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ssh-fu: ssh tunneling goodies for sites with kerberos bastion gateways


This GIT repository contains instructions and tools for easier tunneling into sites with SSH bastion gateways with kerberos authentication, such as CERN and Fermilab. It includes web browser proxy configuration to automatically pick an appropriate tunnel when accessing sites which have been protected by site and system firewalls.

These recipes has been tested on OS X Snow Leopard (10.6.8) and Lion (10.7.2), and with Ubuntu Linux, both on-site and off-site between CERN, Fermilab, and CIEMAT. In particular it is assumed you have laptop or desktop which may move off-site at times, and which you want to use to connect to protected systems.


You are expected to have a kerberos account at all destination sites. The specific examples assume you have kerberos accounts at CERN and FNAL, but you can adjust the examples to work for almost any site. At CERN you need to have your AFS account enabled on Request your virtual organisation contact (VOC) to do so.

Overview of the configuration

There are several components to the configuration. You do not have to set all of these up, but the most convenient operation comes from using the entire set.

  • Local kerberos setup
  • SSH proxy wrapper script which acquires and switches between kerberos tokens
  • SSH client configuration
  • Web browser SOCKS5 tunneling configuration
  • Tunneling other applications
  • Autossh to automatically rebuild tunnels.

Setting up kerberos

Make sure you have set up kerberos adequately on your local system. You can use something like as your /etc/krb5.conf if you are using kerberos against CERN or FNAL.

If you are using OS X and MacPorts SSH, you have to rebuild your SSH with the patches from; otherwise several kerberos features won't work at all. Provided those patches are installed, the MacPorts SSH is actually quite a bit nicer than the system one. Install the modified SSH like this:

HERE=$PWD                # location of this git checkout
mkdir -p ~/Dev/MacPorts  # for example, this is your modified ports
rsync -av /opt/local/var/macports/sources/ \
cd Dev/MacPorts/openssh
patch < $HERE/Portfile.patch
wget --no-check -O files/openssh-5.9p1-gsskex-all-20110920.patch \
wget --no-check -O files/apple-keychain.patch \

sudo port uninstall --follow-dependents openssh
sudo port install +gsskex

SSH proxy wrapper

You'll find here a proxy-ssh wrapper script to be used as ProxyCommand in your ~/.ssh/config for passing through kerberos bastion gateways. It acquires a kerberos principal for your destination site automatically. On OS X it will prompt you with a graphical dialog, on linux in the terminal where you issue the ssh command. It automatically renews the principal whenever less than two hours of validity are left at the time you ssh.

The script automatically juggles several principals, you can be simultaneously logged into several kerberos realms. Other than the kerberos functionality it is fully command line compatible with normal SSH. You should not need to change this script, so if it doesn't handle your situation for some reason, please consider feeding back your changes.

SSH client configuration

If you are configuring access to CERN, do not enable ForwardAgent with, and do not use as a gateway to other ( hosts. Get an account on instead and use it as your gateway. Use ForwardAgent only with trusted servers.

You'll find here ssh_config with an example SSH configuration. Copy the relevant contents adapted to your ~/.ssh/config. If you want, you can change the ports for DynamicForward; it doesn't matter much which ones you use as long as they are not used by anyone else on your local system. (Beware copying this SSH configuration to multi-user machines. You normally use this SSH configuration only on your laptop or desktop, not say in your CERN AFS home directory.)

You should normally define one DynamicForward per site, for general tunnel configuration to web sites that are blocked by site firewall, but not by the host firewalls. Then add a Host-specific DynamicForward for each host which has host firewall blocking access to the web servers running on that host, i.e. you can access the servers only from the host itself.

This way, whenever you SSH to any host at the site, you will automatically get the site tunnel created and can access the first class of web servers. In addition you ssh to each of the individually firewalled hosts to gain access to their protected web servers.

If your local user account is different than your kerberos principal at the destination sites, add -P you@SITE.CC to your proxy-ssh options in your ~/.ssh/config in the next step. You will likely also want to add User account under the corresponding Host * rule so ssh uses the appropriate account name by default. Also if you didn't put proxy-ssh in your $PATH, then use the full path to it in ~/.ssh/config. For example if you put proxy-ssh to ~/stuff, and your CERN AFS account is foo, then you'd change the CERN ProxyCommand to:

ProxyCommand ~/stuff/proxy-ssh -P foo@CERN.CH /usr/bin/nc %h %p

Once you have set up your ~/.ssh/config, you can ssh to hosts inside the firewall directly, without going through the bastions manually. For example you can just do ssh from anywhere. This will internally create first a SSH connection to the bastion host (, acquiring a kerberos token if necessary, and uses netcat to create a tunnel to the target host.

This SSH configuration uses ControlMaster, which multiplexes all SSH connections over the same connection, with ControlPersist to have the multiplexing linger about 15 seconds after the last connection closes. This speeds up connection times considerably if you are opening sessions in several windows or in quick succession. Some versions of SSH handle multiplexing poorly, so you may want to turn this off. On OS X the MacPorts SSH with the patches mentioned above works very well. OpenSSH on SL5 (4.3p2) and SL6 (5.3p1) do not support ControlPersist, so you need to remove that option on those systems.

