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/*
Copyright 2014 The Kubernetes Authors.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
*/
package serviceaccount
import (
"context"
"fmt"
"io"
"math/rand"
"strconv"
"strings"
"time"
corev1 "k8s.io/api/core/v1"
"k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/api/errors"
metav1 "k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/apis/meta/v1"
"k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/labels"
"k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/runtime/schema"
"k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/util/sets"
"k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/admission"
genericadmissioninitializer "k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/admission/initializer"
"k8s.io/apiserver/pkg/storage/names"
"k8s.io/client-go/informers"
"k8s.io/client-go/kubernetes"
corev1listers "k8s.io/client-go/listers/core/v1"
"k8s.io/component-base/featuregate"
podutil "k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/api/pod"
api "k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/apis/core"
"k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/features"
"k8s.io/kubernetes/pkg/serviceaccount"
)
const (
// DefaultServiceAccountName is the name of the default service account to set on pods which do not specify a service account
DefaultServiceAccountName = "default"
// EnforceMountableSecretsAnnotation is a default annotation that indicates that a service account should enforce mountable secrets.
// The value must be true to have this annotation take effect
EnforceMountableSecretsAnnotation = "kubernetes.io/enforce-mountable-secrets"
// ServiceAccountVolumeName is the prefix name that will be added to volumes that mount ServiceAccount secrets
ServiceAccountVolumeName = "kube-api-access"
// DefaultAPITokenMountPath is the path that ServiceAccountToken secrets are automounted to.
// The token file would then be accessible at /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount
DefaultAPITokenMountPath = "/var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount"
// PluginName is the name of this admission plugin
PluginName = "ServiceAccount"
)
// Register registers a plugin
func Register(plugins *admission.Plugins) {
plugins.Register(PluginName, func(config io.Reader) (admission.Interface, error) {
serviceAccountAdmission := NewServiceAccount()
return serviceAccountAdmission, nil
})
}
var _ = admission.Interface(&Plugin{})
// Plugin contains the client used by the admission controller
type Plugin struct {
*admission.Handler
// LimitSecretReferences rejects pods that reference secrets their service accounts do not reference
LimitSecretReferences bool
// RequireAPIToken determines whether pod creation attempts are rejected if no API token exists for the pod's service account
RequireAPIToken bool
// MountServiceAccountToken creates Volume and VolumeMounts for the first referenced ServiceAccountToken for the pod's service account
MountServiceAccountToken bool
client kubernetes.Interface
serviceAccountLister corev1listers.ServiceAccountLister
secretLister corev1listers.SecretLister
generateName func(string) string
boundServiceAccountTokenVolume bool
}
var _ admission.MutationInterface = &Plugin{}
var _ admission.ValidationInterface = &Plugin{}
var _ genericadmissioninitializer.WantsFeatures = &Plugin{}
var _ = genericadmissioninitializer.WantsExternalKubeClientSet(&Plugin{})
var _ = genericadmissioninitializer.WantsExternalKubeInformerFactory(&Plugin{})
// NewServiceAccount returns an admission.Interface implementation which limits admission of Pod CREATE requests based on the pod's ServiceAccount:
// 1. If the pod does not specify a ServiceAccount, it sets the pod's ServiceAccount to "default"
// 2. It ensures the ServiceAccount referenced by the pod exists
// 3. If LimitSecretReferences is true, it rejects the pod if the pod references Secret objects which the pod's ServiceAccount does not reference
// 4. If the pod does not contain any ImagePullSecrets, the ImagePullSecrets of the service account are added.
