and provides the following:

  • Abstracts volume implementation details for the pod and expresses volume requirements in terms of general concepts, like capacity and class. This allows for portable configuration, as the pod is not tied to specific volume instances.
  • Allows volume management to be independent of the pod lifecycle. The volume can survive container, pod and node restarts.
  • Allows volume classification by StorageClass.
  • Is uniquely identifiable within a cluster and is managed from a cluster-wide view.

There are major changes in PV and pod semantics when using Local volumes compared to the typical remote storage volumes.

  • Since Local volumes are fixed to a node, a pod using that volume has to always be scheduled on that node.
  • Volume availability is tied to the node’s availability. If the node is unavailable, then the volume is also unavailable, which impacts pod availability.
  • The volume’s data durability characteristics are determined by the underlying storage system, and cannot be guaranteed by the plugin. A Local volume in one environment can provide data durability, but in another environment may only be ephemeral. As an example, in the GCE/GKE/AWS cloud environments, the data in directly attached, physical SSDs is immediately deleted when the VM instance terminates or becomes unavailable.

Due to these differences in behaviors, Local volumes are not suitable for general purpose use cases, and are only suitable for specific applications that need storage performance and data gravity, and can tolerate data loss or unavailability. Applications need to be aware of, and be able to handle these differences in data durability and availability.

Local volumes are similar to HostPath volumes in the following ways:

  • Partitions need to be configured by the storage administrator beforehand.
  • Volume is referenced by the path to the partition.
  • Provides the same underlying partition’s support for IOPS isolation.
  • Volume is permanently attached to one node.
  • Volume can be mounted by multiple pods on the same node.

However, Local volumes will address these current issues with HostPath volumes:

  • Security concerns allowing a pod to access any path in a node. Local volumes cannot be consumed directly by a pod. They must be specified as a PV source, so only users with storage provisioning privileges can determine which paths on a node are available for consumption.
  • Difficulty in permissions setup. Local volumes will support fsGroup so that the admins do not need to setup the permissions beforehand, tying that particular volume to a specific user/group. During the mount, the fsGroup settings will be applied on the path. However, multiple pods using the same volume should use the same fsGroup.
  • Volume lifecycle is not clearly defined, and the volume has to be manually cleaned up by users. For Local volumes, the PV has a clearly defined lifecycle. Upon PVC deletion, the PV will be released (if it has the Delete policy), and all the contents under the path will be deleted. In the future, advanced cleanup options, like zeroing can also be specified for a more comprehensive cleanup.
API Changes

All new changes are protected by a new feature gate, PersistentLocalVolumes.

A new LocalVolumeSource type is added as a PersistentVolumeSource. The path can only be a mount point, a directory in a shared filesystem, or a block device.

If it is a block device, then the filesystem type can be specified as well, and Kubernetes will format the filesystem on the device.

type LocalVolumeSource struct {
    // The full path to the volume on the node
    // It can be either a directory or block device (disk, partition, ...).
    Path string

    // Filesystem type to mount.
    // It applies only when the Path is a block device.
    // Must be a filesystem type supported by the host operating system.
    // Ex. "ext4", "xfs", "ntfs". The default value is to auto-select a fileystem if unspecified.
    // +optional
    FSType *string
}

type PersistentVolumeSource struct {
    <snip>
    // Local represents directly-attached storage with node affinity.
    // +optional
    Local *LocalVolumeSource
}

The relationship between a Local volume and its node will be expressed using PersistentVolume node affinity, described in the following section.

Users request Local volumes using PersistentVolumeClaims in the same manner as any other volume type. The PVC will bind to a matching PV with the appropriate capacity, AccessMode, and StorageClassName. Then the user specifies that PVC in their Pod spec. There are no special annotations or fields that need to be set in the Pod or PVC to distinguish between local and remote storage. It is abstracted by the StorageClass.

PersistentVolume Node Affinity

PersistentVolume node affinity is a new concept and is similar to Pod node affinity, except instead of specifying which nodes a Pod has to be scheduled to, it specifies which nodes a PersistentVolume can be attached and mounted to, influencing scheduling of Pods that use local volumes.

The scheduler will use a PV's node affinity to influence where a Pod can be scheduled, as well as which PVs can be bound to a PVC, taking into account all scheduling constraints on the Pod. For more details on this feature, see the volume topology design proposal.

Local volumes require PV node affinity to be set.

