Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

The Kubernetes documentation

Netlify Status GitHub release

This repository contains the assets required to build the Kubernetes website and documentation. We're glad that you want to contribute!

Using this repository

You can run the website locally using Hugo (Extended version), or you can run it in a container runtime. We strongly recommend using the container runtime, as it gives deployment consistency with the live website.


To use this repository, you need the following installed locally:

Before you start, install the dependencies. Clone the repository and navigate to the directory:

git clone
cd website

The Kubernetes website uses the Docsy Hugo theme. Even if you plan to run the website in a container, we strongly recommend pulling in the submodule and other development dependencies by running the following:


# fetch submodule dependencies
git submodule update --init --recursive --depth 1

Linux / other Unix

# fetch submodule dependencies
make module-init

Running the website using a container

To build the site in a container, run the following:

# You can set $CONTAINER_ENGINE to the name of any Docker-like container tool
make container-serve

If you see errors, it probably means that the hugo container did not have enough computing resources available. To solve it, increase the amount of allowed CPU and memory usage for Docker on your machine (MacOS and Windows).

Open up your browser to http://localhost:1313 to view the website. As you make changes to the source files, Hugo updates the website and forces a browser refresh.

Running the website locally using Hugo

Make sure to install the Hugo extended version specified by the HUGO_VERSION environment variable in the netlify.toml file.

To install dependencies, deploy and test the site locally, run:

  • For macOS and Linux
    npm ci
    make serve
  • For Windows (PowerShell)
    npm ci
    hugo.exe server --buildFuture --environment development

This will start the local Hugo server on port 1313. Open up your browser to http://localhost:1313 to view the website. As you make changes to the source files, Hugo updates the website and forces a browser refresh.

Building the API reference pages

The API reference pages located in content/en/docs/reference/kubernetes-api are built from the Swagger specification, also known as OpenAPI specification, using

To update the reference pages for a new Kubernetes release follow these steps:

  1. Pull in the api-ref-generator submodule:

    git submodule update --init --recursive --depth 1
  2. Update the Swagger specification:

    curl '' > api-ref-assets/api/swagger.json
  3. In api-ref-assets/config/, adapt the files toc.yaml and fields.yaml to reflect the changes of the new release.

  4. Next, build the pages:

    make api-reference

    You can test the results locally by making and serving the site from a container image:

    make container-image
    make container-serve

    In a web browser, go to http://localhost:1313/docs/reference/kubernetes-api/ to view the API reference.

  5. When all changes of the new contract are reflected into the configuration files toc.yaml and fields.yaml, create a Pull Request with the newly generated API reference pages.


error: failed to transform resource: TOCSS: failed to transform "scss/main.scss" (text/x-scss): this feature is not available in your current Hugo version

Hugo is shipped in two set of binaries for technical reasons. The current website runs based on the Hugo Extended version only. In the release page look for archives with extended in the name. To confirm, run hugo version and look for the word extended.

Troubleshooting macOS for too many open files

If you run make serve on macOS and receive the following error:

ERROR 2020/08/01 19:09:18 Error: listen tcp socket: too many open files
make: *** [serve] Error 1

Try checking the current limit for open files:

launchctl limit maxfiles

Then run the following commands (adapted from


# These are the original gist links, linking to my gists now.
# curl -O
# curl -O

curl -O
curl -O

sudo mv limit.maxfiles.plist /Library/LaunchDaemons
sudo mv limit.maxproc.plist /Library/LaunchDaemons

sudo chown root:wheel /Library/LaunchDaemons/limit.maxfiles.plist
sudo chown root:wheel /Library/LaunchDaemons/limit.maxproc.plist

sudo launchctl load -w /Library/LaunchDaemons/limit.maxfiles.plist

This works for Catalina as well as Mojave macOS.

Get involved with SIG Docs

Learn more about SIG Docs Kubernetes community and meetings on the community page.

You can also reach the maintainers of this project at:

Contributing to the docs

You can click the Fork button in the upper-right area of the screen to create a copy of this repository in your GitHub account. This copy is called a fork. Make any changes you want in your fork, and when you are ready to send those changes to us, go to your fork and create a new pull request to let us know about it.

Once your pull request is created, a Kubernetes reviewer will take responsibility for providing clear, actionable feedback. As the owner of the pull request, it is your responsibility to modify your pull request to address the feedback that has been provided to you by the Kubernetes reviewer.

Also, note that you may end up having more than one Kubernetes reviewer provide you feedback or you may end up getting feedback from a Kubernetes reviewer that is different than the one initially assigned to provide you feedback.

Furthermore, in some cases, one of your reviewers might ask for a technical review from a Kubernetes tech reviewer when needed. Reviewers will do their best to provide feedback in a timely fashion but response time can vary based on circumstances.

For more information about contributing to the Kubernetes documentation, see:

New contributor ambassadors

If you need help at any point when contributing, the New Contributor Ambassadors are a good point of contact. These are SIG Docs approvers whose responsibilities include mentoring new contributors and helping them through their first few pull requests. The best place to contact the New Contributors Ambassadors would be on the Kubernetes Slack. Current New Contributors Ambassadors for SIG Docs:

Name Slack GitHub
Arsh Sharma @arsh @RinkiyaKeDad

Localization READMEs

Language Language
Chinese Korean
French Polish
German Portuguese
Hindi Russian
Indonesian Spanish
Italian Ukrainian
Japanese Vietnamese

Code of conduct

Participation in the Kubernetes community is governed by the CNCF Code of Conduct.

Thank you

Kubernetes thrives on community participation, and we appreciate your contributions to our website and our documentation!