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.\" Hey, Emacs! This is an -*- nroff -*- source file.
.\" Copyright (c) 1997 Manoj Srivastava <>
.\" This is free documentation; you can redistribute it and/or
.\" modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
.\" published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of
.\" the License, or (at your option) any later version.
.\" The GNU General Public License's references to "object code"
.\" and "executables" are to be interpreted as the output of any
.\" document formatting or typesetting system, including
.\" intermediate and printed output.
.\" This manual is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
.\" but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
.\" GNU General Public License for more details.
.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
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.\" USA.
.TH LaTeX2HTML 1 "January 1 2021" "Debian" "Debian GNU/Linux manual"
latex2html \- translate LaTeX files to HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
.B latex2html
.I [options]
\&[target [target ...]]
This manual page explains the
utility, which is a
.B Perl
program that translates
.B LaTeX
document into
format. For each source file given as an argument
the translator will create a directory containing the corresponding
HTML files. For details and examples, please consult the online html
documentation, a copy of which should be available in
.I /usr/share/doc/latex2html/
.I /usr/share/doc/latex2html/html/
This documentation has been derived from the TeX manual, and may not be
up to date. Please refer to the online manual for authoritative
.SH Options controlling Titles, File-Names and Sectioning
.B -t <top-page-title>
Same as setting:
.I $TITLE = "<top-page-title>";
Name the document using this title.
.B -short_extn
Same as setting:
Use a filename prefix of .htm for the produced
files. This is
particularly useful for creating pages to be stored on CD-ROM or other
media, to be used with operating systems that require a 3-character
.B -long_titles <num>
Same as setting:
.I $LONG_TITLES = <num>;
Instead of the standard names: node1.html, node2.html,... the filenames
for each
page are constructed from the first <num> words of the
section heading for that page, separated by the `_' character.
Commas and common short words (a an to by of and for the) are omitted
from both title and word-count.
Warning: Use this switch with great caution. Currently there are no
checks for uniqueness of names or overall length. Very long names can
easily result from using this feature.
.B -custom_titles
Same as setting:
Instead of the standard names: node1.html, node2.html, ... the
filenames for each
page are constructed using a
.B Perl
named custom_title_hook . The user may define his/her own version of
this subroutine, within a .latex2html-init file say, to override the
default (which uses the standard names). This subroutine takes the
section-heading as a parameter and must return the required name, or
the empty string (default).
.B -dir <output-directory>
Same as setting:
.I $DESTDIR = "<output-directory>";
Redirect the output to the specified directory.
The default behaviour is to create (or reuse) a directory having the
same name as the prefix of the document being processed.
.B -no_subdir
Same as setting:
.I $NO_SUBDIR = 1;
Place the generated
files into the current directory. This
overrides any
.B -prefix <filename-prefix>
Same as setting:
.I $PREFIX = "<filename-prefix>";
The <filename-prefix> will be prepended to all .gif, .pl and .html
files produced, except for the top-level .html file; it may include a
(relative) directory path. This will enable multiple products of
to peacefully coexist in the same directory. However, do not
attempt to simultaneously run multiple instances of
the same output directory, else various temporary files will overwrite
each other.
.B -auto_prefix
Same as setting:
Constructs the prefix as `<title>-' to be prepended to all the files
produced, where <title> is the name of the
.B LaTeX
file being processed.
(Note the `-' in this prefix.)
This overrides any
.B -no_auto_link
Same as setting:
If $NO_AUTO_LINK is empty and variables
defined appropriately (as is the default in the latex2html.config
file), then a hard link to the main
page is produced, using the
name supplied in
Typically this is index.html; on many
systems a file of this name will be used, if it exists, when a browser
tries to view a URL which points to a directory. On other systems a
different value for
may be appropriate. Typically
.I $FILE.html,
but this may also be changed to match whichever
HTML page is to become the target of the automatic link.
Use of the -no_auto_link switch cancels this automatic linking
facility, when not required for a particular document.
.B -split <num>
Same as setting:
.I $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 8)
Stop splitting sections into separate files at this depth. Specifying
-split 0 will put the entire document into a single
file. See
below for the different levels of sectioning. Also see the next item
for how to set a ``relative'' depth for splitting.
