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Documentation & Examples

Downloads for v1.2.7

filename sha256 hash
kubernetes.tar.gz 53db157923c17fa7a0addb3e4dfe7d1b9194b9266a87d371a251d5bb790a1832
kubernetes-src.tar.gz e6e46831706743d8263581d0575507cf5ffc265096d22e5e84cf1c3ae925db5e

Client Binaries

filename sha256 hash
kubernetes-client-darwin-386.tar.gz 8418767e45c62c2ef5f9b4479ed02af64e190ce07dcbafa1920e93e71f419c55
kubernetes-client-darwin-amd64.tar.gz 41d742c2c55e7686311978eaaddee3844b990a0fe49fa8597158bcb0ee4c05c9
kubernetes-client-linux-386.tar.gz 619e0a450cddf10ed1d42ed1d6330d41a75b9c1e00eb654cbe4b0422cd6099c5
kubernetes-client-linux-amd64.tar.gz 9a5fcd87514b88eb25173e574aef5b5343816c07ab5947d06787c9f12c40f54a
kubernetes-client-linux-arm.tar.gz fd6e39b4a56e03448382825f27f4f30a2e981a8d20f4a8cedbd084bbb4577d42
kubernetes-client-windows-386.tar.gz 862625cb3d9445cff1b09e4ebcdb60dd93b5b2dc34bb6022d2eeed7c8d8bc5d8
kubernetes-client-windows-amd64.tar.gz 054337e41187e39950de93e4670bc78a95b6901cc2f95c50ff437d9825ae94c5

Server Binaries

filename sha256 hash
kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz fef041e9cbe5bcf8fd708f81ee2e2783429af1ab9cfb151d645ef9be96e19b73
kubernetes-server-linux-arm.tar.gz ce02d7bcd75c31db4f7b9922c19ea2a3312b0ba579b0dcd96b279b661eca18a8

Changelog since v1.2.6

Other notable changes


Documentation & Examples

Downloads for v1.2.6

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kubernetes.tar.gz 50023455d00af52c41a7158b4bd117b2dfd4a100 cf0411bcb620eb13b08b93578efffc43

Changelog since v1.2.5

Other notable changes


Documentation & Examples

Downloads for v1.2.5

binary sha1 hash md5 hash
kubernetes.tar.gz ddf12d7f37dfef25308798d71ad547761d0785ac 69d770df8fa4eceb57167e34df3962ca

Changes since v1.2.4

Other notable changes

  • Retry Pod/RC updates in kubectl rolling-update (#27509, @janetkuo)
  • GCE provider: Create TargetPool with 200 instances, then update with rest (#27865, @zmerlynn)
  • GCE provider: Limit Filter calls to regexps rather than large blobs (#27741, @zmerlynn)
  • Fix strategic merge diff list diff bug (#26418, @AdoHe)
  • AWS: Fix long-standing bug in stringSetToPointers (#26331, @therc)
  • AWS kube-up: Increase timeout waiting for docker start (#25405, @justinsb)
  • Fix hyperkube flag parsing (#25512, @colhom)
  • kubectl rolling-update support for same image (#24645, @jlowdermilk)
  • Return "410 Gone" errors via watch stream when using watch cache (#25369, @liggitt)


Documentation & Examples

Downloads for v1.2.4

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kubernetes.tar.gz f3aea83f8f0e16b2b41998a2edc09eb42fd8d945 ab0aca3a20e8eba43c8ff9d672793618

Changes since v1.2.3

Other notable changes


Documentation & Examples

Downloads for v1.2.3

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kubernetes.tar.gz b2ce4e0c72562d09ba06e3c0913f0bd78da0285e 69e75650de30d5a52d144799e94a168d

Changes since v1.2.2

Action Required

  • Make watch cache treat resourceVersion consistent with uncached watch (#24008, @liggitt)

Other notable changes


Documentation & Examples

Downloads for v1.2.2

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kubernetes.tar.gz 8dede5833a1986434adea80749624f81a0db7bb4 72a5389f22827fb5133fdc3b7bfb9b3a