Local volume initial configuration

There are countless ways to configure local storage on a node, with different patterns to follow depending on application requirements and use cases. Some use cases may require dedicated disks; others may only need small partitions and are ok with sharing disks. Instead of forcing a partitioning scheme on storage administrators, the Local volume is represented by a path, and lets the administrators partition their storage however they like, with a few minimum requirements:

  • The paths to the mount points are always consistent, even across reboots or when storage is added or removed.
  • The paths are backed by a filesystem
  • The directories have appropriate permissions for the provisioner to be able to set owners and cleanup the volume.

Local volume management

Local PVs are statically created and not dynamically provisioned. To mitigate the amount of time an administrator has to spend managing Local volumes, a Local static provisioner application will be provided to handle common scenarios. For uncommon scenarios, a specialized provisioner can be written.

The Local static provisioner will be developed in an external repository, and will loosely follow the external provisioner design, with a few differences:

  • A provisioner instance needs to run on each node and only manage the local storage on its node.
  • It does not handle dynamic provisioning. Instead, it performs static provisioning by discovering available partitions mounted under configurable discovery directories.

The basic design of the provisioner will have two separate handlers: one for PV deletion and cleanup, and the other for static PV creation. A PersistentVolume informer will be created and its cache will be used by both handlers.

PV deletion will operate on the Update event. If the PV it provisioned changes to the “Released” state, and if the reclaim policy is Delete, then it will cleanup the volume and then delete the PV, removing it from the cache.

PV creation does not operate on any informer events. Instead, it periodically monitors the discovery directories, and will create a new PV for each path in the directory that is not in the PV cache. It sets the "pv.kubernetes.io/provisioned-by" annotation so that it can distinguish which PVs it created.

The allowed discovery file types are directories, mount points, and block devices. The PV capacity will be the capacity of the underlying filesystem. Therefore, PVs that are backed by shared directories will report its capacity as the entire filesystem, potentially causing overcommittment. Separate partitions are recommended for capacity isolation.

The name of the PV needs to be unique across the cluster. The provisioner will hash the node name, StorageClass name, and base file name in the volume path to generate a unique name.

Packaging

The provisioner is packaged as a container image and will run on each node in the cluster as part of a DaemonSet. It needs to be run with a user or service account with the following permissions:

  • Create/delete/list/get PersistentVolumes - Can use the system:persistentvolumeprovisioner ClusterRoleBinding
  • Get ConfigMaps - To access user configuration for the provisioner
  • Get Nodes - To get the node's UID and labels

These are broader permissions than necessary (a node's access to PVs should be restricted to only those local to the node). A redesign will be considered in a future release to address this issue.

In addition, it should run with high priority so that it can reliably handle all the local storage partitions on each node, and with enough permissions to be able to cleanup volume contents upon deletion.

The provisioner DaemonSet requires the following configuration:

  • The node's name set as the MY_NODE_NAME environment variable
  • ConfigMap with StorageClass -> discovery directory mappings
  • Each mapping in the ConfigMap needs a hostPath volume
  • User/service account with all the required permissions

Here is an example ConfigMap:

kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: local-volume-config
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  storageClassMap: |
    local-fast:
      hostDir: "/mnt/ssds"
      mountDir: "/local-ssds"
    local-slow:
      hostDir: "/mnt/hdds"
      mountDir: "/local-hdds"

The hostDir is the discovery path on the host, and the mountDir is the path it is mounted to in the provisioner container. The hostDir is required because the provisioner needs to create Local PVs with the Path based off of hostDir, not mountDir.

The DaemonSet for this example looks like:


apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
  name: local-storage-provisioner
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        system: local-storage-provisioner
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: provisioner
        image: "k8s.gcr.io/local-storage-provisioner:v1.0"
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        volumeMounts:
        - name: vol1
          mountPath: "/local-ssds"
        - name: vol2
          mountPath: "/local-hdds"
        env:
        - name: MY_NODE_NAME
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: spec.nodeName
      volumes:
      - name: vol1
        hostPath:
          path: "/mnt/ssds"
      - name: vol2
        hostPath:
          path: "/mnt/hdds"
      serviceAccount: local-storage-admin

A Helm chart can be created to help generate the specs.

Block devices and raw partitions

Pods accessing raw block storage is a new alpha feature in 1.9. Changes are required in the Local volume plugin and provisioner to be able to support raw block devices. The local volume provisioner will be enhanced to support discovery of block devices and creation of PVs corresponding to those block devices. In addition, when a block device based PV is released, the local volume provisioner will cleanup the block devices. The cleanup mechanism will be configurable and also customizable as no single mechanism covers all use cases.

