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KumuluzEE Discovery

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Service discovery project for the KumuluzEE microservice framework. Service registration, service discovery and client side load balancing with full support for Docker and Kubernetes cluster.

KumuluzEE Discovery is a service discovery project for the KumuluzEE microservice framework. It provides support for service registration, service discovery and client side load balancing.

KumuluzEE Discovery provides full support for microservices packed as Docker containers. It also provides full support for executing microservices in clusters and cloud-native platforms with full support for Kubernetes.

KumuluzEE Discovery has been designed to support modularity with pluggable service discovery frameworks. Currently, etcd and Consul are supported. In the future, other discovery frameworks will be supported too (contributions are welcome).

Project supports KumuluzEE version 2.4.0 or higher.


You can enable etcd-based service discovery by adding the following dependency:


You can enable Consul-based service discovery by adding the following dependency:


Configuring etcd

Etcd can be configured with the common KumuluzEE configuration framework. Configuration properties can be defined with the environment variables or in the configuration file. For more details see the KumuluzEE configuration wiki page.

To enable service registration using etcd, an odd number of etcd hosts should be specified with the configuration key kumuluzee.config.etcd.hosts in the following format ',,'.

In etcd key-value store, services are registered following this schema:

  • key: /environments/'environment'/services/'serviceName'/'serviceVersion'/instances/'automaticallyGeneratedInstanceId'/url, e.g. /environments/dev/services/my-service/v0.01/instances/1491983746019/url
  • value: service URL, e.g http://localhost:8080


Etcd can be configured to support user authentication and client-to-server transport security with HTTPS. To access authentication-enabled etcd host, username and password have to be defined with configuration keys kumuluzee.config.etcd.username and kumuluzee.config.etcd.password. To enable transport security, follow To access HTTPS-enabled etcd host, PEM certificate string has to be defined with the configuration key

Example of YAML configuration:

  name: my-service
    name: test
  version: 1.2.3
      port: 8081
    base-url: http://localhost:8081
    ttl: 30
    ping-interval: 5

Configuring Consul

Consul is also configured with the common KumuluzEE configuration framework, similarly as etcd.

By default, Consul connects to the local agent (http://localhost:8500) without additional configuration. You can specify the URL of the Consul agent with configuration key kumuluzee.discovery.consul.agent. Note that Consul is responsible for assigning the IP addresses to the registered services and will assign them the IP on which the agent is accessible. Specifying an agent IP address is therefore useful in specific situations, for example when you are running multiple services on single Docker host and want them to connect to the single Consul agent, running on the same Docker host.

If your service is accessible over https, you must specify that with configuration key kumuluzee.discovery.consul.protocol: https. Otherwise, http protocol is used.

Consul implementation reregisters services in case of errors and sometimes unused services in critical state remain in Consul. To avoid this, Consul implementation uses Consul parameter DeregisterCriticalServiceAfter when registering services. To read more about this parameter, see Consul documentation: To alter the value of this parameter, set configuration key kumuluzee.config.consul.deregister-critical-service-after-s appropriately. Default value is 60 (1 min).

Services in Consul are registered with the following name: 'environment'-'serviceName'

Version is stored in service tag with following format: version='version'

If the service uses https protocol, tag https is added.

Retry delays

Etcd and Consul implementations support retry delays on watch connection errors. Since they use increasing exponential delay, two parameters need to be specified:

  • kumuluzee.discovery.start-retry-delay-ms - Sets the retry delay duration in ms on first error. Default value: 500
  • kumuluzee.discovery.max-retry-delay-ms - Sets the maximum delay duration in ms on consecutive errors - Default value: 900000 (15 min)

Etcd implementation additionally supports fine-grained retry configuration by using the following configuration keys:

  • kumuluzee.discovery.etcd.initial-retry-count - Specifies how many retries are executed when performing the first request on etcd. This mainly affects the time before the first performed discovery returns no instances if the etcd is down. Default value: 1.
  • kumuluzee.discovery.resilience - If false, retries are not executed on any etcd request and EtcdNotAvailableException is thrown on timeouts. If true, retries are executed as configured and timeouts are logged, but no exceptions are thrown. Default value: true.

Service registration

Automatic service registration is enabled with the annotation @RegisterService on the REST application class (that extends The annotation takes six parameters:

  • value: service name. Default value is fully classified class name. Service name can be overridden with configuration key
  • ttl: time to live of a registration key in the store. Default value is 30 seconds. TTL can be overridden with configuration key kumuluzee.discovery.ttl.
  • pingInterval: an interval in which service updates registration key value in the store. Default value is 20. Ping interval can be overridden with configuration key
  • environment: environment in which service is registered. Default value is "dev". Environment can be overridden with configuration key
  • version: version of service to be registered. Default value is "1.0.0". Version can be overridden with configuration key kumuluzee.version.
  • singleton: if true ensures, that only one instance of service with the same name, version and environment is registered. Default value is false.

Examples of service registration:

@RegisterService(value = "my-service", ttl = 20, pingInterval = 15, environment = "test", version = "1.0.0", singleton = false)
public class RestApplication extends Application {

Example of service registration where the values are taken from the configuration framework:

public class RestApplication extends Application {

To register a service with etcd, service URL has to be provided with the configuration key kumuluzee.server.base-url in the following format:http://localhost:8080. Consul implementation uses agent's IP address for the URL of registered services, so this key is not used.