Changes since v1.2.1

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Documentation & Examples

Downloads for v1.2.1

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kubernetes.tar.gz 1639807c5788e1c6b1ab51fd30b723fb5debd865 235a1da47972c96a560d718d3256ca4f

Changes since v1.2.0

Other notable changes


Documentation & Examples

Downloads for v1.2.0

binary sha1 hash md5 hash
kubernetes.tar.gz 52dd998e1191f464f581a9b87017d70ce0b058d9 c0ce9e6150e9d7a19455db82f3318b4c

Changes since v1.1.1

Major Themes

  • Significant scale improvements. Increased cluster scale by 400% to 1000 nodes with 30,000 pods per cluster. Kubelet supports 100 pods per node with 4x reduced system overhead.
  • Simplified application deployment and management.
    • Dynamic Configuration (ConfigMap API in the core API group) enables application configuration to be stored as a Kubernetes API object and pulled dynamically on container startup, as an alternative to baking in command-line flags when a container is built.
    • Turnkey Deployments (Deployment API (Beta) in the Extensions API group) automate deployment and rolling updates of applications, specified declaratively. It handles versioning, multiple simultaneous rollouts, aggregating status across all pods, maintaining application availability, and rollback.
  • Automated cluster management:
    • Kubernetes clusters can now span zones within a cloud provider. Pods from a service will be automatically spread across zones, enabling applications to tolerate zone failure.
    • Simplified way to run a container on every node (DaemonSet API (Beta) in the Extensions API group): Kubernetes can schedule a service (such as a logging agent) that runs one, and only one, pod per node.
    • TLS and L7 support (Ingress API (Beta) in the Extensions API group): Kubernetes is now easier to integrate into custom networking environments by supporting TLS for secure communication and L7 http-based traffic routing.
    • Graceful Node Shutdown (aka drain) - The new “kubectl drain” command gracefully evicts pods from nodes in preparation for disruptive operations like kernel upgrades or maintenance.
    • Custom Metrics for Autoscaling (HorizontalPodAutoscaler API in the Autoscaling API group): The Horizontal Pod Autoscaling feature now supports custom metrics (Alpha), allowing you to specify application-level metrics and thresholds to trigger scaling up and down the number of pods in your application.
  • New GUI (dashboard) allows you to get started quickly and enables the same functionality found in the CLI as a more approachable and discoverable way of interacting with the system. Note: the GUI is enabled by default in 1.2 clusters.

Dashboard UI screenshot showing cards that represent applications that run inside a cluster