Discovery

Much like the current file based PVs, the local volume provisioner will look for block devices under designated directories that have been mounted on the provisioner container. Currently, for each storage class, the provisioner has a configmap entry that looks like this:

data:
  storageClassMap: |
    local-fast:
      hostDir: "/mnt/disks"
      mountDir: "/local-ssds"

With this current approach, filesystems that were meant to be exposed as PVs are supposed to be mounted on sub-directories under hostDir and the provisioner running in a container would walk through the corresponding "mountDir" to find all the PVs.

For block discovery, we will extend the same approach to enable discovering block devices. The admin can create symbolic links under hostDir for each block device that should be discovered under that storage class. The provisioner would use the same configMap and its logic will be enhanced to auto detect if the entry under the directory is a block device or a file system. If it is a block device, then a block based PV is created, otherwise a file based PV is created.

Cleanup after Release

Cleanup of a block device can be a bit more involved for the following reasons:

  • With file based PVs, a quick deletion of all files (inode information) was sufficient, with block devices one might want to wipe all current content.
  • Overwriting SSDs is not guaranteed to securely cleanup all previous content as there is a layer of indirection in SSDs called the FTL (flash translation layer) and also wear leveling techniques in SSDs that prevent reliable overwrite of all previous content.
  • SSDs can also suffer from wear if they are repeatedly subjected to zeroing out, so one would need different tools and strategies for HDDs vs SSDs
  • A cleanup process which favors overwriting every block in the disk can take several hours.

For this reason, the cleanup process has been made configurable and extensible, so that admin can use the most appropriate method for their environment.

Block device cleanup logic will be encapsulated in separate scripts or binaries. There will be several scripts that will be made available out of the box, for example:

Cleanup Method Description Suitable for Device
dd-zero Used for zeroing the device repeatedly HDD
blkdiscard Discards sectors on the device. This cleanup method may not be supported by all devices. SSD
fs-reset A non-secure overwrite of any existing filesystem with mkfs, followed by wipefs to remove the signature of the file system SSD/HDD
shred Repeatedly writes random values to the block device. Less effective with wear levelling in SSDs. HDD
hdparm Issues ATA secure erase command to erase data on device. See ATA Secure Erase. Please note that the utility has to be supported by the device in question. SSD/HDD

The fs-reset method is a quick and minimal approach as it does a reset of any file system, which works for both SSD and HDD and will be the default choice for cleaning. For SSDs, admins could opt for either blkdiscard which is also quite fast or hdparm. For HDDs they could opt for dd-zeroing or shred, which can take some time to run. Finally, the user is free to create new cleanup scripts of their own and have them specified in the configmap of the provisioner.

The configmap from earlier section will be enhanced as follows

data:
  storageClassMap: |
    local-fast:
      hostDir: "/mnt/disks"
      mountDir: "/local-ssds"
      blockCleanerCommand:
         - "/scripts/dd_zero.sh"
         - "2"

The block cleaner command will specify the script and any arguments that need to be passed to it. The actual block device being cleaned will be supplied to the script as an environment variable (LOCAL_PV_BLKDEVICE) as opposed to command line, so that the script command line has complete freedom on its structure. The provisioner will validate that the block device path is actually within the directory managed by the provisioner, to prevent destructive operations on arbitrary paths.

The provisioner logic currently does each volume’s cleanup as a synchronous serial activity. However, with cleanup now potentially being a multi hour activity, the processes will have to be asynchronous and capable of being executed in parallel. The provisioner will ensure that all current asynchronous cleanup processes are tracked. Special care needs to be taken to ensure that when a disk has only been partially cleaned. This scenario can happen if some impatient user manually deletes a PV and the provisioner ends up re-creating pv ready for use (but only partially cleaned). This issue will be addressed in the re-design of the provisioner (details will be provided in the re-design section). The re-design will ensure that all disks being cleaned will be tracked through custom resources, so no disk being cleaned will be re-created as a PV.

The provisioner will also log events to let the user know that cleaning is in progress and it can take some time to complete.

Risks and Mitigations

There are some major risks of using this feature:

  • A pod's availability becomes tied to the node's availability. If the node where the local volume is located at becomes unavailable, the pod cannot be rescheduled since it's tied to that node's data. Users must be aware of this limitation and design their applications accordingly. Recovery from this kind of failure can be manual or automated with an operator tailored to the application's recovery process.
  • The underlying backing disk has its own varying durability guarantees that users must understand. For example, in many cloud environments, local disks are ephemeral and all data can be lost at any time. Just because we call it "PersistentVolume" in Kubernetes doesn't mean the underlying backing store provides strong data durability.