.B -split +<num>
Same as setting:
.I $MAX_SPLIT_DEPTH = -<num>; (default is 8)
The level at which to stop splitting sections is calculated ``relative
to'' the shallowest level of sectioning that occurs within the
document. For example, if the document contains \\section commands, but
no \\part or \\chapter commands, then -split +1 will cause splitting at
each \\section but not at any deeper level; whereas -split +2 or -split
+3 also split down to \\subsection and \\subsubsection commands
respectively. Specifying -split +0 puts the entire document into a
.B -link <num>
Same as setting:
.I $MAX_LINK_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 4)
For each node, create links to child nodes down to this much deeper
than the node's sectioning-level.
Specifying -link 0 will show no links to child nodes from that page,
-link 1 will show only the immediate descendants, etc.
A value at least as big as that of the -split <num> depth will produce
a mini table-of-contents (when not empty) on each page, for the tree
structure rooted at that node.
When the page has a sectioning-level less than the -split depth, so
that the a mini table-of-contents has links to other
pages, this
table is located at the bottom of the page, unless placed elsewhere
using the \\tableofchildlinks command.
On pages having a sectioning-level just less than the -split depth the
mini table-of-contents contains links to subsections etc. occurring on
the same
page. Now the table is located at the top of this page,
unless placed elsewhere using the \\tableofchildlinks command.
.B -toc_depth <num>
Same as setting:
.I $TOC_DEPTH = <num>; (default is 4)
Sectioning levels down to <num> are to be included within the
Table-of-Contents tree.
.B -toc_stars
Same as setting:
.I $TOC_STARS = 1;
Sections created using the starred-form of sectioning commands are
included within the Table-of-Contents. As with
.B LaTeX,
normally such
sections are not listed.
.B -show_section_numbers
Same as setting:
Show section numbers. By default section numbers are not shown, so as
to encourage the use of particular sections as stand-alone documents.
In order to be shown, section titles must be unique and must not
contain inlined graphics.
.B -add_ref_name
Same as setting:
Usually cross reference text contains only the caption number as a
hyperlink to the corresponding
.B LaTeX
label. However, it could be
handy to see the name of the object referenced, if the reference text
would contain both the caption number and the caption name.
With -add_ref_name the caption name is shown additionally when available.
.B -cut_ref_num
Same as setting:
.I $CUT_REF_NUM = 1;
Usually cross reference text contains only the caption number as a
hyperlink to the corresponding
.B LaTeX
label. With -add_ref_name the
caption name can be shown additionally. If the caption number is not
desired, it can be cut out with -cut_ref_num. If -cut_ref_num is
given and -add_ref_name is not, then the cross reference text is
suppressed completely and a cross reference button shown instead.
.B -unsegment
Same as setting:
Treat a segmented document (see the section about document
segmentation) like it were not segmented. This will cause the
translator to concatenate all segments and process them as a whole. You
might find this useful to check a segmented document for consistency.
For all documents the sectioning levels referred to above are:
0 document
1 part
2 chapter
3 section
4 subsection
5 subsubsection
6 paragraph
7 subparagraph
8 subsubparagraph
These levels apply even when the document contains no sectioning for the
shallower levels; e.g. no \\part or \\chapter commands is most common,
especially when using
.B LaTeX's
article document-class.
.SH Options controlling Extensions and Special Features
The switches described here govern the type of
code that can be
generated, and how to choose between the available options when there are
alternative strategies for implementing portions of
.B LaTeX
.B -html_version (2.0|3.2|4.0|5.0)[,(math|i18n)]*
Same as setting:
.I $HTML_VERSION = "... ";
This specifies both the
version to generate, and any extra
features that may be required.
The version number corresponds to a published DTD for an
standard. A
.B Perl
file in the versions/ subdirectory is loaded; these
files are named `html<num>.pl'.
Following the version number, a comma-separated list of extensions can
be given. Each corresponds to a file `<name>.pl' also located in the
versions/ subdirectory. When such a file is loaded the resulting HTML
code can no longer be expected to validate with the specified DTD. An
exception is math when the -no_math switch is also used, which should
still validate.
Currently, versions 2.0, 3.2, 4.0 and 5.0 are available.