Other notable improvements

  • Job was Beta in 1.1 and is GA in 1.2 .
    • apiVersion: batch/v1 is now available. You now do not need to specify the .spec.selector field — a unique selector is automatically generated for you.
    • The previous version, apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1, is still supported. Even if you roll back to 1.1, the objects created using the new apiVersion will still be accessible, using the old version. You can continue to use your existing JSON and YAML files until you are ready to switch to batch/v1. We may remove support for Jobs with apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1 in 1.3 or 1.4.
  • HorizontalPodAutoscaler was Beta in 1.1 and is GA in 1.2 .
    • apiVersion: autoscaling/v1 is now available. Changes in this version are:
      • Field CPUUtilization which was a nested structure CPUTargetUtilization in HorizontalPodAutoscalerSpec was replaced by TargetCPUUtilizationPercentage which is an integer.
      • ScaleRef of type SubresourceReference in HorizontalPodAutoscalerSpec which referred to scale subresource of the resource being scaled was replaced by ScaleTargetRef which points just to the resource being scaled.
      • In extensions/v1beta1 if CPUUtilization in HorizontalPodAutoscalerSpec was not specified it was set to 80 by default while in autoscaling/v1 HPA object without TargetCPUUtilizationPercentage specified is a valid object. Pod autoscaler controller will apply a default scaling policy in this case which is equivalent to the previous one but may change in the future.
    • The previous version, apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1, is still supported. Even if you roll back to 1.1, the objects created using the new apiVersions will still be accessible, using the old version. You can continue to use your existing JSON and YAML files until you are ready to switch to autoscaling/v1. We may remove support for HorizontalPodAutoscalers with apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1 in 1.3 or 1.4.
  • Kube-Proxy now defaults to an iptables-based proxy. If the --proxy-mode flag is specified while starting kube-proxy (‘userspace’ or ‘iptables’), the flag value will be respected. If the flag value is not specified, the kube-proxy respects the Node object annotation: ‘’. If the annotation is not specified, then ‘iptables’ mode is the default. If kube-proxy is unable to start in iptables mode because system requirements are not met (kernel or iptables versions are insufficient), the kube-proxy will fall-back to userspace mode. Kube-proxy is much more performant and less resource-intensive in ‘iptables’ mode.
  • Node stability can be improved by reserving resources for the base operating system using --system-reserved and --kube-reserved Kubelet flags
  • Liveness and readiness probes now support more configuration parameters: periodSeconds, successThreshold, failureThreshold
  • The new ReplicaSet API (Beta) in the Extensions API group is similar to ReplicationController, but its selector is more general (supports set-based selector; whereas ReplicationController only supports equality-based selector).
  • Scale subresource support is now expanded to ReplicaSets along with ReplicationControllers and Deployments. Scale now supports two different types of selectors to accommodate both equality-based selectors supported by ReplicationControllers and set-based selectors supported by Deployments and ReplicaSets.
  • “kubectl run” now produces Deployments (instead of ReplicationControllers) and Jobs (instead of Pods) by default.
  • Pods can now consume Secret data in environment variables and inject those environment variables into a container’s command-line args.
  • Stable version of Heapster which scales up to 1000 nodes: more metrics, reduced latency, reduced cpu/memory consumption (~4mb per monitored node).
  • Pods now have a security context which allows users to specify:
    • attributes which apply to the whole pod:
      • User ID
      • Whether all containers should be non-root
      • Supplemental Groups
      • FSGroup - a special supplemental group
      • SELinux options
    • If a pod defines an FSGroup, that Pod’s system (emptyDir, secret, configMap, etc) volumes and block-device volumes will be owned by the FSGroup, and each container in the pod will run with the FSGroup as a supplemental group
  • Volumes that support SELinux labelling are now automatically relabeled with the Pod’s SELinux context, if specified
  • A stable client library release_1_2 is added. The library is here, and detailed doc is here. We will keep the interface of this go client stable.
  • New Azure File Service Volume Plugin enables mounting Microsoft Azure File Volumes (SMB 2.1 and 3.0) into a Pod. See example for details.
  • Logs usage and root filesystem usage of a container, volumes usage of a pod and node disk usage are exposed through Kubelet new metrics API.

Experimental Features

  • Dynamic Provisioning of PersistentVolumes: Kubernetes previously required all volumes to be manually provisioned by a cluster administrator before use. With this feature, volume plugins that support it (GCE PD, AWS EBS, and Cinder) can automatically provision a PersistentVolume to bind to an unfulfilled PersistentVolumeClaim.
  • Run multiple schedulers in parallel, e.g. one or more custom schedulers alongside the default Kubernetes scheduler, using pod annotations to select among the schedulers for each pod. Documentation is here, design doc is here.
  • More expressive node affinity syntax, and support for “soft” node affinity. Node selectors (to constrain pods to schedule on a subset of nodes) now support the operators {In, NotIn, Exists, DoesNotExist, Gt, Lt} instead of just conjunction of exact match on node label values. In addition, we’ve introduced a new “soft” kind of node selector that is just a hint to the scheduler; the scheduler will try to satisfy these requests but it does not guarantee they will be satisfied. Both the “hard” and “soft” variants of node affinity use the new syntax. Documentation is here (see section “Alpha feature in Kubernetes v1.2: Node Affinity“). Design doc is here.
  • A pod can specify its own Hostname and Subdomain via annotations (, If the Subdomain matches the name of a headless service in the same namespace, a DNS A record is also created for the pod’s FQDN. More details can be found in the DNS README. Changes were introduced in PR #20688.
  • New SchedulerExtender enables users to implement custom out-of-(the-scheduler)-process scheduling predicates and priority functions, for example to schedule pods based on resources that are not directly managed by Kubernetes. Changes were introduced in PR #13580. Example configuration and documentation is available here. This is an alpha feature and may not be supported in its current form at beta or GA.
  • New Flex Volume Plugin enables users to use out-of-process volume plugins that are installed to “/usr/libexec/kubernetes/kubelet-plugins/volume/exec/” on every node, instead of being compiled into the Kubernetes binary. See example for details.
  • vendor volumes into a pod. It expects vendor drivers are installed in the volume plugin path on each kubelet node. This is an alpha feature and may change in future.
  • Kubelet exposes a new Alpha metrics API - /stats/summary in a user friendly format with reduced system overhead. The measurement is done in PR #22542.