Test Plan

API unit tests

  • LocalVolumeSource cannot be specified without the feature gate
  • Non-empty PV node affinity is required for LocalVolumeSource
  • Preferred node affinity is not allowed
  • Path is required to be non-empty
  • Invalid json representation of type NodeAffinity returns error

PV node affinity unit tests

  • Nil or empty node affinity evaluates to true for any node
  • Node affinity specifying existing node labels evaluates to true
  • Node affinity specifying non-existing node label keys evaluates to false
  • Node affinity specifying non-existing node label values evaluates to false

Local volume plugin unit tests

  • Plugin can support PersistentVolumeSource
  • Plugin cannot support VolumeSource
  • Plugin supports ReadWriteOnce access mode
  • Plugin does not support remaining access modes
  • Plugin supports Mounter and Unmounter
  • Plugin does not support Provisioner, Recycler, Deleter
  • Plugin supports readonly
  • Plugin GetVolumeName() returns PV name
  • Plugin ConstructVolumeSpec() returns PV info
  • Plugin disallows backsteps in the Path

Local volume provisioner unit tests

  • Directory not in the cache and PV should be created
  • Directory is in the cache and PV should not be created
  • Directories created later are discovered and PV is created
  • Unconfigured directories are ignored
  • PVs are created with the configured StorageClass
  • PV name generation hashed correctly using node name, storageclass and filename
  • PV creation failure should not add directory to cache
  • Non-directory type should not create a PV
  • PV is released, PV should be deleted
  • PV should not be deleted for any other PV phase
  • PV deletion failure should not remove PV from cache
  • PV cleanup failure should not delete PV or remove from cache
  • Validating that a discovery directory containing both block and file system volumes are appropriately discovered and have PVs created.
  • Validate that both success and failure of asynchronous cleanup processes are properly tracked by the provisioner
  • Ensure a new PV is not created while cleaning of volume behind the PV is still in progress
  • Ensure two simultaneous cleaning operations on the same PV do not occur

E2E tests

  • Pod that is bound to a Local PV is scheduled to the correct node and can mount, read, and write
  • Two pods serially accessing the same Local PV can mount, read, and write
  • Two pods simultaneously accessing the same Local PV can mount, read, and write
  • Test both directory-based Local PV, and mount point-based Local PV
  • Launch local volume provisioner, create some directories under the discovery path, and verify that PVs are created and a Pod can mount, read, and write.
  • After destroying a PVC managed by the local volume provisioner, it should cleanup the volume and recreate a new PV.
  • Pod using a Local PV with non-existent path fails to mount
  • Pod that sets nodeName to a different node than the PV node affinity cannot schedule.
  • Validate block PV are discovered and created
  • Validate cleaning of released block PV using each of the block cleaning scripts included.
  • Validate that file and block volumes in the same discovery path have correct PVs created, and that they are appropriately cleaned up.
  • Leverage block PV via PVC and validate that serially writes data in one pod, then reads and validates the data from a second pod.
  • Restart of the provisioner during cleaning operations, and validate that the PV is not recreated by the provisioner until cleaning has occurred.

Stress tests

  • Create a few hundred local PVs and even more Pods, where each pod specifies a varying number of PVCs. Randomly create and delete Pods and their PVCs at varying intervals. All Pods should be schedulable as PVs get recycled. Test with and without the static provisioner.

Graduation Criteria

Alpha -> Beta

  • Basic unit and e2e tests as outlined in the test plan.
  • Metrics in k/k for volume mount/unmount, device mount/unmount operation latency and error rates.
  • Metrics in local static provisioner for discovery and deletion operation latency and error rates.

Beta -> GA

  • Stress tests to iron out possible race conditions in the scheduler.
  • Users deployed in production and have gone through at least one K8s upgrade.

Implementation History

K8s 1.7: Alpha

  • Adds a local PersistentVolume source that allows specifying a directory or mount point with node affinity as an alpha annotation.
  • Limitations:
    • Does not support specifying multiple local PVCs in a Pod.
    • PVC binding does not consider pod scheduling requirements and may make suboptimal or incorrect decisions.

K8s 1.9: Alpha

Still alpha, but with improved scheduler support

  • A new StorageClass volumeBindingMode parameter was added that enables delaying PVC binding until a pod is scheduled. This addresses the limitations from 1.7.

K8s 1.10: Beta

  • NodeAffinity beta field was added to PersistentVolume, and the alpha annotation was deprecated.
    • A one-time job was added to help users migrate from the alpha annotation to the beta field.
  • Raw block alpha support was added specified by PV.volumeMode = Block.

K8s 1.12: Beta

  • If PV.volumeMode = Filesystem but the local volume path was a block device, then Kubernetes will automatically format the device with the filesystem type specified in FSType.

Infrastructure Needed

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