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Microformats2 Utilities

Build Status Documentation Status

Microformats2 provides an extremely flexible way to mark up HTML documents, so that human-centric data is machine-discoverable. This utility can be used to interpret a microformatted post or event, for display as a comment or reply-context.

The library itself has no dependencies, but it won't do you much good without an mf2 parser. I use and recommend mf2py.

Compatibility: Python 2.6, 2.7, 3.3+

License: Simplified BSD


I've done my best to create appropriate unit tests for this library, but it is very much alpha software at this point.

Install via pip

pip install mf2util

or add as a submodule to your own project.

I've used pytest for running unit tests (These are also run automatically by Travis-CI)

pip install pytest
python -m pytest

Quick Start

For received webmentions, use the method mf2util.interpret_comment. This will return a dictionary with the fields necessary to display the comment. For example:

import mf2py
import mf2util

# source_url = source_url of incoming webmention
# target_url = target_url of incoming webmention

parsed = mf2py.Parser(url=source_url).to_dict()
comment = mf2util.interpret_comment(parsed, source_url, [target_url])

# result
 'type': 'entry',
 'name': 'Re: How to make toast',
 'content': '<p>This solved my problem, thanks!</p>',
 'url': '',
 'published': datetime.datetime(2014, 11, 24, 13, 24)
 'author': {
  'name': 'John Doe',
  'url': '',
  'photo': ''
 'comment_type': ['reply']

When display reply-context, you may not know the precise type of the source document. Use the method mf2util.interpret to interpret the document, it will figure out the document's primary h- type and return the appropriate fields for display. Currently supports h-entry and h-event style documents.

import mf2py
import mf2util

# reply_to_url = url being replied to

parsed = mf2py.Parser(url=rely_to_url).to_dict()
entry = mf2util.interpret(parsed, reply_to_url)

# result
 'type': 'event',
 'name': 'Homebrew Website Club',
 'start': datetime.datetime(2014, 5, 7, 18, 30),
 'end': datetime.datetime(2014, 5, 7, 19, 30),
 'content': '<p>Exchange information, swap ideas, talk shop, help work on a project ...</p>'

For most users, these two methods alone may be sufficient.


When processing an incoming webmention, you can use the mf2util.classify_comment method to classify it as a reply, like, or repost (or a combination thereof). The method returns a list of zero or more strings (one of 'like', 'repost', or 'reply').


import mf2py
import mf2util

# receive webmention from source_url to target_url
target_url = ''
alternate_url = ''
parsed = mf2py.Parser(url=source_url)
mentions = mf2util.classify_comment(parsed, [target_url, alternative_url])


The mf2util.parse_datetime function is useful for parsing microformats2 dates and datetimes. It can be used as a microformats-specific alternative to larger, more general libraries like python-dateutil.

The definition for microformats2 dt-* properties are fairly lenient. This module will convert a mf2 date string into either a or datetime.datetime object. Datetimes will be naive unless a timezone is specified.

Timezones are specified as fixed offsets from UTC.


import mf2py
import mf2util

parsed = mf2py.Parser(=…)
publishedstr = parsed.to_dict()['items'][0]['properties']['published'][0]
published = mf2util.parse_datetime(published)  # --> datetime.datetime


Use mf2py.find_author to determine an h-event's author name, url, and photo. Uses the authorship algorithm described on the IndieWebCamp wiki.


If you find a bug or deficiency, feel free to file an issue, pull request, or just message me in the #indiewebcamp channel on freenode.


All notable changes to this project will be documented here.

0.5.1 - 2018-11-04

  • Add follow to post_type_discovery().

0.5.0 - 2016-10-27

0.4.3 - 2016-08-20

  • representative_hcard now includes h-cards that are properties of other h-* entities, thanks to @angelogladding

0.4.2 - 2016-05-09

  • Added properties "dt-deleted", "u-logo", "u-featured"

0.4.1 - 2016-05-04

  • Minor bugfix: interpret was passing parameters in the wrong order when parsing nested reply contexts and comments, which meant (in practice) want_json was always false, and dates were included as strings rather than datetimes.