Action required

  • Docker v1.9.1 is officially recommended. Docker v1.8.3 and Docker v1.10 are supported. If you are using an older release of Docker, please upgrade. Known issues with Docker 1.9.1 can be found below.
  • CPU hardcapping will be enabled by default for containers with CPU limit set, if supported by the kernel. You should either adjust your CPU limit, or set CPU request only, if you want to avoid hardcapping. If the kernel does not support CPU Quota, NodeStatus will contain a warning indicating that CPU Limits cannot be enforced.
  • The following applies only if you use the Go language client (/pkg/client/unversioned) to create Job by defining Go variables of type "".Job). We think this is not common, so if you are not sure what this means, you probably aren't doing this. If you do this, then, at the time you re-vendor the "" code, you will need to set job.Spec.ManualSelector = true, or else set job.Spec.Selector = nil. Otherwise, the jobs you create may be rejected. See Specifying your own pod selector.
  • Deployment was Alpha in 1.1 (though it had apiVersion extensions/v1beta1) and was disabled by default. Due to some non-backward-compatible API changes, any Deployment objects you created in 1.1 won’t work with in the 1.2 release.
    • Before upgrading to 1.2, delete all Deployment alpha-version resources, including the Replication Controllers and Pods the Deployment manages. Then create Deployment Beta resources after upgrading to 1.2. Not deleting the Deployment objects may cause the deployment controller to mistakenly match other pods and delete them, due to the selector API change.
    • Client (kubectl) and server versions must match (both 1.1 or both 1.2) for any Deployment-related operations.
    • Behavior change:
      • Deployment creates ReplicaSets instead of ReplicationControllers.
      • Scale subresource now has a new targetSelector field in its status. This field supports the new set-based selectors supported by Deployments, but in a serialized format.
    • Spec change:
      • Deployment’s selector is now more general (supports set-based selector; it only supported equality-based selector in 1.1).
      • .spec.uniqueLabelKey is removed -- users can’t customize unique label key -- and its default value is changed from “” to “pod-template-hash”.
      • .spec.strategy.rollingUpdate.minReadySeconds is moved to .spec.minReadySeconds
  • DaemonSet was Alpha in 1.1 (though it had apiVersion extensions/v1beta1) and was disabled by default. Due to some non-backward-compatible API changes, any DaemonSet objects you created in 1.1 won’t work with in the 1.2 release.
    • Before upgrading to 1.2, delete all DaemonSet alpha-version resources. If you do not want to disrupt the pods, use kubectl delete daemonset --cascade=false. Then create DaemonSet Beta resources after upgrading to 1.2.
    • Client (kubectl) and server versions must match (both 1.1 or both 1.2) for any DaemonSet-related operations.
    • Behavior change:
      • DaemonSet pods will be created on nodes with .spec.unschedulable=true and will not be evicted from nodes whose Ready condition is false.
      • Updates to the pod template are now permitted. To perform a rolling update of a DaemonSet, update the pod template and then delete its pods one by one; they will be replaced using the updated template.
    • Spec change:
      • DaemonSet’s selector is now more general (supports set-based selector; it only supported equality-based selector in 1.1).
  • Running against a secured etcd requires these flags to be passed to kube-apiserver (instead of --etcd-config):
    • --etcd-certfile, --etcd-keyfile (if using client cert auth)
    • --etcd-cafile (if not using system roots)
  • As part of preparation in 1.2 for adding support for protocol buffers (and the direct YAML support in the API available today), the Content-Type and Accept headers are now properly handled as per the HTTP spec. As a consequence, if you had a client that was sending an invalid Content-Type or Accept header to the API, in 1.2 you will either receive a 415 or 406 error. The only client this is known to affect is curl when you use -d with JSON but don't set a content type, helpfully sends "application/x-www-urlencoded", which is not correct. Other client authors should double check that you are sending proper accept and content type headers, or set no value (in which case JSON is the default). An example using curl: curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -XPOST -d '{"apiVersion":"v1","kind":"Namespace","metadata":{"name":"kube-system"}}' ""
  • The version of InfluxDB is bumped from 0.8 to 0.9 which means storage schema change. More details here.
  • We have renamed “minions” to “nodes”. If you were specifying NUM_MINIONS or MINION_SIZE to kube-up, you should now specify NUM_NODES or NODE_SIZE.