The default version is usually set to be `5.0', within
.B -no_tex_defs
Same as setting:
.I $TEXDEFS = 0; (default is 1)
is set (default) the file texdefs.perl will be read. This
provides code to allow common TEX commands like \\def, \\newbox,
\\newdimen and others, to be recognised, especially within the document
preamble. In the case of \\def, the definition may even be fully
interpreted, but this requires the pattern-matching to be not too
is `0' or empty, then texdefs.perl will not be loaded; the
translator will make no attempt to interpret any raw TEX commands. This
feature is intended to enable sophisticated authors the ability to
insert arbitrary TEX commands in environments that are destined to be
processed by
.B LaTeX
anyway; e.g. figures, theorems, pictures, etc.
However this should rarely be needed, as now there is better support
for these types of environment. There are now other methods to specify
which chunks of code are to be passed to
.B LaTeX
for explicit
image-generation; see the discussion of the makeimage environment.
.B -external_file <filename>
Same as setting:
.I $EXTERNAL_FILE = "<filename>";
Specifies the prefix of the .aux file that this document should read.
The .aux extension will be appended to this prefix to get the complete
filename, with directory path if needed.
This file could contain necessary information regarding citations,
figure, table and section numbers from
.B LaTeX
and perhaps other
information also. Use of this switch is vital for document segments,
processed separately and linked to appear as if generated from a single
LaTeX document.
.B -font_size <size>
Same as setting:
.I $FONT_SIZE = "<size>";
This option provides better control over the font size of environments
made into images using
.B LaTeX.
<size> must be one of the font sizes that
.B LaTeX
recognizes; i.e. `10pt', `11pt', `12pt', etc. Default is `10pt',
or whatever option may have been specified on the \\documentclass or
\\documentstyle line.
Whatever size is selected, it will be magnified by the installation
as appropriate.
Note: This switch provides no control over the size of text on the HTML
pages. Such control is subject entirely to the user's choices of
settings for the browser windows.
.B -scalable_fonts
Same as setting:
This is used when scalable fonts, such as PostScript versions of the
TEX fonts, are available for image-generation.
It has the effect of setting
to `1', and
be empty, overriding any previous settings for these variables.
.B -no_math
Same as setting:
Ordinarily simple mathematical expressions are set using the ordinary
text font, but italicized. When part of the expression can not be
represented this way, an image is made of the whole formula. This is
called ``simple math''. When
is set, then all
mathematics is made into images, whether simple or not.
However, if the math extension is loaded, using the -html_version
switch described earlier, then specifying -no_math produces a quite
different effect. Now it is the special <MATH> tags and entities which
are canceled. In their place a sophisticated scheme for parsing
mathematical expressions is used. Images are made of those sub-parts of
a formula which cannot be adequately expressed using (italicized) text
characters and <SUB> and <SUP> tags. See the subsection on mathematics
for more details.
.B -local_icons
Same as setting:
A copy of each of the icons actually used within the document is placed
in the directory along with the
files and generated images. This
allows the whole document to be fully self-contained, within this
directory; otherwise the icons must be retrieved from a (perhaps
remote) server.
It is also the default behavior if $ICONSERVER is not set.
The icons are normally copied from a subdirectory of the
set within latex2html.config. An alternative set of
icons can be used by specifying a (relative) directory path in
$ALTERNATIVE_ICONS to where the customised images can be found.
.B -init_file <file>
Load the specified initialisation file. This
.B Perl
file will be loaded
after loading
.I $HOME/.latex2html-init,
or .latex2html-init in the local
directory, if either file exists. It is read at the time the switch is
processed, so the contents of the file may change any of the values of
any of the variables that were previously established, as well as any
default options. More than one initialisation file can be read in this
.B -no_fork
Same as setting:
.I $NOFORK = 1;
When set this disables a feature in the early part of the processing
whereby some memory-intensive operations are performed by `forked'
child processes. Some single-task operating systems, such as DOS, do
not support this feature. Having
set then ensures that
unnecessary file-handles that are needed with the forked processes, are
not consumed unnecessarily, perhaps resulting in a fatal
.B Perl
.B -iso_language <type>
This enables you to specify a different language type than 'EN' to be
used in the lang attribute of the
document, e.g. 'en-US'.
.B -short_index
Same as setting:
Creates shorter Index listings, using codified links; this is fully
compatible with the makeidx package.
.B -no_footnode
Same as setting:
Suppresses use of a separate file for footnotes; instead these are
placed at the bottom of the
pages where the references occur.
When this option is used, it is frequently desirable to change the
style of the marker used to indicate the presence of a footnote. This
is done as in
.B LaTeX,
using code such as follows.
