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Copyright 2015 The Kubernetes Authors.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
// Package leaderelection implements leader election of a set of endpoints.
// It uses an annotation in the endpoints object to store the record of the
// election state. This implementation does not guarantee that only one
// client is acting as a leader (a.k.a. fencing).
// A client only acts on timestamps captured locally to infer the state of the
// leader election. The client does not consider timestamps in the leader
// election record to be accurate because these timestamps may not have been
// produced by a local clock. The implemention does not depend on their
// accuracy and only uses their change to indicate that another client has
// renewed the leader lease. Thus the implementation is tolerant to arbitrary
// clock skew, but is not tolerant to arbitrary clock skew rate.
// However the level of tolerance to skew rate can be configured by setting
// RenewDeadline and LeaseDuration appropriately. The tolerance expressed as a
// maximum tolerated ratio of time passed on the fastest node to time passed on
// the slowest node can be approximately achieved with a configuration that sets
// the same ratio of LeaseDuration to RenewDeadline. For example if a user wanted
// to tolerate some nodes progressing forward in time twice as fast as other nodes,
// the user could set LeaseDuration to 60 seconds and RenewDeadline to 30 seconds.
// While not required, some method of clock synchronization between nodes in the
// cluster is highly recommended. It's important to keep in mind when configuring
// this client that the tolerance to skew rate varies inversely to master
// availability.
// Larger clusters often have a more lenient SLA for API latency. This should be
// taken into account when configuring the client. The rate of leader transitions
// should be monitored and RetryPeriod and LeaseDuration should be increased
// until the rate is stable and acceptably low. It's important to keep in mind
// when configuring this client that the tolerance to API latency varies inversely
// to master availability.
// DISCLAIMER: this is an alpha API. This library will likely change significantly
// or even be removed entirely in subsequent releases. Depend on this API at
// your own risk.
package leaderelection
import (
metav1 ""
rl ""
const (
JitterFactor = 1.2
// NewLeaderElector creates a LeaderElector from a LeaderElectionConfig
func NewLeaderElector(lec LeaderElectionConfig) (*LeaderElector, error) {
if lec.LeaseDuration <= lec.RenewDeadline {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("leaseDuration must be greater than renewDeadline")
if lec.RenewDeadline <= time.Duration(JitterFactor*float64(lec.RetryPeriod)) {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("renewDeadline must be greater than retryPeriod*JitterFactor")
if lec.LeaseDuration < 1 {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("leaseDuration must be greater than zero")
if lec.RenewDeadline < 1 {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("renewDeadline must be greater than zero")
if lec.RetryPeriod < 1 {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("retryPeriod must be greater than zero")
if lec.Callbacks.OnStartedLeading == nil {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("OnStartedLeading callback must not be nil")
if lec.Callbacks.OnStoppedLeading == nil {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("OnStoppedLeading callback must not be nil")
if lec.Lock == nil {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("Lock must not be nil.")
le := LeaderElector{
config: lec,
clock: clock.RealClock{},
metrics: globalMetricsFactory.newLeaderMetrics(),
return &le, nil
type LeaderElectionConfig struct {
// Lock is the resource that will be used for locking
Lock rl.Interface
// LeaseDuration is the duration that non-leader candidates will
// wait to force acquire leadership. This is measured against time of
// last observed ack.
// A client needs to wait a full LeaseDuration without observing a change to
// the record before it can attempt to take over. When all clients are
// shutdown and a new set of clients are started with different names against
// the same leader record, they must wait the full LeaseDuration before
// attempting to acquire the lease. Thus LeaseDuration should be as short as
// possible (within your tolerance for clock skew rate) to avoid a possible
// long waits in the scenario.
// Core clients default this value to 15 seconds.
LeaseDuration time.Duration
// RenewDeadline is the duration that the acting master will retry
// refreshing leadership before giving up.
// Core clients default this value to 10 seconds.
RenewDeadline time.Duration
// RetryPeriod is the duration the LeaderElector clients should wait
// between tries of actions.
// Core clients default this value to 2 seconds.