// 5. If MountServiceAccountToken is true, it adds a VolumeMount with the pod's ServiceAccount's api token secret to containers
func NewServiceAccount() *Plugin {
return &Plugin{
Handler: admission.NewHandler(admission.Create),
// TODO: enable this once we've swept secret usage to account for adding secret references to service accounts
LimitSecretReferences: false,
// Auto mount service account API token secrets
MountServiceAccountToken: true,
// Reject pod creation until a service account token is available
RequireAPIToken: true,
generateName: names.SimpleNameGenerator.GenerateName,
}
}
// InspectFeatureGates allows setting bools without taking a dep on a global variable
func (s *Plugin) InspectFeatureGates(featureGates featuregate.FeatureGate) {
s.boundServiceAccountTokenVolume = featureGates.Enabled(features.BoundServiceAccountTokenVolume)
}
// SetExternalKubeClientSet sets the client for the plugin
func (s *Plugin) SetExternalKubeClientSet(cl kubernetes.Interface) {
s.client = cl
}
// SetExternalKubeInformerFactory registers informers with the plugin
func (s *Plugin) SetExternalKubeInformerFactory(f informers.SharedInformerFactory) {
serviceAccountInformer := f.Core().V1().ServiceAccounts()
s.serviceAccountLister = serviceAccountInformer.Lister()
secretInformer := f.Core().V1().Secrets()
s.secretLister = secretInformer.Lister()
s.SetReadyFunc(func() bool {
return serviceAccountInformer.Informer().HasSynced() && secretInformer.Informer().HasSynced()
})
}
// ValidateInitialization ensures an authorizer is set.
func (s *Plugin) ValidateInitialization() error {
if s.client == nil {
return fmt.Errorf("missing client")
}
if s.secretLister == nil {
return fmt.Errorf("missing secretLister")
}
if s.serviceAccountLister == nil {
return fmt.Errorf("missing serviceAccountLister")
}
return nil
}
// Admit verifies if the pod should be admitted
func (s *Plugin) Admit(ctx context.Context, a admission.Attributes, o admission.ObjectInterfaces) (err error) {
if shouldIgnore(a) {
return nil
}
pod := a.GetObject().(*api.Pod)
// Don't modify the spec of mirror pods.
// That makes the kubelet very angry and confused, and it immediately deletes the pod (because the spec doesn't match)
// That said, don't allow mirror pods to reference ServiceAccounts or SecretVolumeSources either
if _, isMirrorPod := pod.Annotations[api.MirrorPodAnnotationKey]; isMirrorPod {
return s.Validate(ctx, a, o)
}
// Set the default service account if needed
if len(pod.Spec.ServiceAccountName) == 0 {
pod.Spec.ServiceAccountName = DefaultServiceAccountName
}
serviceAccount, err := s.getServiceAccount(a.GetNamespace(), pod.Spec.ServiceAccountName)
if err != nil {
return admission.NewForbidden(a, fmt.Errorf("error looking up service account %s/%s: %v", a.GetNamespace(), pod.Spec.ServiceAccountName, err))
}
if s.MountServiceAccountToken && shouldAutomount(serviceAccount, pod) {
if err := s.mountServiceAccountToken(serviceAccount, pod); err != nil {
if _, ok := err.(errors.APIStatus); ok {
return err
}
return admission.NewForbidden(a, err)
}
}
if len(pod.Spec.ImagePullSecrets) == 0 {
pod.Spec.ImagePullSecrets = make([]api.LocalObjectReference, len(serviceAccount.ImagePullSecrets))
for i := 0; i < len(serviceAccount.ImagePullSecrets); i++ {
pod.Spec.ImagePullSecrets[i].Name = serviceAccount.ImagePullSecrets[i].Name
}
}
return s.Validate(ctx, a, o)
}
// Validate the data we obtained
func (s *Plugin) Validate(ctx context.Context, a admission.Attributes, o admission.ObjectInterfaces) (err error) {
if shouldIgnore(a) {
return nil
}
pod := a.GetObject().(*api.Pod)
// Mirror pods have restrictions on what they can reference
if _, isMirrorPod := pod.Annotations[api.MirrorPodAnnotationKey]; isMirrorPod {
if len(pod.Spec.ServiceAccountName) != 0 {