All the styles \\arabic, \\alph, \\roman, \\Alph and \\Roman are available.
.B -numbered_footnotes
Same as setting:
If this is set you will get every footnote applied with a subsequent
number, to ease readability.
.B -address <author-address>
Same as setting:
.I $ADDRESS = "<author-address>";
Sign each page with this address.
See latex2html.config for an example using
.B Perl
code to automatically
include the date.
A user-defined
.B Perl
subroutine called &custom_address can be used
instead, if defined; it takes the value of
as a parameter,
which may be used or ignored as desired. At the time when this
subroutine will be called, variables named $depth,
.I $title,
.I $file
the sectioning-level, title and filename of the
page being
holds the name of the filename for the title-page of
the whole document.
.B -info <string>
Same as setting:
.I $INFO = "<string>";
Generate a new section ``About this document'' containing information
about the document being translated. The default is to generate such a
section with information on the original document, the date, the user
and the translator. An empty string (or the value `0') disables the
creation of this extra section.
If a non-empty string is given, it will be placed as the contents of
the ``About this document'' page instead of the default information.
.SH Switches controlling Image Generation
These switches affect whether images are created at all, whether old images
are reused on subsequent runs or new ones created afresh, and whether
anti-aliasing effects are used within the images themselves.
.B -use_dvipng
Use the dvipng program to generate png images, rather than using
dvips followed by gs. This method produces better alignment of
math formulas which extend significantly above or below
the line of text in which they are contained.
.B -nouse_pdftex
Generate intermediate images with plain latex instead of pdflatex.
If your document is written for pdflatex, run ``pdflatex'' first and
then ``latex2html''. If your document is written for plain, dvi-producing
latex, run ``latex'' first and then ``latex2html -nouse_pdftex''.
.B -use_luatex
Generate intermediate images with lualatex instead of plain latex.
Produced PDF output will then be translated into images with GhostScript.
Useful for lualatex documents which cannot be translated by latex or pdflatex.
.B -use_luadvi
Generate intermediate images with dvilualatex instead of plain latex.
Useful for dvilualatex documents which cannot be translated by latex.
.B -ascii_mode
Same as setting:
Use only ASCII characters and do not include any images in the final
output. With -ascii_mode the output of the translator can be used on
character-based browsers, such as lynx, which do not support inlined
images (via the <IMG> tag).
.B -nolatex
Same as setting:
.I $NOLATEX = 1;
Disable the mechanism for passing unknown environments to
.B LaTeX
processing. This can be thought of as ``draft mode'' which allows
faster translation of the basic document structure and text, without
fancy figures, equations or tables.
(This option has been superseded by the -no_images option, see below.)
.B -external_images
Same as setting:
Instead of including any generated images inside the document, leave
them outside the document and provide hypertext links to them.
.B -ps_images
Same as setting:
Use links to external PostScript files rather than inlined images in
the chosen graphics format.
.B -discard
Same as setting:
The temporary PostScript files are discarded immediately after they
have been used to create the image in the desired graphics format.
.B -no_images
Same as setting:
.I $NO_IMAGES = 1;
Do not attempt to produce any inlined images. The missing images can be
generated ``off-line'' by restarting
with the option
-images_only .
.B -images_only
Same as setting:
Try to convert any inlined images that were left over from previous
runs of
.B -reuse <reuse_option>
Same as setting:
.I $REUSE = <reuse_option>;
This switch specifies the extent to which image files are to be shared
or recycled.
There are three valid options:
[*] 0
Do not ever share or recycle image files.
This choice also invokes an interactive session prompting the user
about what to do about a pre-existing
directory, if it
[*] 1
Recycle image files from a previous run if they are available,
but do not share identical images that must be created in this
[*] 2
Recycle image files from a previous run and share identical images
from this run.
This is the default.
A later section provides additional information about image-reuse.
.B -no_reuse
Same as setting:
.I $REUSE = 0;
Do not share or recycle images generated during previous translations.
This is equivalent to -reuse 0 . (This will enable the initial
interactive session during which the user is asked whether to reuse the
old directory, delete its contents or quit.)
.B -antialias
Same as setting:
.I $ANTI_ALIAS = 1; (Default is 0.)
Generated images of figure environments and external PostScript files
should use anti-aliasing. By default anti-aliasing is not used with
these images, since this may interfere with the contents of the images
.B -antialias_text
Same as setting:
.I $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 1; (Default is 1.)
