lviv is a functional stack-based programming language. Or maybe it's just a fancy programmable calculator.
lviv is written in Scheme. It's possible that it will work in a bunch of different Scheme environments, but I use Gambit-C Scheme v4.6.1 for development, so I don't guarantee that it'll work in any other scheme interpreter.
lviv is an experiment in hybrid functional-stack language design. The idea was to have a very regular syntax that was 100% compatible with postfix notation without requiring a modal interpreter (i.e., no ": ... ;" stuff like in FORTH; this means that everything, including
let, et cetera, uses postfix notation) and with a minimal number of special forms. The original impetus came from a paper I read about how tail call optimization happens very naturally when the machine model is stack based. Naturally, lviv supports tail call optimization.
The name comes from the city of Lviv, where Jan Lukasiewicz was born. Lukasiewicz invented prefix or "Polish" notation to simplify the syntax of sentential logic; later, Burks, Warren, and Wright (and even later Bauer and Dijkstra) proposed postfix, or "reverse Polish" notation as a good fit for stack based machines.
Let's look at some example code so you know what you're getting yourself into.
> (*x dup *) (*x) lambda *square define > 5 square 25
> ((1) (*x dup 1 - *fact *) *x 0 eq? if) (*x) lambda *fact define > 5 fact 120
> ((swap drop) (dup 3 roll + *x 1 - *fibHlp) *x 0 eq? if) (*x) lambda *fibHlp define > ((0) (0 1 *x 1 - *fibHlp) *x 1 < if) (*x) lambda *fib define > 5 fib 5 > 15 fib 610 > 25 fib 75025
We could also do this with the helper defined inside the parent environment:
> ( ((swap drop) (dup 3 roll + **x 1 - **fibHlp) **x 0 eq? if) (**x) lambda **fibHlp define (0) (0 1 *x 1 - **fibHlp) *x 1 < if ) (*x) lambda *fib define > 25 fib 75025
Note that the
x in the scope of the inner lambda needs to be double-quoted (
**x) because we want its interpolation delayed until the inner lambda executes. In general, the number of stars is parenDepth-ifParenDepth if you want the variable's value, or parenDepth-ifParenDepth+1 if you want the literal name.
We define two functions, showA and incA, that show and increment the value of an accumulator, respectively. Note that both functions close over a private environment.
> ( (**n) () lambda (1 **n + **nref define) () lambda *&n **nref define 1 **n define ) () lambda apply *incA define *readA define > readA 1 > drop incA incA incA readA 4 > drop incA incA incA readA 7
Note how here we quote
*&n to delay its binding until it is evaluated in the environment of the outermost lambda.
Building and running lviv
The Makefile that comes with lviv should do almost everything you need.
If you just want to run lviv,
make run will run lviv with gsi. You can pass arguments by overriding the
ARGS variable in your make invocation (e.g.,
make ARGS="foo.lviv" run), or you can just run gsi directly yourself.
make runtest will run the test files in the examples directory using gsi.
lviv target builds a self-contained lviv executable.
test takes this executable and runs the tests from the examples directory. The default target,
all, is equivalent to
make lviv test.
debug target invokes gsi with the lviv source files, but leaves you at the Scheme REPL rather than invoking the lviv REPL. This lets you examine the behavior of the interpreter directly.
Finally, there are the profiling targets,
profrun, which build the executable with profiling enabled and run this profiling executable on some dummy code, respectively.
If you've used an HP calculator, you're probably familiar with how RPN works. Expressions are entered by pushing entries onto a stack and applying operators to the stack. Operators pop a defined number of operands off the stack, perform a computation, and push the result back onto the stack. For example,
> 1 1 > 2 1 2 > + 3 > 2 * 6 > 6 * sqrt 6
Order of application
RPN operations are applied in left-to-right order: prefix and postfix notation are related by simply translating the operator from the beginning to the end of the expression.
- 6 1 becomes
6 1 -, and both should equal 5. This seems somewhat logical for a calculator, since it matches our intuition for the basic noncommutative arithmetic operations.
At times, this order of operations can be clunky. Thus, any primitive or lambda can be applied in reverse by prepending it with
6 1 - yields
6 1 :- gives
The contents of the stack often represent most or all of the program's state. Thus, primitive stack operations underly most higher level operations in lviv.
There are no explicit "push" and "pop" operations; values are pushed as they're entered, and popped as needed for function application.
Swap the 0th and 1st entry in the stack.
> 1 2 1 2 > swap 2 1
drop removes the 0th element from the stack.
dropN pops the 0th entry off the stack, and then drops that number of remaining entries.
clear drops all entries from the stack.
> 1 1 > drop > 1 3 2 1 3 2 > dropN >
unroll pop the 0th element off the stack and perform a circular shift upwards (
roll) or downwards (
unroll) involving n elements.
> 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 > 3 roll 1 2 3 5 6 4 > unroll 1 6 2 3 5
dup pushes a copy of the 0th element onto the stack.
dupN pops the 0th argument off the stack, and pushes copies of the top n elements onto the stack.