return admission.NewForbidden(a, fmt.Errorf("a mirror pod may not reference service accounts"))
}
hasSecrets := false
podutil.VisitPodSecretNames(pod, func(name string) bool {
hasSecrets = true
return false
})
if hasSecrets {
return admission.NewForbidden(a, fmt.Errorf("a mirror pod may not reference secrets"))
}
for _, v := range pod.Spec.Volumes {
if proj := v.Projected; proj != nil {
for _, projSource := range proj.Sources {
if projSource.ServiceAccountToken != nil {
return admission.NewForbidden(a, fmt.Errorf("a mirror pod may not use ServiceAccountToken volume projections"))
}
}
}
}
return nil
}
// Ensure the referenced service account exists
serviceAccount, err := s.getServiceAccount(a.GetNamespace(), pod.Spec.ServiceAccountName)
if err != nil {
return admission.NewForbidden(a, fmt.Errorf("error looking up service account %s/%s: %v", a.GetNamespace(), pod.Spec.ServiceAccountName, err))
}
if s.enforceMountableSecrets(serviceAccount) {
if err := s.limitSecretReferences(serviceAccount, pod); err != nil {
return admission.NewForbidden(a, err)
}
}
return nil
}
func shouldIgnore(a admission.Attributes) bool {
if a.GetResource().GroupResource() != api.Resource("pods") {
return true
}
if a.GetSubresource() != "" {
return true
}
obj := a.GetObject()
if obj == nil {
return true
}
_, ok := obj.(*api.Pod)
if !ok {
return true
}
return false
}
func shouldAutomount(sa *corev1.ServiceAccount, pod *api.Pod) bool {
// Pod's preference wins
if pod.Spec.AutomountServiceAccountToken != nil {
return *pod.Spec.AutomountServiceAccountToken
}
// Then service account's
if sa.AutomountServiceAccountToken != nil {
return *sa.AutomountServiceAccountToken
}
// Default to true for backwards compatibility
return true
}
// enforceMountableSecrets indicates whether mountable secrets should be enforced for a particular service account
// A global setting of true will override any flag set on the individual service account
func (s *Plugin) enforceMountableSecrets(serviceAccount *corev1.ServiceAccount) bool {
if s.LimitSecretReferences {
return true
}
if value, ok := serviceAccount.Annotations[EnforceMountableSecretsAnnotation]; ok {
enforceMountableSecretCheck, _ := strconv.ParseBool(value)
return enforceMountableSecretCheck
}
return false
}
// getServiceAccount returns the ServiceAccount for the given namespace and name if it exists
func (s *Plugin) getServiceAccount(namespace string, name string) (*corev1.ServiceAccount, error) {
serviceAccount, err := s.serviceAccountLister.ServiceAccounts(namespace).Get(name)
if err == nil {
return serviceAccount, nil
}
if !errors.IsNotFound(err) {
return nil, err
}
// Could not find in cache, attempt to look up directly
numAttempts := 1
if name == DefaultServiceAccountName {
// If this is the default serviceaccount, attempt more times, since it should be auto-created by the controller
numAttempts = 10
}
retryInterval := time.Duration(rand.Int63n(100)+int64(100)) * time.Millisecond
for i := 0; i < numAttempts; i++ {
if i != 0 {
time.Sleep(retryInterval)
}
serviceAccount, err := s.client.CoreV1().ServiceAccounts(namespace).Get(name, metav1.GetOptions{})
if err == nil {
return serviceAccount, nil
}
if !errors.IsNotFound(err) {
return nil, err
}
}
return nil, errors.NewNotFound(api.Resource("serviceaccount"), name)
}
// getReferencedServiceAccountToken returns the name of the first referenced secret which is a ServiceAccountToken for the service account
func (s *Plugin) getReferencedServiceAccountToken(serviceAccount *corev1.ServiceAccount) (string, error) {
if len(serviceAccount.Secrets) == 0 {
return "", nil
}
tokens, err := s.getServiceAccountTokens(serviceAccount)
if err != nil {
return "", err
}
accountTokens := sets.NewString()
for _, token := range tokens {
accountTokens.Insert(token.Name)
}
// Prefer secrets in the order they're referenced.