Generated images of typeset material such as text, mathematical
formulas, tables and the content of makeimage environments, should use
anti-aliasing effects.
The default is normally to use anti-aliasing for text, since the
resulting images are much clearer on-screen. However the default may
have been changed locally.
.B -no_antialias
Same as setting:
.I $ANTI_ALIAS = 0; (Default is 0.)
Generated images of figure environments and external PostScript files
should not use anti-aliasing with images, though the local default may
have been changed to use it.
.B -no_antialias_text
Same as setting:
.I $ANTI_ALIAS_TEXT = 0; (Default is 1.)
Generated images of typeset material should not use anti-aliasing
effects. Although on-screen images of text are definitely improved
using anti-aliasing, printed images can be badly blurred, even at
300dpi. Higher resolution printers do a much better job with the
resulting grey-scale images.
.B -white
Same as setting:
.I $WHITE_BACKGROUND = 1; (Default is 1.)
Ensures that images of figure environments have a white background.
Otherwise transparency effects may not work correctly.
.B -no_white
Same as setting:
.I $WHITE_BACKGROUND = ''; (Default is 1.)
Cancels the requirement that figure environments have a white
.B -ldump
Same as setting:
.I $LATEX_DUMP = 1; (Default is 0.)
Use this if you want to speed up image processing during the 2nd and
subsequent runs of
on the same document. The translator now
produces a
.B LaTeX
format-dump of the preamble to images.tex which is
used on subsequent runs. This significantly reduces the startup time
.B LaTeX
reads the images.tex file for image-generation.
This process actually consumes additional time on the first run, since
.B LaTeX
is called twice -- once to create the format-dump, then again to
load and use it. The pay-off comes with the faster loading on
subsequent runs. Approximately 1 Meg of disk space is consumed by the
dump file.
.SH Switches controlling Navigation Panels
The following switches govern whether to include one or more navigation
panels on each
page, also which buttons to include within such a panel.
.B -no_navigation
Same as setting:
Disable the mechanism for putting navigation links in each page.
This overrides any settings of the
.B -top_navigation
Same as setting:
Put navigation links at the top of each page.
.B -bottom_navigation
Same as setting:
Put navigation links at the bottom of each page as well as the top.
.B -auto_navigation
Same as setting:
Put navigation links at the top of each page. Also put one at the
bottom of the page, if the page exceeds
number of words
(default = 450).
.B -next_page_in_navigation
Same as setting:
Put a link to the next logical page in the navigation panel.
.B -previous_page_in_navigation
Same as setting:
Put a link to the previous logical page in the navigation panel.
.B -contents_in_navigation
Same as setting:
Put a link to the table-of-contents in the navigation panel if there is
.B -index_in_navigation
Same as setting:
Put a link to the index-page in the navigation panel if there is an
.SH Switches for Linking to other documents
When processing a single stand-alone document, the switches described in
this section should not be needed at all, since the automatically generated
navigation panels, described on the previous page should generate all the
required navigation links. However if a document is to be regarded as part
of a much larger document, then links from its first and final pages, to
locations in other parts of the larger (virtual) document, need to be
provided explicitly for some of the buttons in the navigation panel.
The following switches allow for such links to other documents, by providing
the title and URL for navigation panel hyperlinks. In particular, the
``Document Segmentation'' feature necessarily makes great use of these
switches. It is usual for the text and targets of these navigation
hyperlinks to be recorded in a Makefile, to avoid tedious typing of long
command-lines having many switches.
.B -up_url <URL>
Same as setting:
Specifies a universal resource locator (URL) to associate with the
``UP'' button in the navigation panel(s).
.B -up_title <string>
Same as setting:
.I $EXTERNAL_UP_TITLE = "<string>";
Specifies a title associated with this URL.
.B -prev_url <URL>
Same as setting:
Specifies a URL to associate with the ``PREVIOUS'' button in the
navigation panel(s).
.B -prev_title <string>
Same as setting:
.I $EXTERNAL_PREV_TITLE = "<string>";
Specifies a title associated with this URL.
.B -down_url <URL>
Same as setting:
Specifies a URL for the ``NEXT'' button in the navigation panel(s).
.B -down_title <string>
Same as setting:
.I $EXTERNAL_DOWN_TITLE = "<string>";
Specifies a title associated with this URL.