> 1 2 3 dup 1 2 3 3 > 3 dupN 1 2 3 3 2 3 3
pick pops the 0th element off the stack, then pushes a copy of the nth element onto the stack.
over is equivalent to
> 1 2 3 1 2 3 > over 1 2 3 2 > 2 pick 1 2 3 2 3
Pushes the depth of the stack prior to the
depth operation onto the stack.
> 0 0 > depth 0 1 > 2 dropN depth 0
swapIf pops the 0th element off the stack, and then performs a
swap if that element was
swapUnless does the same for
dropUnless behave similarly. Note that these operations only accept the boolean values
#f; other values result in a type error.
> 1 2 #t swapIf drop 2 > clear > 1 2 #f swapUnless - -1
Does nothing. It is useful for operations that conditionally modify the stack.
Shows the current environment. It can be useful for debugging.
Print the current stack. This is useful during batch execution.
All mathematical functions available in Scheme can be bound as primitives in lviv. These should be bound in the prelude when I get around to it :)
lviv syntax will be somewhat familiar to LISP programmers.
Formally, a list is defined either as the empty list (
()), or as the result of the
cons operation on an element and a list. An element is anything that can be a stack entry.
cdr produce the element and the trailing list, respectively.
uncons pops a list off the stack and pushes on the cdr, then the car.
(a (b c) d)-like syntax can be used to create a list directly.
> nil () > 1 :cons (1) > 2 :cons (2 1) > (3 4) append (2 1 3 4) > uncons (1 3 4) 2 > :cons (2 1 3 4) > cdr (1 3 4) > car 1
Tuples in lviv can also be constructed using
cons. A tuple is simply an unterminated list.
> *a *b cons (a . b) > *a *b cons cons ((a . b) a . b) > (*c *d . (*e . *f)) ((a . b) a . b) (c d e . f)
<val> <identifier> define
define binds the identifier in the 0th position on the stack with the value in the 1st. If the identifier is a static symbol (&foo), the binding is placed in the attached environment. Otherwise, the binding is placed in the current environment.
Identifiers can contain alphanumerics or any of
! $ % & * + - . / : < = > ? @ ^ _ ~, but must begin with a character that cannot begin a number and is not otherwise reserved (i.e., any valid character other than
. + - & * !).
When a bound variable is placed on the stack, it is immediately replaced by its value. To invoke the identifier and force delayed binding, the
* sigil can be used. The
& sigil indicates that the variable is statically bound when pushed on the stack, whereas the
* prefix simply places the identifier on the stack, leaving its binding to an environment until evaluation.
> 1 *z define > 2 z 2 1 > - 1 > (&z +) cons thunk #<thunk ( 1 &z(env#2) #<primitive +> )> > 2 *z define #<thunk ( 1 &z + )> > apply 3 > (*z &z +) (*z) lambda apply 5
undef is used to delete a binding from the environment. If the identifier is a static variable, the binding is searched starting in the attached environment and removed if found. Otherwise, the search begins in the current environment.
undef will search from the present environment level all the way up to the top. To prevent the search from extending into the parent of the starting search environment, use
Static sybols (invoked with
&) bind immediately to the enclosing environment when the symbol is put on the stack. The static binding element carries a reference to its environment with it, so it can be properly dereferenced even when enclosed in another environment (e.g., a let or lambda) where its name is shadowed.
Unbound identifiers (invoked with
*) have no binding when they are put on the stack. Instead, they are bound when they are evaluated. Since lambdas and lets carry an environment with them, unbound identifiers are statically scoped once bound inside these elements. However, an unbound identifier inside a thunk takes its value from the enclosing environment at the time of application. This effectively allows unbound identifiers to be used as static variables (inside lambdas and lets) or dynamic variables (inside thunks).
eval evaluates the top entry on the stack. Variables are dereferenced, but most other expressions are idempotent. This is probably nonintutive, so a bit of explanation is in order.
In LISP, evaluating a list results in a computation as if that list were typed in as code. In lviv, lists do not represent a fundamental unit of computation, so evaluating a list merely dereferences the enclosed variables. Similarly, application in LISP combines a list of arguments with a function. In lviv, all application involves an element interacting with the stack. If the element is a function, its application involves popping arguments and pushing results. Otherwise, the application of an element to the stack simply results in that element being pushed onto the stack.
To cause its contents to be computed as if entered at the prompt, a list must be turned into a thunk and then applied using
apply. Alternatively, it can be turned into a lambda with an empty argument list and then applied. The fundamental difference between a lambda and a thunk is that the latter is bound to an environment when applied, whereas the former is bound to an environment when created.
