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@vishr @kumarharsh @hchood @htdvisser @haoxins @alexaandru
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package middleware
import (
type (
// SecureConfig defines the config for Secure middleware.
SecureConfig struct {
// Skipper defines a function to skip middleware.
Skipper Skipper
// XSSProtection provides protection against cross-site scripting attack (XSS)
// by setting the `X-XSS-Protection` header.
// Optional. Default value "1; mode=block".
XSSProtection string `yaml:"xss_protection"`
// ContentTypeNosniff provides protection against overriding Content-Type
// header by setting the `X-Content-Type-Options` header.
// Optional. Default value "nosniff".
ContentTypeNosniff string `yaml:"content_type_nosniff"`
// XFrameOptions can be used to indicate whether or not a browser should
// be allowed to render a page in a <frame>, <iframe> or <object> .
// Sites can use this to avoid clickjacking attacks, by ensuring that their
// content is not embedded into other sites.provides protection against
// clickjacking.
// Optional. Default value "SAMEORIGIN".
// Possible values:
// - "SAMEORIGIN" - The page can only be displayed in a frame on the same origin as the page itself.
// - "DENY" - The page cannot be displayed in a frame, regardless of the site attempting to do so.
// - "ALLOW-FROM uri" - The page can only be displayed in a frame on the specified origin.
XFrameOptions string `yaml:"x_frame_options"`
// HSTSMaxAge sets the `Strict-Transport-Security` header to indicate how
// long (in seconds) browsers should remember that this site is only to
// be accessed using HTTPS. This reduces your exposure to some SSL-stripping
// man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks.
// Optional. Default value 0.
HSTSMaxAge int `yaml:"hsts_max_age"`
// HSTSExcludeSubdomains won't include subdomains tag in the `Strict Transport Security`
// header, excluding all subdomains from security policy. It has no effect
// unless HSTSMaxAge is set to a non-zero value.
// Optional. Default value false.
HSTSExcludeSubdomains bool `yaml:"hsts_exclude_subdomains"`
// ContentSecurityPolicy sets the `Content-Security-Policy` header providing
// security against cross-site scripting (XSS), clickjacking and other code
// injection attacks resulting from execution of malicious content in the
// trusted web page context.
// Optional. Default value "".
ContentSecurityPolicy string `yaml:"content_security_policy"`
// CSPReportOnly would use the `Content-Security-Policy-Report-Only` header instead
// of the `Content-Security-Policy` header. This allows iterative updates of the
// content security policy by only reporting the violations that would
// have occurred instead of blocking the resource.
// Optional. Default value false.
CSPReportOnly bool `yaml:"csp_report_only"`
// HSTSPreloadEnabled will add the preload tag in the `Strict Transport Security`
// header, which enables the domain to be included in the HSTS preload list
// maintained by Chrome (and used by Firefox and Safari):
// Optional. Default value false.
HSTSPreloadEnabled bool `yaml:"hsts_preload_enabled"`
// ReferrerPolicy sets the `Referrer-Policy` header providing security against
// leaking potentially sensitive request paths to third parties.
// Optional. Default value "".
ReferrerPolicy string `yaml:"referrer_policy"`
var (
// DefaultSecureConfig is the default Secure middleware config.
DefaultSecureConfig = SecureConfig{
Skipper: DefaultSkipper,
XSSProtection: "1; mode=block",
ContentTypeNosniff: "nosniff",
XFrameOptions: "SAMEORIGIN",
HSTSPreloadEnabled: false,
// Secure returns a Secure middleware.
// Secure middleware provides protection against cross-site scripting (XSS) attack,
// content type sniffing, clickjacking, insecure connection and other code injection
// attacks.
func Secure() echo.MiddlewareFunc {
return SecureWithConfig(DefaultSecureConfig)
// SecureWithConfig returns a Secure middleware with config.
// See: `Secure()`.
func SecureWithConfig(config SecureConfig) echo.MiddlewareFunc {
// Defaults
if config.Skipper == nil {
config.Skipper = DefaultSecureConfig.Skipper
return func(next echo.HandlerFunc) echo.HandlerFunc {
return func(c echo.Context) error {
if config.Skipper(c) {
return next(c)
req := c.Request()
res := c.Response()
if config.XSSProtection != "" {
res.Header().Set(echo.HeaderXXSSProtection, config.XSSProtection)
if config.ContentTypeNosniff != "" {
res.Header().Set(echo.HeaderXContentTypeOptions, config.ContentTypeNosniff)
if config.XFrameOptions != "" {
res.Header().Set(echo.HeaderXFrameOptions, config.XFrameOptions)
if (c.IsTLS() || (req.Header.Get(echo.HeaderXForwardedProto) == "https")) && config.HSTSMaxAge != 0 {
subdomains := ""
if !config.HSTSExcludeSubdomains {
subdomains = "; includeSubdomains"
if config.HSTSPreloadEnabled {
subdomains = fmt.Sprintf("%s; preload", subdomains)
res.Header().Set(echo.HeaderStrictTransportSecurity, fmt.Sprintf("max-age=%d%s", config.HSTSMaxAge, subdomains))
if config.ContentSecurityPolicy != "" {
if config.CSPReportOnly {
res.Header().Set(echo.HeaderContentSecurityPolicyReportOnly, config.ContentSecurityPolicy)
} else {
res.Header().Set(echo.HeaderContentSecurityPolicy, config.ContentSecurityPolicy)
if config.ReferrerPolicy != "" {
res.Header().Set(echo.HeaderReferrerPolicy, config.ReferrerPolicy)
return next(c)
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