RetryPeriod time.Duration
// Callbacks are callbacks that are triggered during certain lifecycle
// events of the LeaderElector
Callbacks LeaderCallbacks
// WatchDog is the associated health checker
// WatchDog may be null if its not needed/configured.
WatchDog *HealthzAdaptor
// ReleaseOnCancel should be set true if the lock should be released
// when the run context is cancelled. If you set this to true, you must
// ensure all code guarded by this lease has successfully completed
// prior to cancelling the context, or you may have two processes
// simultaneously acting on the critical path.
ReleaseOnCancel bool
// Name is the name of the resource lock for debugging
Name string
// LeaderCallbacks are callbacks that are triggered during certain
// lifecycle events of the LeaderElector. These are invoked asynchronously.
// possible future callbacks:
// * OnChallenge()
type LeaderCallbacks struct {
// OnStartedLeading is called when a LeaderElector client starts leading
OnStartedLeading func(context.Context)
// OnStoppedLeading is called when a LeaderElector client stops leading
OnStoppedLeading func()
// OnNewLeader is called when the client observes a leader that is
// not the previously observed leader. This includes the first observed
// leader when the client starts.
OnNewLeader func(identity string)
// LeaderElector is a leader election client.
type LeaderElector struct {
config LeaderElectionConfig
// internal bookkeeping
observedRecord rl.LeaderElectionRecord
observedTime time.Time
// used to implement OnNewLeader(), may lag slightly from the
// value observedRecord.HolderIdentity if the transition has
// not yet been reported.
reportedLeader string
// clock is wrapper around time to allow for less flaky testing
clock clock.Clock
metrics leaderMetricsAdapter
// name is the name of the resource lock for debugging
name string
// Run starts the leader election loop
func (le *LeaderElector) Run(ctx context.Context) {
defer func() {
if !le.acquire(ctx) {
return // ctx signalled done
ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(ctx)
defer cancel()
go le.config.Callbacks.OnStartedLeading(ctx)
// RunOrDie starts a client with the provided config or panics if the config
// fails to validate.
func RunOrDie(ctx context.Context, lec LeaderElectionConfig) {
le, err := NewLeaderElector(lec)
if err != nil {
if lec.WatchDog != nil {
// GetLeader returns the identity of the last observed leader or returns the empty string if
// no leader has yet been observed.
func (le *LeaderElector) GetLeader() string {
return le.observedRecord.HolderIdentity
// IsLeader returns true if the last observed leader was this client else returns false.
func (le *LeaderElector) IsLeader() bool {
return le.observedRecord.HolderIdentity == le.config.Lock.Identity()
// acquire loops calling tryAcquireOrRenew and returns true immediately when tryAcquireOrRenew succeeds.
// Returns false if ctx signals done.
func (le *LeaderElector) acquire(ctx context.Context) bool {
ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(ctx)
defer cancel()
succeeded := false
desc := le.config.Lock.Describe()
klog.Infof("attempting to acquire leader lease %v...", desc)
wait.JitterUntil(func() {
succeeded = le.tryAcquireOrRenew()
if !succeeded {
klog.V(4).Infof("failed to acquire lease %v", desc)
le.config.Lock.RecordEvent("became leader")
klog.Infof("successfully acquired lease %v", desc)
}, le.config.RetryPeriod, JitterFactor, true, ctx.Done())
return succeeded
// renew loops calling tryAcquireOrRenew and returns immediately when tryAcquireOrRenew fails or ctx signals done.
func (le *LeaderElector) renew(ctx context.Context) {
ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(ctx)
defer cancel()
wait.Until(func() {
timeoutCtx, timeoutCancel := context.WithTimeout(ctx, le.config.RenewDeadline)
defer timeoutCancel()
err := wait.PollImmediateUntil(le.config.RetryPeriod, func() (bool, error) {
done := make(chan bool, 1)
go func() {
defer close(done)
done <- le.tryAcquireOrRenew()
select {
case <-timeoutCtx.Done():
return false, fmt.Errorf("failed to tryAcquireOrRenew %s", timeoutCtx.Err())
case result := <-done:
return result, nil
}, timeoutCtx.Done())
desc := le.config.Lock.Describe()
if err == nil {
klog.V(5).Infof("successfully renewed lease %v", desc)
le.config.Lock.RecordEvent("stopped leading")
klog.Infof("failed to renew lease %v: %v", desc, err)
}, le.config.RetryPeriod, ctx.Done())
// if we hold the lease, give it up
if le.config.ReleaseOnCancel {
// release attempts to release the leader lease if we have acquired it.
