Decuda and cudasm, the CUDA binary utilities package. Low-level tools for NVidia G80 GPUs.
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Decuda sm_1_1 (G80) disassembler version 0.4.x

Wladimir J. van der Laan <>, 2007-2009

This is my shot at providing an disassembler for the raw G8x cubin
instructions,  It was a big mystery for everyone, as NVIDIA is unwilling to
provide any information, but after a lot of experimentation it appears I 
figured out most of it.

Note that I acquired all the information by differential analysis on
the cubin files produced by ptxas and extensive experimentation on the
results. It is not based on reverse engineering of hardware or software.

I tried to mimic <i>PTX<i> instructions as closely as possible in the output, 
for an overview of the <i>PTX</i> assembly language see PTX_ISA_x.x.PDF in 
the doc directory of the NVIDIA CUDA package.

Note that this is an initial version, probably full of bugs. Let me know 
if you find any problems or have questions.

== Usage ==

Using the disassembler

Usage: [OPTION]... [FILE]...

-p, --plain             Don't colorize output
-h, --help              Show this help screen
-k, --kernel-name <x>   Disassembly kernel name <x> of the cubin file
-n, --kernel-number <x> Disassemble kernel number <x> of the cubin file
-o, --output-file <x>   Output the kernel in assembler-compatible format to a file

Standard is ANSI colorized output, pipe through less -r to view this most
effectively. If color is not desired, use the -p flag.

Starting from version 0.3.0, decuda has an extensive internal debugging 
system and  logs each bit of the instruction that is visited (or not). 
Unvisited bits are assumed to be 0. If not, a warning is issued like 
'unk0 00400000'. This means that one of the high bits of the first 
instruction word is unaccounted for. Usually, this means the instruction 
has some slightly other meaning than decuda thinks it is: different 
operands, alternative interpretations, ... Please
let me know if you find out the meaning of unknown bits.

Using the assembler:

Usage: cudasm [OPTION]... [FILE]...

-h, --help              Show this help screen
-k, --kernel-name <x>   Name of the kernel to assemble
-o, --output-file <x>   Name of output file

Converts an assembler text file to a .cubin binary file that can be used
with the CUDA API.

Note: the assembler is in beta stage, although I've taken care to verify
that instructions assemble back into a form that is disassembled succesfully
by the disassembler, it is very possible that I'm missing some bits and
pieces or got the arguments wrong.

== TODO ==

- Things to check (assembler)
    - texture instructions can have unk1.00000004
    - there is still some mad madness left (overlapping bitfields?)
    - what does sign bit in setf do? I appears that it must always be set, if not,
      it returns 0 in every case (except 0,0x7FFFFF/0x800000 it appears)
    - BF_CONSTSEG_X/BF_CONSTSEG (does every instruction support 4 bit constseg?)
    - bar.sync has various parameters: at least the barrier id (0-15?), but
      also at least two bitfields, if which one is always 0xfff. This is
      interesting because it might allow for synchronisation of only a part of
      the block instead of the whole thing. Each bit could be 32 or 64
    - op3_imm flag, where can it be used? only in shl/shr/set/...?
    - BF_ALT bit on full fadd instruction, what does it do?
    - what is halfop 0x70? looks like another mad
    - mad(integer) instruction, if both operands are flipped (0x0c000000),
    something special happens; add carry maybe?
- Assembler
    - Warn or error when operands get ignored: predicate in, operand
    - More specific error reporting in general
    - Texture instructions are not parsed and not assembled yet
    - Constant data is not parsed yet
- Fill in constants, if they refer to the local segment (c1). Make this
- Our own CUDA-like compiler. looks like a good open source
  replacement for nvcc and ptx. It handles the optimization and parsing,
  making actual code is a matter of writing a backend.
- Chip-level emulator?

== G80 Hardware ==

There are 32 and 64 bit instructions. Most instructions are 64 bit, but sometimes 
two simple instructions can be fit into one 64 bit word. (how this relates
to dual-issue, I don't know).

There are two classes of instruction: flow control instructions, and normal
instructions. Flow control instructions are bra, return, call, join, trap
and others. These all have an immediate (or no) argument and don't work on
instructions. Normal instructions do calculations and memory access.

G8x can address various different memory spaces:

- Registers. These are addressed with $r00 .. $r7f. Register $7f seems to be
a special 'bit bucket' register when no output is desired. Registers can be
addressed as 32 bit full register, or as 16 bit half (.lo and .hi).

- Shared memory, consisting of the grid parameters like blockIdx,
threadIdx and others. It also contains the program parameters, and shared
variables you declare. This is addressed using s[0x...].