.B -contents <URL>
Same as setting:
Specifies a URL for the ``CONTENTS'' button, for document segments that
would not otherwise have one.
.B -index <URL>
Same as setting:
Specifies a URL for the ``INDEX'' button, for document segments that
otherwise would not have an index.
.B -biblio <URL>
Same as setting:
Specifies the URL for the bibliography page to be used, when not
explicitly part of the document itself.
Warning: On some systems it is difficult to give text-strings <string>
containing space characters, on the command-line or via a Makefile. One way
to overcome this is to use the corresponding variable. Another way is to
replace the spaces with underscores (_).
.SH Switches for Help and Tracing
The first two of the following switches are self-explanatory. When problems
arise in processing a document, the switches -debug and -verbosity will each
to generate more output to the screen. These extra messages
should help to locate the cause of the problem.
.B -tmp <path>
Define a temporary directory to use for image generation. If <path> is
0, the standard temporary directory /tmp is used.
.B -h(elp)
Print out the list of all command-line options.
.B -v
Print the current version of
.B -debug
Same as setting:
.I $DEBUG = 1;
Run in debug-mode, displaying messages and/or diagnostic information
about files read, and utilities called by
Shows any
messages produced by these calls.
More extensive diagnostics, from the
.B Perl
debugger, can be obtained by
appending the string `-w-' to the 1st line of the latex2html (and
.B Perl
.B -verbosity <num>
Same as setting:
.I $VERBOSITY = <num>;
Display messages revealing certain aspects of the processing performed
on the provided input file(s). The <num> parameter can be
an integer in the range 0 to 8. Each higher value adds to the messages
No special tracing; as for versions of
prior to V97.1.
(This is the default.) Show section-headings and the corresponding
HTML file names, and indicators that major stages in the
processing have been completed.
Print environment names and identifier numbers, and new
theorem-types. Show warnings as they occur, and indicators for
more stages of processing. Print names of files for storing
auxiliary data arrays.
Print command names as they are encountered and processed; also
any unknown commands encountered while pre-processing. Show names
of new commands, environments, theorems, counters and
counter-dependencies, for each document partition.
Indicate command-substitution the pre-process of
math-environments. Print the contents of unknown environments for
processing in
.B LaTeX,
both before and after reverting to
.B LaTeX
source. Show all operations affecting the values of counters. Also
show links, labels and sectioning keys, at the stages of
Detail the processing in the document preamble. Show substitutions
of new environments. Show the contents of all recognised
environments, both before and after processing. Show the
cached/encoded information for the image keys, allowing two images
to be tested for equality.
Show replacements of new commands, accents and wrapped commands.
Trace the processing of commands in math mode; both before and
Trace the processing of all commands, both before and after.
The command-line option sets an initial value only. During processing
the value of
can be set dynamically using the
\\htmltracing{...} command, whose argument is the desired value, or by
using the more general \\HTMLset command as follows:
.SH Other Configuration Variables, without switches
The configuration variables described here do not warrant having a
command-line switch to assign values. Either they represent aspects of
that are specific to the local site, or they govern properties
that should apply to all documents, rather than something that typically
would change for the different documents within a particular sub-directory.
Normally these variables have their value set within the latex2html.config
file. In the following listing the defaults are shown, as the lines of Perl
code used to establish these values. If a different value is required, then
these can be assigned from a local .latex2html-init initialisation file,
without affecting the defaults for other users, or documents processed from
other directories.
.B $dd
holds the string to be used in file-names to delimit directories; it
is set internally to `/', unless the variable has already been given a
value within latex2html.config .
Note: This value cannot be set within a .latex2html-init initialisation
file, since its value needs to be known in order to find such a file.
Read by the install-test script from latex2html.config, its value is
inserted into the latex2html
.B Perl
script as part of the installation
Read from the latex2html.config file by install-test, its value is
checked to locate the styles/ directory.
The value of this variable should be set within latex2html.config to
specify the directory path where the version and extension files can be
This may contain the (relative) directory path to a set of customised
icons to be used in conjunction with the -local_icons switch.
Read by the install-test
.B Perl
script from latex2html.config, its value
is used to locate the texexpand
.B Perl
Read by the install-test
.B Perl
script from latex2html.config, its value
is used to locate the pstoimg
.B Perl
.B $IMAGE_TYPE = '<image-type>';
Set in latex2html.config, the currently supported <image-type>s are:
svg, png and gif. Vector formats such as svg look better at high resolution,
while bitmap formats such as png or gif are generally
faster to download and to render.