func (le *LeaderElector) release() bool {
if !le.IsLeader() {
return true
leaderElectionRecord := rl.LeaderElectionRecord{
LeaderTransitions: le.observedRecord.LeaderTransitions,
if err := le.config.Lock.Update(leaderElectionRecord); err != nil {
klog.Errorf("Failed to release lock: %v", err)
return false
le.observedRecord = leaderElectionRecord
le.observedTime = le.clock.Now()
return true
// tryAcquireOrRenew tries to acquire a leader lease if it is not already acquired,
// else it tries to renew the lease if it has already been acquired. Returns true
// on success else returns false.
func (le *LeaderElector) tryAcquireOrRenew() bool {
now := metav1.Now()
leaderElectionRecord := rl.LeaderElectionRecord{
HolderIdentity: le.config.Lock.Identity(),
LeaseDurationSeconds: int(le.config.LeaseDuration / time.Second),
RenewTime: now,
AcquireTime: now,
// 1. obtain or create the ElectionRecord
oldLeaderElectionRecord, err := le.config.Lock.Get()
if err != nil {
if !errors.IsNotFound(err) {
klog.Errorf("error retrieving resource lock %v: %v", le.config.Lock.Describe(), err)
return false
if err = le.config.Lock.Create(leaderElectionRecord); err != nil {
klog.Errorf("error initially creating leader election record: %v", err)
return false
le.observedRecord = leaderElectionRecord
le.observedTime = le.clock.Now()
return true
// 2. Record obtained, check the Identity & Time
if !reflect.DeepEqual(le.observedRecord, *oldLeaderElectionRecord) {
le.observedRecord = *oldLeaderElectionRecord
le.observedTime = le.clock.Now()
if len(oldLeaderElectionRecord.HolderIdentity) > 0 &&
le.observedTime.Add(le.config.LeaseDuration).After(now.Time) &&
!le.IsLeader() {
klog.V(4).Infof("lock is held by %v and has not yet expired", oldLeaderElectionRecord.HolderIdentity)
return false
// 3. We're going to try to update. The leaderElectionRecord is set to it's default
// here. Let's correct it before updating.
if le.IsLeader() {
leaderElectionRecord.AcquireTime = oldLeaderElectionRecord.AcquireTime
leaderElectionRecord.LeaderTransitions = oldLeaderElectionRecord.LeaderTransitions
} else {
leaderElectionRecord.LeaderTransitions = oldLeaderElectionRecord.LeaderTransitions + 1
// update the lock itself
if err = le.config.Lock.Update(leaderElectionRecord); err != nil {
klog.Errorf("Failed to update lock: %v", err)
return false
le.observedRecord = leaderElectionRecord
le.observedTime = le.clock.Now()
return true
func (le *LeaderElector) maybeReportTransition() {
if le.observedRecord.HolderIdentity == le.reportedLeader {
le.reportedLeader = le.observedRecord.HolderIdentity
if le.config.Callbacks.OnNewLeader != nil {
go le.config.Callbacks.OnNewLeader(le.reportedLeader)
// Check will determine if the current lease is expired by more than timeout.
func (le *LeaderElector) Check(maxTolerableExpiredLease time.Duration) error {
if !le.IsLeader() {
// Currently not concerned with the case that we are hot standby
return nil
// If we are more than timeout seconds after the lease duration that is past the timeout
// on the lease renew. Time to start reporting ourselves as unhealthy. We should have
// died but conditions like deadlock can prevent this. (See #70819)
if le.clock.Since(le.observedTime) > le.config.LeaseDuration+maxTolerableExpiredLease {
return fmt.Errorf("failed election to renew leadership on lease %s", le.config.Name)
return nil
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