Shared memory is prefixed by a header of 16 bytes, which contains
8 unsigned shorts. These are %gridflags, %ntid.*, %nctaid.x|y,
ctaid.x|y. Apart from these parameters being there it is normal, writable
shared memory.

- There are up to 16 constant memory segments, one for constants local to the kernel (segment 
1) and one for "global" constants (segment 0). Another (segment 14) is used
for relocations of global memory variables.
In contrary to common belief, these are not global in the program, but in the cubin file. It appears
they are limited to 64k. These are addressed using c0[0x...] and c1[0x...]
and so on.
This is analogous to the DirectX10 constant buffer. Here the 16 segments
are called slots.

- Then there is global and local memory that are accessed in a similar way,
which is to be expected as they are the same from the hardware side. These
are adressed using g[0x....] and l[0x....] respectively. Reads and writes to
this memory can be 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 bits.

There are 16 global memory segments, just like there are 16 constant memory
segments, but they are independent. CUDA only uses segment 14 (0xe). Why 16 segments
are supported is unknown to me. Maybe it is used when loading from memory
buffers in DirectX 10 as well.

Addressing memory is quite interesting. It appears that there are four offset registers
(on current hardware) $ofs1, $ofs2, $ofs3 and $ofs4. These are used to add an
offset to the immediate offsets encoded in the instructions. Offsets can be loaded
by providing an immediate value, by adding an immediate value, or by using a register and 
a shift value. There are three bits reserved for the offset register, of
which 000 means use no offset. In theory there is place for 7 offset
registers. Ptxas only ever uses four though.

There are also a few internal values that can be read out: %physid, %clock,
%pm0, %pm1, %pm2 and %pm3. 

- %physid contains information about the current thread. In the topic it is
  tried to find out what this one extactly means. It appears the format is 
  where multiprocessor_ID seems to be one of the following 16 values:
  00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 01 11 21 31 41 51 61 71
  and position_in_warp is 0x00 to 0x1F
- %clock is a cycle counter.
- %pm0..%pm3  (power mode?)

A special kind of register is the predicate register. G80 supports four of
these. Almost every instruction can output a result to a predicate register.
Instructions can be predicated so that they are only executed when that
predicate is true (@$p0), or false (!$p0). Apart from being true and false
it appears there are some more condition codes, but I haven't found out what
they mean yet.

The most complex instruction appears to be the tex instruction. The G80 can
sample from 1D, 2D and 3D textures using integer or floating point
coordinates. It can output one to four values, arbitrarily selected from 
{r,g,b,a}. The instruction exposed in CUDA is the basic non-mipmapped 
texture fetch. It would be interesting to know what the opcodes of the other
textureing instructions are, but unless we find a way to get the raw cubin
of a shader, we're stuck.

CUDA programs 'live' in a sandbox private memory space of 4GB. As the G80
has virtual addressing, memory regions that the CUDA context needs for
constants, global memory and shader code are mapped into this space. Cubin
code is DMA'ed to the card unchanged, with the exception of flow control
instructions which are relocated to their new address in the sandbox.

- global loads and stores take a whole-register argument

- set instruction: return 0xffffffff if condition holds, 0x00000000 otherwise

- flags (predicicate)
1  Z  zero flag
2  S  sign flag
4  C  carry flag
8  O  overflow flag

For a table of the possible flag combinations against condition codes, see in the root directory generates this table according to
the description in the G80 opengl shader reference, . It appears
this matches, apart from condition ne.

Conditions on zf: zf is ne, nzf is equ

- assembler supports 'd.u32' to insert raw instruction data
- half (32 bit) instructions must always be issued in pairs
- half instructions: oper3 high bit is const segment (0 or 1)
- offset registers have increment bit

== Credits ==

asadafag -- testing kernels, input on unknown bit fields, and general suggestions.
Sylvain Collange -- information on mad instruction and help with test cases.
#nouveau -- help with intercepting the shader code for fragment/vertex/geometry programs
Imran Haque -- help with decoding ELF format (,

== Citings ==

Some interesting papers to read that use decuda for their work:

- Barra, a Modular Functional GPU Simulator for GPGPU
Sylvain Collange and David Defour and David Parello

- Benchmarking GPUs to tune dense linear algebra
Vasily Volkov and James W. Demmel
Proceedings of the 2008 ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing

Mail me if you know anything I forgot to include.

== Legal ==

See the LICENSE file.

Do whatever you like with this source, use it to speed up your CUDA kernels,
make debuggers, emulators or other interesting projects. But please let me
know if you do.