0.4.0 - 2016-04-23


  • Update authorship implementation (find_author) to support fetching a separate page to find the author's h-card.
  • Added a new optional parameter to all interpret_* methods called fetch_mf2_func. A good value for this is lambda url: mf2py.parse(url=url)

0.3.3 - 2016-04-07


  • minor bugfixes to prevent throwing errors on bad mf2 input
  • when a value (e.g. "name") is expected to be simple and we get a dict instead
  • when a e-* value has "html" but not "value"

0.3.2 - 2016-03-01


  • interpret_feed now skips rel=syndication when parsing syndication values for individual entries. This value should be empty for feeds, but if it isn't, it will almost always be wrong.

0.3.1 - 2016-02-17


  • Added "poster" to the recognized URL properties of a video tag.

0.3.0 - 2016-02-17


  • Added base_href parameter to all interpret methods. Now when content is normalized, it will take into account the base tag if it's given.
  • Added audio, video, and source tags to the list of tags that might contain URL attributes.

0.2.12 - 2016-02-15


  • Added "photo" to common URL properties.

0.2.11 - 2016-01-02


  • is_name_a_title accepts bytestrings now, no longer throws an error if the input is not unicode.

0.2.10 - 2015-11-27


0.2.9 - 2015-10-28


  • Guard against mf2 required fields being None to make it a little easier for third parties (in this case Bridgy) to write unit tests.

0.2.8 - 2015-10-28


  • post_type_discovery() implementation that takes an h-event or h-entry and returns a string defining the post type (e.g. "article", "note", "like", etc.)


  • Consolidated modules into one flat file for simplicity
  • Renamed parse_dt to parse_datetime (old name still works for backcompat)
  • In python 3, use builtin timezone implementation instead of mf2util's custom implementation

0.2.7 - 2015-10-05


  • add parsing for comment, like, and repost h-cites nested inside an h-entry

0.2.6 - 2015-09-24


  • added property content-plain to preserve the e-content value

0.2.5 - 2015-09-14


  • minor bugfix: interpret should pass want_json recursively when fetching reply contexts.

0.2.4 - 2015-09-14


  • interpret methods now have an optional want_json argument. If true, result will be pure json with no Python-only objects (i.e. datetimes)

0.2.3 - 2015-08-27


  • parse simple location name and url from events and entries ### Changed
  • accept complex-valued "url" properties and fallback to their "value"

0.2.1 - 2015-06-08


  • more lenient parsing of content as either e-content or p-content

0.2.0 - 2015-06-08


  • parse nested h-cite comments as entries under the top-level entry
  • check for bookmark-of ### Changed
  • in-reply-to, repost-of, like-of all parse into a list of objects now instead of a list of urls

0.1.9 - 2015-04-01


  • Parse event invitations as type ['invite', 'reply'].
  • Parse the list of invitees.

0.1.5 - 2015-02-18


  • in-reply-to, like-of, and repost-of properties added to the interpret_entry result.

0.1.4 - 2015-01-27


  • Authorship algorithm was incorrectly using the first h-entry on a page, even when parsing an h-feed that has many.

0.1.3 - 2014-12-14


  • RSVP replies are now classified as type 'rsvp' instead of 'reply'

0.1.2 - 2014-09-20


  • Utility methods for interpreting h-feeds that contain one or more entries.


  • Handle parsing errors more gracefully.
  • Distinguish between explicit h-entry titles and auto-generated p-names (junk) when determining whether a post has a title

0.1.1 - 2014-06-21


  • Include "syndication" attribute for including syndication URLs (e.g. for de-duplicating received comments)
  • Convert URL attributes from relative paths to absolute URLs for displaying foreign content.

0.1.0 - 2014-05-11



Utilities for interpreting microformats2 data







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