.B $DVIPS = 'dvips';
Read from latex2html.config by install-test, its value is checked to
locate the dvips program or script.
There could be several reasons to change the value here:
add a switch -P<printer> to load a specific configuration-file;
e.g. to use a specific set of PostScript fonts, for improved
to prepend a path to a different version of dvips than normally
available as the system default (e.g. the printing requirements
are different).
to append debugging switches, in case of poor quality images;
one can see which paths are being searched for fonts and other
to prepend commands for setting path variables that dvips may need
in order to locate fonts or other resources.
If automatic generation of fonts is required, using Metafont, the
following configuration variables are important.
This variable must be set, to initiate font-generation; otherwise
fonts will be scaled from existing resources on the local system.
In particular this variable must not be set, if one wishes to use
PostScript fonts or other scalable font resources (see the
-scalable_fonts switch).
.B $DVIPS_MODE = 'toshiba';
The mode given here must be available in the file,
located with the Metafont resource files, perhaps in the misc/
The required resolution, in dots-per-inch, should be listed
specifically within the MakeTeXPK script, called by dvips to
invoke Metafont with the correct parameters for the required
.B $LATEX = 'latex';
Read from latex2html.config by install-test, its value is checked to
locate the latex program or script.
.B LaTeX
is having trouble finding style-files and/or packages, then
the default command can be prepended with other commands to set
environment variables intended to resolve these difficulties;
.I $LATEX = 'setenv TEXINPUTS <path to search> ; latex' .
There are several variables to help control exactly which files are
read by
and by
.B LaTeX
when processing images:
This is normally set from the environment variable of the same
name. If difficulties occur so that styles and packages are not
being found, then extra paths can be specified here, to resolve
these difficulties.
This provides a list of filenames and extensions to not include,
even if requested to do so by an \\input or \\include command.
(Consult latex2html.config for the default list.)
.B $DO_INCLUDE = '';
List of exceptions within the
list. These files are
to be read if requested by an \\input or \\include command.
This is used to specify a URL to find the standard icons, as used for
the navigation buttons.
Names for the specific images size, as well as size information, can be
found in latex2html.config. The icons themselves can be replaced by
customised versions, provided this information is correctly updated and
the location of the customised images specified as the value of
When the -local_icons switch is used, so that a copy of the icons is
placed with the
files and other generated images, the value of
$ICONSERVER is not needed within the
files themselves.
.B $NAV_BORDER = <num>;
The value given here results in a border, measured in points, around
each icon.
A value of `0' is common, to maintain strict alignment of inactive and
active buttons in the control panels.
.B $LINKNAME = '"index.$EXTN"';
This is used when the
variable is empty, to allow a URL
to the working directory to be sufficient to reach the main page of the
completed document. It specifies the name of the
file which will
be automatically linked to the directory name.
The value of
is .html unless
is set, in which case it
is .htm .
This specifies the name of the
file to be duplicated, or
symbolically linked, with the name specified in
the appropriate time the value of
is the document name, which
usually coincides with the name of the working directory.
.B $CHARSET = 'utf-8';
This specifies the character set used within the
pages produced by
If no value is set in a configuration or initialisation
file, the default value will be assumed. The lowercase form
.I $charset
also recognised, but this is overridden by the uppercase form.
.B $ACCENT_IMAGES = 'large';
Accented characters that are not part of the ISO-Latin fonts can be
generated by making an image using
.B LaTeX.
This variable contains a
(comma-separated) list of
.B LaTeX
commands for setting the style to be
used when these images are made. If the value of this variable is empty
then the accent is simply ignored, using an un-accented font character
(not an image) instead.
Within the color.perl package, the following two variables are used to identify
the names of files containing specifications for named colors. Files having
these names are provided, in the
directory, but they could
be moved elsewhere, or replaced by alternative files having different names.
In such a case the values of these variables should be altered accordingly.
.B $RGBCOLORFILE = 'rgb.txt';
.B $CRAYOLAFILE = 'crayola.txt';
The following variables may well be altered from the system defaults, but
this is best done using a local .latex2html-init initialisation file, for
overall consistency of style within documents located at the same site, or
sites in close proximity.
.B $default_language = 'english';
This establishes which language code is to be placed within the
<!DOCTYPE ... > tag that may appear at the beginning of the
produced. Loading a package for an alternative language can be expected
to change the value of this variable.