for _, secret := range serviceAccount.Secrets {
if accountTokens.Has(secret.Name) {
return secret.Name, nil
}
}
return "", nil
}
// getServiceAccountTokens returns all ServiceAccountToken secrets for the given ServiceAccount
func (s *Plugin) getServiceAccountTokens(serviceAccount *corev1.ServiceAccount) ([]*corev1.Secret, error) {
secrets, err := s.secretLister.Secrets(serviceAccount.Namespace).List(labels.Everything())
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
tokens := []*corev1.Secret{}
for _, secret := range secrets {
if secret.Type != corev1.SecretTypeServiceAccountToken {
continue
}
if serviceaccount.IsServiceAccountToken(secret, serviceAccount) {
tokens = append(tokens, secret)
}
}
return tokens, nil
}
func (s *Plugin) limitSecretReferences(serviceAccount *corev1.ServiceAccount, pod *api.Pod) error {
// Ensure all secrets the pod references are allowed by the service account
mountableSecrets := sets.NewString()
for _, s := range serviceAccount.Secrets {
mountableSecrets.Insert(s.Name)
}
for _, volume := range pod.Spec.Volumes {
source := volume.VolumeSource
if source.Secret == nil {
continue
}
secretName := source.Secret.SecretName
if !mountableSecrets.Has(secretName) {
return fmt.Errorf("volume with secret.secretName=\"%s\" is not allowed because service account %s does not reference that secret", secretName, serviceAccount.Name)
}
}
for _, container := range pod.Spec.InitContainers {
for _, env := range container.Env {
if env.ValueFrom != nil && env.ValueFrom.SecretKeyRef != nil {
if !mountableSecrets.Has(env.ValueFrom.SecretKeyRef.Name) {
return fmt.Errorf("init container %s with envVar %s referencing secret.secretName=\"%s\" is not allowed because service account %s does not reference that secret", container.Name, env.Name, env.ValueFrom.SecretKeyRef.Name, serviceAccount.Name)
}
}
}
}
for _, container := range pod.Spec.Containers {
for _, env := range container.Env {
if env.ValueFrom != nil && env.ValueFrom.SecretKeyRef != nil {
if !mountableSecrets.Has(env.ValueFrom.SecretKeyRef.Name) {
return fmt.Errorf("container %s with envVar %s referencing secret.secretName=\"%s\" is not allowed because service account %s does not reference that secret", container.Name, env.Name, env.ValueFrom.SecretKeyRef.Name, serviceAccount.Name)
}
}
}
}
// limit pull secret references as well
pullSecrets := sets.NewString()
for _, s := range serviceAccount.ImagePullSecrets {
pullSecrets.Insert(s.Name)
}
for i, pullSecretRef := range pod.Spec.ImagePullSecrets {
if !pullSecrets.Has(pullSecretRef.Name) {
return fmt.Errorf(`imagePullSecrets[%d].name="%s" is not allowed because service account %s does not reference that imagePullSecret`, i, pullSecretRef.Name, serviceAccount.Name)
}
}
return nil
}
func (s *Plugin) mountServiceAccountToken(serviceAccount *corev1.ServiceAccount, pod *api.Pod) error {
// Find the name of a referenced ServiceAccountToken secret we can mount
serviceAccountToken, err := s.getReferencedServiceAccountToken(serviceAccount)
if err != nil {
return fmt.Errorf("Error looking up service account token for %s/%s: %v", serviceAccount.Namespace, serviceAccount.Name, err)
}
if len(serviceAccountToken) == 0 {
// We don't have an API token to mount, so return
if s.RequireAPIToken {
// If a token is required, this is considered an error
err := errors.NewServerTimeout(schema.GroupResource{Resource: "serviceaccounts"}, "create pod", 1)