Your version of SSH may not support some other options given in the example configuration. You have to simply remove any option your SSH does not grok. Some SSH versions do not support GSSAPITrustDNS but have other changes which implement similar fixes. If your SSH does not have GSSAPITrustDNS, sooner or later a fast-changing load balance alias such as will result in login failure; the only solution is to retry, or build a fixed SSH. Lack of GSSAPIRenewalForcesRekey means that when you renew token locally, it will not be renewed at the destination host side; the solution is to renew token on both ends of the connection.

The configuration uses ServerAliveInterval, which is useful in unstable networks and especially with autossh as explained below.

Web browser SOCKS5 tunneling configuration

Once your SSH is set up to create dynamic forwards, set up your browser to use SOCKS5 tunnels. You'll find here a proxy.pac file you can put on a web space you control, or in your home directory; the latter is preferred. The following assumes you copy the file to ~/.proxy.pac. Once you've copied the file, make sure SOCKS5 port numbers match DynamicForward ports in your ~/.ssh/config -- including whenever you add new SSH port forwarding rules. The example files match, so just remember to update both files whenever you make changes.


In Preferences / Advanced / Network, enable "Automatic proxy configuration URL", and enter file:///users/you/.proxy.pac (on mac, replace you with your account name) or file:///home/you/.proxy.pac (on linux, likewise). If you put the file on a web site, use a http: URL instead.

Firefox with FoxyProxy

If you use FoxyProxy with Firefox, instead of the previous go to FoxyProxy configuration panel, select "Add new proxy" called "PAC", then under "Proxy details" select "Automatic proxy configuration" and use the URL as above. In "Select Mode" choose "Use proxy 'PAC' for all URLs".

Safari and Chrome (OS X)

Go to System Preferences / Network / (Your network connection) / Advanced... / Proxies. Enable "Automatic Proxy Configuration" and enter into URL the path file:///users/you/.proxy.pac (replace you with your account). Note that whenever you change the file contents, you need to change the file path in this dialog once, then change it back -- it won't notice contents changes otherwise.

On OS X Lion, Safari is sandboxed in a way which requires the proxy configuration file to exist in specific directories, or accessible via http:. Either put proxy.pac to the required path, such as /Library/Internet Plug-Ins, or put it on a web site you control and give http: URL to it. On Snow Leopard you can use file: just fine as as described above.

Tunneling other applications

Several applications are natively socks aware. For example curl and any application using libcurl, for example via pycurl, is socks proxying aware. Set $ALL_PROXY to the SSH tunnel you created:

export ALL_PROXY=socks5://localhost:47170

You can use a network wrapper tsocks or similar to make other applications tunnel via socks proxy. There is a tsocks.conf file here which corresponds roughly to the proxy.pac. Set $TSOCKS_CONF_FILE to the full path to the file, and prefix command line with tsocks to wrap the application:

export TSOCKS_CONF_FILE=/path/to/tsocks.conf
tsocks wget -SO-

Using autossh to automatically rebuild tunnels

As an added convenience, you can install autossh to automatically rebuild tunnels. Install it, and once you are logged in, type in a window for example:

autossh -M 0 -Nf -o ControlPersist=no -L \

This will automatically re-establish your SSH tunnels whenever your network connectivity changes. For all practical purposes, once you open your laptop, your tunnels will rebuild in about 30 seconds. So usually everything is back by the time you actually start working, with no work on your part. And yes, it will automatically prompt you for a new kerberos token whenever your token is about to expire.

If you use MacPorts, you can just say sudo port install autossh to get it. Otherwise just download and install into local tools location.

The important part is to turn control channel persistence off, otherwise autossh and ssh will not understand each other. The -f option ensures autossh drops into background, and won't need a terminal. I normally give the command a suite of -L options to create port redirections for SMTP, Oracle, and various other services I like to have tunneled automatically.

The command above uses -M 0 because the ~/.ssh/config is set up to use ServerAliveInterval. You can adjust the timeout you like in your SSH configuration to interval times max-count, according to how flakey networks you tend to use.

What if my site firewall blocks kerberos?

If you are doing all this on a laptop, sooner or later you will end up using a network which blocks outbound kerberos traffic. You can work around this by tunneling the kerberos traffic over SSH before setting up remaining tunnels. If you would normally use kerberos configuration like as your /etc/krb5.conf, switch to using krb5.conf.tunnel instead. You will likely also need to tunnel other ports such as 587 for SMTP.

There is however an added complexity: some sites only accept KDC traffic over UDP. The kdc-tunnel utility supplied here tunnels KDC UDP traffic over an SSH tunnel. You would normally run it as follows; run the command in a window, answer the password prompt, and leave it running there:

sudo kdc-tunnel \ $

Note that you need to sudo to root so that ssh can bind to low ports. Accordingly ssh needs to be given the account at destination site, the above assumes $USER is ok but you can change that as appropriate. By default kdc-tunnel uses TCP port 18889 both locally and at destination; use the -p option to pick another port unlikely to be in use by others.

After you've run one of the above commands, launch normal SSH commands. When it comes to acquiring kerberos tokens in proxy-ssh, it should just work normally.

To shut down the tunnel, ctrl-c the kdc-tunnel running in a terminal. To restore your kerberos settings back to a direct connection, switch your /etc/krb5.conf back to something like It's likely easiest to keep both those files in your /etc and make a symlink to which ever you want to use at the time.

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