See also the
variable, described next.
.B $TITLES_LANGUAGE = 'english';
This variable is used to specify the actual strings used for standard
document sections, such as ``Contents'', ``References'', ``Table of
Contents'', etc.
Support for French and German titles is available in corresponding
packages. Loading such a package will normally alter the value of this
variable, as well as the
.I $default_language
variable described above.
Specifies how many words to use from section titles, within the textual
hyperlinks which accompany the navigation buttons.
.B $WORDS_IN_PAGE = 450;
Specifies the minimum page length required before a navigation panel is
placed at the bottom of a page, when the
variable is
.B $CHILDLINE = \(dq<BR><HR>\\\\n\(dq;
This gives the
code to be placed between the child-links table and
the ordinary contents of the page on which it occurs.
When set, this variable specifies that
code may be present which
does not conform to any official standard. This restricts the contents
of any <!DOCTYPE ... > tag which may be placed at the beginning of the
HTML pages produced.
.B $BODYTEXT = '';
The value of this variable is used within the <BODY ... > tag; e.g. to
set text and/or background colors.
It's value is overridden by the \\bodytext command, and can be added-to
or parts changed using the \\htmlbody command or \\color and \\pagecolor
from the color package.
When set, interlaced images should be produced.
This requires graphics utilities to be available to perform the
interlacing operation.
When set, the background of images should be made transparent;
otherwise it is white.
This requires graphics utilities to be available which can specify the
color to be made transparent.
Scale factor applied to all images of figure and other environments,
when being made into an image.
Note that this does not apply to recognised mathematics environments,
which instead use the contents of
$DISP_SCALE_FACTOR to specify scaling.
Scale factor applied to all images of mathematics, both inline and
displayed. A value of 1.4 is a good alternative, with anti-aliased
Extra scale factor applied to images of displayed math environments.
When set, this value multiplies
to give the total
scaling. A value of `1.2' is a good choice to accompany
This may hold an extra scale factor that can be applied to all
generated images.
When set, it specifies that a scaling of
be applied
when images are created, but to have their height and width recorded as
the un-scaled size. This is to coax browsers into scaling the (usually
larger) images to fit the desired size; when printed a better quality
can be obtained. Values of `1.5' and `2' give good print quality at
.B $PAPERSIZE = 'a5';
Specifies the size of a page for typesetting figures or displayed math,
when an image is to be generated.
This affects the lengths of lines of text within images. Since images
of text or mathematics should use larger sizes than when printed, else
clarity is lost at screen resolutions, then a smaller paper-size is
generally advisable. This is especially so if both the
scaling factors are being
used, else some images may become excessively large, including a lot of
blank space.
.B $LINE_WIDTH = 500;
Formerly specified the width of an image, when the contents were to be
right- or center-justified. (No longer used.)
The following variables are used to access the utilities required during
image-generation. File and program locations on the local system are
established by the configure-pstoimg
.B Perl
script and stored within
.B Perl
code, to be read by pstoimg when required.
After running the configure-pstoimg Perl script it should not be necessary
to alter the values obtained. Those shown below are what happens on the
author's system; they are for illustration only and do not represent default
$GS_LIB = '/usr/local/share/ghostscript/4.02';
$PNMCAT = '/usr/local/bin/pnmcat';
$PNMQUANT = '/usr/local/bin/pnmquant';
$PNMFLIP = '/usr/local/bin/pnmflip';
$PPMTOGIF = '/usr/local/bin/ppmtogif';
$GS_DEVICE = 'pnmraw';
$GS = '/usr/local/bin/gs';
$PNMFILE = '/usr/local/bin/pnmfile';
$PBMMAKE = '/usr/local/bin/pbmmake';
$PNMCROP = '/usr/local/bin/pnmcrop';
$TMP = '/usr/var/tmp';
The following variables are no longer needed, having been replaced by the
more specific information obtained using the Perl script configure-pstoimg.
$PBMPLUSDIR = '/usr/local/bin';
.BR latex (1)
Nikos Drakos, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds
<>. Several people have contributed suggestions,
ideas, solutions, support and encouragement.
The current maintainer is Ross Moore.
This manual page was written by Manoj Srivastava <>,
for the Debian GNU/Linux system, based on the LaTeX documentation
accompanying the program.