> 1 eval 1 > *a define > *a a > eval 1 > (*a 2) cons (1 a 2) > 4 *a define (1 a 2) > eval (1 4 2)
Other than when working on thunks,
apply takes the top element off the list and applies it as it just typed into the REPL. Thus, the semantics of
apply are not exactly the same as in LISP: in lviv,
apply applies the top element on the stack to the stack. Most elements are idempotent through such application (i.e., applying 1 to the stack just puts 1 on the stack); lambdas, primitives, and thunks result in computation when applied to the stack.
...continued from above... ( 1 4 2 ) > 1 apply ( 1 4 2 ) 1 > *:cons ( 1 4 2 ) 1 :cons > apply ( 1 4 2 ) 1 :cons > eval ( 1 4 2 ) 1 #<primitive cons> > apply ( 1 1 4 2 )
lviv represents delayed computations using thunks. The
apply function unwraps a thunk and evaluates it as if its contents were typed into the REPL. Thunks are idempotent through
eval, which means that their bindings are delayed until they are applied. This means that
thunks can introduce dynamic scoping: if a thunk is stored in a variable, it can be retrieved by two different functions. When applied, its scope is determined by the function it is called in, not by its definition scope.
> (1 *z +) thunk #<thunk ( 1 z #<primitive +> )> > eval #<thunk ( 1 z + )> > dup 2 *z define apply #<thunk ( 1 z + )> 3 > 15 + *z define apply 19
A thunk on the stack can be turned back into its constituent code with
> (1 2 +) thunk #<thunk ( 1 2 #<primitive +> )> > dup apply #<thunk ( 1 2 #<primitive +> )> 3 > swap unthunk (3 *) append thunk 3 #<thunk ( 1 2 #<primitive +> 3 #<primitive *> )> > apply 3 9
<arity> <identifier> primitive
primitive is used to bind an underlying scheme operation into a lviv element. For example,
> 2 *expt primitive #<primitive expt> > 2 3 3 roll 2 3 #<primitive expt> > apply 8 > 2 *expt primitive *expt define 2 expt 64
<code> <binding-list> lambda
lambda combines a delayed computation and a binding list into a function. Positional identifiers cannot be used with a
Binding lists map variables inside the thunk to positions on the stack at application time.
> *x x > (1 +) cons ( x 1 #<primitive +> ) > (*y *) append ( x 1 #<primitive +> y #<primitive *> ) > (*x *y) lambda *xyfunc define > 2 1 2 1 > xyfunc 3 > 2 *xyfunc eval 3 2 #<lambda ( x 1 #<primitive +> y #<primitive *> ) ( x y )> > apply 8
The above lambda is equivalent to
> (swap 1 + swap *) thunk #<thunk ( #<stackOp swap> 1 #<primitive +> #<stackOp swap> #<primitive *> )> > 2 1 3 roll 2 1 #<thunk ( #<stackOp swap> 1 #<primitive +> #<stackOp swap> #<primitive *> )> > apply 3
unlambda lets you break open a lambda and do stuff to it.
> (1 *a +) (*a) lambda dup #<lambda ( 1 a #<primitive +> ) ( a )> #<lambda ( 1 a #<primitive +> ) ( a )> > 3 swap apply #<lambda ( 1 a #<primitive +> ) ( a )> 4 > swap unlambda 4 ( 1 a #<primitive +> ) ( a ) > (*b) append swap 4 ( a b ) ( 1 a #<primitive +> ) > (*b *) append swap lambda 4 #<lambda ( 1 a #<primitive +> b #<primitive *> ) ( a b )> > 5 swap apply 25
<code> <assoc-list> let
let is similar to
lambda: it combines a delayed computation and a binding list.
let is evaluated immediately and the result of the evaluation is pushed onto the stack.
> 2 *a define > (&a *a *b + *) ( (*a . 1) (*b . (*a &a +)) ) let 8 > 6 *z define 8 > (*z +) cons ( 8 z #<primitive +> ) > (*a *) append ( (*a . 1) ) let 14
<consequent> <alternative> <test> if,
<consequent> <alternative> <test> unless
if is actually just a short way of saying
swapUnless drop thunk apply.
> 1 (nop) (0 /) #t if 1 > (3 -) (3 +) #f if 4 > (3 -) (3 +) #t swapUnless drop thunk apply 1 > ((2) (1) #t if) (0) #t if + 3
The first example above illustrates that only one of the consequent or alternative is applied as one would expect.
unless is equivalent to
swapIf drop thunk apply.
tstk moves aside the present stack and replaces it with an empty temporary stack.
untstk removes the temporary stack and restores the previous one.
rtstk pops the 0th value off the temporary stack, restores the previous stack, and pushes this value.
dtstk is like tstk except that it duplicates the present stack into the new temporary one.
tstk calls can be nested; each
rtstk ascends one level of nesting.
lstk turns the stack into a list, which becomes the only element on the stack.
unlstk takes the 0th element of the stack, which must be a list, and expands it onto
lstk unlstk is idempotent.
This can be used to return the entire contents of a temporary stack to its predecessor using rtstk.
exception handling NOT YET IMPLEMENTED
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