KumuluzEE Discovery supports registration of multiple different versions of a service in different environments. The environment can be set with the configuration key, the default value is dev. Service version can also be set with the configuration key kumuluzee.version, the default value is 1.0.0. Configuration keys will override annotation values.

Service discovery

Service discovery is implemented by injecting fields with the annotation @DiscoverService, which takes four parameters:

  • value: name of the service we want to inject.
  • environment: service environment, e.g. prod, dev, test. If value is not provided, environment is set to the value defined with the configuration key If the configuration key is not present, value is set to dev.
  • version: service version or NPM version range. Default value is "*", which resolves to the highest deployed version (see chapter NPM-like versioning).
  • accessType: defines, which URL gets injected. Supported values are AccessType.GATEWAY and AccessType.DIRECT. Default is AccessType.GATEWAY. See section Access Types for more information.

Injection is supported for the following field types:

  • URL
  • String
  • WebTarget

Example of service discovery in JAX-RS bean:

public class TestResource {

    @DiscoverService(value = "my-service", environment = "test", version = "1.0.0")
    private URL url;

    @DiscoverService(value = "my-service", environment = "test", version = "1.0.0")
    private String urlString;

    @DiscoverService(value = "my-service", environment = "test", version = "1.0.0")
    private WebTarget webTarget;


If the service is not found, injection throws ServiceNotFoundException. If this behavior is not desired, injection into Optional types can be used:

public class TestResource {

    @DiscoverService(value = "my-service", environment = "test", version = "1.0.0")
    private Optional<URL> url;

    @DiscoverService(value = "my-service", environment = "test", version = "1.0.0")
    private Optional<String> urlString;

    @DiscoverService(value = "my-service", environment = "test", version = "1.0.0")
    private Optional<WebTarget> webTarget;


Access Types

Service discovery supports two access types:

  • AccessType.GATEWAY returns gateway URL, if it is present. If not, behavior is the same as with AccessType.DIRECT.
  • AccessType.DIRECT always returns base URL or container URL.

If etcd implementation is used, gateway URL is read from etcd key-value store used for service discovery. It is stored in key /environments/'environment'/services/'serviceName'/'serviceVersion'/gatewayUrl and is automatically updated, if value changes.

If Consul implementation is used, gateway URL is read from Consul key-value store. It is stored in key /environments/'environment'/services/'serviceName'/'serviceVersion'/gatewayUrl and is automatically updated on changes, similar as in etcd implementation.

NPM-like versioning

Service discovery support NPM-like versioning. If service is registered with version in NPM format, it can be discovered using a NPM range. Some examples:

  • "*" would discover the latest version in NPM format, registered with etcd
  • "^1.0.4" would discover the latest minor version in NPM format, registered with etcd
  • "~1.0.4" would discover the latest patch version in NPM format, registered with etcd

For more information see NPM semver documentation.

Using the last-known service

Etcd implementation improves resilience by saving the information of the last present service, before it gets deleted. This means, that etcd-based discovery will return the URL of the last-known service, if no services are present in the registry. When discovering the last-known service a warning is logged.

Executing service discovery only when needed

When injecting a service using the @DiscoverService annotation, the service is discovered every time the bean is created, even if we call a method that does not require injected service. This usually does not present a problem, since blocking request to the registry is needed only when the first discovery of the service is performed. Every following discovery of the service is performed on the internal cache, which gets updated in the background.

If this still presents a problem, you can avoid service discovery when not needed by either injecting DiscoveryUtil and performing service discovery programmatically, or by using the CDI Provider mechanism as shown below:

public class DiscoverResources extends BaseResource {

    @DiscoverService(value = "my-service", environment = "dev", version = "1.0.0")
    Provider<Optional<WebTarget>> targetProvider;

    public Response discoveryInMethod() {
        Optional<WebTarget> target = targetProvider.get();
        if (target.isPresent()) {
            return Response.ok(target.get().getUri().toString()).build();
        } else {
            return Response.noContent().build();

    public Response nonDiscoveryMethod() {
        return Response.ok("{}").build();

Cluster, cloud-native platforms and Kubernetes

KumuluzEE Discovery is fully compatible with clusters and cloud-native platforms. It has been extensively tested with Kubernetes. If you are running your services in cluster (for example Kubernetes), you should specify the cluster id in the configuration key kumuluzee.discovery.cluster. Cluster id should be the same for every service running in the same cluster.

Services running in the same cluster will be discovered by their container IP. Services accessing your service from outside the cluster will discover your service by its base url (kumuluzee.server.base-url).

Container IP is automatically acquired when you run the service. If you want to override it, you can do so by specifying configuration key kumuluzee.container-url.


Recent changes can be viewed on Github on the Releases Page


See the contributing docs

When submitting an issue, please follow the guidelines.

When submitting a bugfix, write a test that exposes the bug and fails before applying your fix. Submit the test alongside the fix.

When submitting a new feature, add tests that cover the feature.