Known Issues

  • Paused deployments can't be resized and don't clean up old ReplicaSets.
  • Minimum memory limit is 4MB. This is a docker limitation
  • Minimum CPU limits is 10m. This is a Linux Kernel limitation
  • “kubectl rollout undo” (i.e. rollback) will hang on paused deployments, because paused deployments can’t be rolled back (this is expected), and the command waits for rollback events to return the result. Users should use “kubectl rollout resume” to resume a deployment before rolling back.
  • “kubectl edit ” will open the editor multiple times, once for each resource in the list.
  • If you create HPA object using autoscaling/v1 API without specifying targetCPUUtilizationPercentage and read it using kubectl it will print default value as specified in extensions/v1beta1 (see details in #23196).
  • If a node or kubelet crashes with a volume attached, the volume will remain attached to that node. If that volume can only be attached to one node at a time (GCE PDs attached in RW mode, for example), then the volume must be manually detached before Kubernetes can attach it to other nodes.
  • If a volume is already attached to a node any subsequent attempts to attach it again (due to kubelet restart, for example) will fail. The volume must either be manually detached first or the pods referencing it deleted (which would trigger automatic volume detach).
  • In very large clusters it may happen that a few nodes won’t register in API server in a given timeframe for whatever reasons (networking issue, machine failure, etc.). Normally when kube-up script will encounter even one NotReady node it will fail, even though the cluster most likely will be working. We added an environmental variable to kube-up ALLOWED_NOTREADY_NODES that defines the number of nodes that if not Ready in time won’t cause kube-up failure.
  • “kubectl rolling-update” only supports Replication Controllers (it doesn’t support Replica Sets). It’s recommended to use Deployment 1.2 with “kubectl rollout” commands instead, if you want to rolling update Replica Sets.
  • When live upgrading Kubelet to 1.2 without draining the pods running on the node, the containers will be restarted by Kubelet (see details in #23104).

Docker Known Issues

  • Listing containers can be slow at times which will affect kubelet performance. More information here
  • Docker daemon restarts can fail. Docker checkpoints have to deleted between restarts. More information here
  • Pod IP allocation-related issues. Deleting the docker checkpoint prior to restarting the daemon alleviates this issue, but hasn’t been verified to completely eliminate the IP allocation issue. More information here
  • Daemon becomes unresponsive (rarely) due to kernel deadlocks. More information here

Provider-specific Notes


Core changes:

  • Support for load balancers with source ranges


Core changes:

  • Support for ELBs with complex configurations: better subnet selection with multiple subnets, and internal ELBs
  • Support for VPCs with private dns names
  • Multiple fixes to EBS volume mounting code for robustness, and to support mounting the full number of AWS recommended volumes.
  • Multiple fixes to avoid hitting AWS rate limits, and to throttle if we do
  • Support for the EC2 Container Registry (currently in us-east-1 only)

With kube-up:

  • Automatically install updates on boot & reboot
  • Use optimized image based on Jessie by default
  • Add support for Ubuntu Wily
  • Master is configured with automatic restart-on-failure, via CloudWatch
  • Bootstrap reworked to be more similar to GCE; better supports reboots/restarts
  • Use an elastic IP for the master by default
  • Experimental support for node spot instances (set NODE_SPOT_PRICE=0.05)


  • Ubuntu Trusty support added

Please see the Releases Page for older releases.