err.ErrStatus.Message = fmt.Sprintf("No API token found for service account %q, retry after the token is automatically created and added to the service account", serviceAccount.Name)
return err
}
return nil
}
// Find the volume and volume name for the ServiceAccountTokenSecret if it already exists
tokenVolumeName := ""
hasTokenVolume := false
allVolumeNames := sets.NewString()
for _, volume := range pod.Spec.Volumes {
allVolumeNames.Insert(volume.Name)
if (!s.boundServiceAccountTokenVolume && volume.Secret != nil && volume.Secret.SecretName == serviceAccountToken) ||
(s.boundServiceAccountTokenVolume && strings.HasPrefix(volume.Name, ServiceAccountVolumeName+"-")) {
tokenVolumeName = volume.Name
hasTokenVolume = true
break
}
}
// Determine a volume name for the ServiceAccountTokenSecret in case we need it
if len(tokenVolumeName) == 0 {
if s.boundServiceAccountTokenVolume {
tokenVolumeName = s.generateName(ServiceAccountVolumeName + "-")
} else {
// Try naming the volume the same as the serviceAccountToken, and uniquify if needed
tokenVolumeName = serviceAccountToken
if allVolumeNames.Has(tokenVolumeName) {
tokenVolumeName = s.generateName(fmt.Sprintf("%s-", serviceAccountToken))
}
}
}
// Create the prototypical VolumeMount
volumeMount := api.VolumeMount{
Name: tokenVolumeName,
ReadOnly: true,
MountPath: DefaultAPITokenMountPath,
}
// Ensure every container mounts the APISecret volume
needsTokenVolume := false
for i, container := range pod.Spec.InitContainers {
existingContainerMount := false
for _, volumeMount := range container.VolumeMounts {
// Existing mounts at the default mount path prevent mounting of the API token
if volumeMount.MountPath == DefaultAPITokenMountPath {
existingContainerMount = true
break
}
}
if !existingContainerMount {
pod.Spec.InitContainers[i].VolumeMounts = append(pod.Spec.InitContainers[i].VolumeMounts, volumeMount)
needsTokenVolume = true
}
}
for i, container := range pod.Spec.Containers {
existingContainerMount := false
for _, volumeMount := range container.VolumeMounts {
// Existing mounts at the default mount path prevent mounting of the API token
if volumeMount.MountPath == DefaultAPITokenMountPath {
existingContainerMount = true
break
}
}
if !existingContainerMount {
pod.Spec.Containers[i].VolumeMounts = append(pod.Spec.Containers[i].VolumeMounts, volumeMount)
needsTokenVolume = true
}
}
// Add the volume if a container needs it
if !hasTokenVolume && needsTokenVolume {
pod.Spec.Volumes = append(pod.Spec.Volumes, s.createVolume(tokenVolumeName, serviceAccountToken))
}
return nil
}
func (s *Plugin) createVolume(tokenVolumeName, secretName string) api.Volume {
if s.boundServiceAccountTokenVolume {
return api.Volume{
Name: tokenVolumeName,
VolumeSource: api.VolumeSource{
Projected: &api.ProjectedVolumeSource{
Sources: []api.VolumeProjection{
{
ServiceAccountToken: &api.ServiceAccountTokenProjection{
Path: "token",
ExpirationSeconds: 60 * 60,
},
},
{
ConfigMap: &api.ConfigMapProjection{
LocalObjectReference: api.LocalObjectReference{
Name: "kube-root-ca.crt",
},
Items: []api.KeyToPath{
{
Key: "ca.crt",
Path: "ca.crt",
},
},
},
},
{
DownwardAPI: &api.DownwardAPIProjection{
Items: []api.DownwardAPIVolumeFile{
{
Path: "namespace",
FieldRef: &api.ObjectFieldSelector{
APIVersion: "v1",
FieldPath: "metadata.namespace",
},
},
},
},
},
},
},
},
}
}
return api.Volume{
Name: tokenVolumeName,
VolumeSource: api.VolumeSource{
Secret: &api.SecretVolumeSource{
SecretName: secretName,
},
},
}
}
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