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Library of common Krimskrams (German for "odds and ends"). It contains some very basic stuff which provides a useful foundation for many other projects.


For configuring the build we need at least cmake 3.0.0.
All compilers starting from clang-3.5 and gcc-4.8 should be able to build the code C++11 support is required. If C++14 is available some more general implementations of certain functionality becomes available. E.g. the tuple utility functions are only available up to tuples with 4 elements at the moment if C++14 cannot be used.

The tests depend on some third-party libraries (rapidcheck and Catch), which are automatically downloaded if the cmake property AUTOCHECKOUT_MISSING_REPOS is set to ON.

In order to build with tests (recommended) run

mkdir build && cd build
cmake --build .

In order to build without tests run

mkdir build && cd build
cmake --build .

Short description

This section sketches the basic functionality of some parts of the library.

CMake module DebugReleaseBuild

  • Located at cmake/modules/DebugReleaseBuild.cmake
  • Provides a way to simultaneously build a library in Debug and Release mode
  • The idea is to have a Debug version including assertions and extensive error checking and a release version, which is highly optimised by the compiler
  • Just by selecting which version to link with, one gets either the checking or the speed.
  • Using this module a whole dependency tree of libraries can be build for Debug and Release simultaneously and hence with little effort one can switch even for a complex project.
  • The module is also responsible for determining the compiler features and set suitable compiler flags for a built.



# Setup project

# Determine compiler flags
#    and require c++11 or higher
set (cxx_minimum_required 11)

# Add library target
drb_add_library(mylib FILES source.hh)

# Modify compile definitions of release version
drb_target_compile_definitions(RELEASE mylib PUBLIC "EXAMPLE")

# call target_link_libraries on both versions
drb_target_link_libraries(ALL mylib dependency1 dependency2)

CMake module SetupClangTargets

  • Add targets to easily run certain clang tools on the project
  • Currently reformatting a project using clang-format and checking for common coding errors unsing clang-tidy is supported. Fixing errors from clang-tidy automatically (i.e. clang-tidy -fix) is supported as well.
  • For example: The code
	DIRECTORIES src tests

will setup the targets clang-format-myproject, clang-tidy-myproject and clang-tidy-myproject-fix.

  • These targets will all work on the header and source files, which are located inside the directories src and tests.
    Note, that these directories should have been added to the project using CMake's add_subdirectories already. In other words it is advisable to call add_available_clang_targets_for somewhere at the bottom of the project's CMakeLists.txt.
  • The format target clang-format-myproject will reformat all files of the project according to the selected formatting guidelines in the appropriate .clang-format file.
  • clang-tidy-myproject performs the configured clang-tidy-checks and displays detected problems. If fixes are available to the problems, they can be applied with clang-tidy-myproject-fix automatically. Note that these two targets are only available on CMake above 3.5.0 or if ninja is used to perform the build.

The exception system

  • Available via the header <krims/ExceptionSystem.hh>.
  • The idea is to allow for very easy error checking, by the means of assertions.
  • Whenever an assertion fails the program is (by default) aborted. For tests this can be changed, such that an exception is thrown instead.
  • The output on abort is very detailed, including the call stack, the failed condition and some message supplied by the programmer.
  • Standard assertions (equality of size, is a number within a range) are predefined and only take a single line of code.
  • Checking is usually done using the assert_dbg macro, which expands to an empty statement in Release mode.
  • The whole system is suitable for multi-threaded applications.
  • Helper macros to quickly define Exceptions are available. See src/krims/ExceptionSystem/Exceptions.hh for predefined examples.
  • See examples/ExceptionSystem_demo/ for an example program, which triggers some exceptions.

Example code

double devide(double a, double b) {
	// If b is zero this is an error
	assert_dbg(b != 0.,ExcZero());

	// a and b should also be finite.

	return a/b;

double data[10];
double get(size_t i) {
	// if i is larger than 10 this is an error
	return data[i];

Performing floating point comparisons

  • Available via the header <krims/NumComp.hh>.
  • This set of classes easily perform error-tolerant comparison of floating point types or std::complex<T> types.
  • For example
#include <krims/NumComp.hh>
using namespace krims;

int main() {
	if (10.0000000000001 == numcomp(10.)) {
		return 0;
	} else {
		return 1;

checks for the equality using some small tolerance.

  • The tolerance can either be influenced relative to the numerical epsilon using the enum NumCompAccuracyLevel or by supplying an absolute value, e.g.
#include <krims/NumComp.hh>
using namespace krims;

int main() {
	if (10.0000000000001 == numcomp(10.).tolerance(NumCompAccuracyLevel::Sloppy) {
		return 0;
	} else {
		return 1;
  • By default true or false is returned. More information about why and how bad the comparison failed can be obtained if one sets the failure_action to NumCompActionType::ThrowNormal or NumCompActionType::ThrowVerbose like
#include <krims/NumComp.hh>
using namespace krims;

int main() {
	if (10.0000000000001 == numcomp(10.).failure_action(NumCompActionType::ThrowNormal) {
		return 0;
	} else {
		return 1;

Subscribable base class and SubscriptionPointer

  • Provides a mechanism to transparently subscribe to objects, which are only available as references.
  • Storing a reference to an object inside another class can be problematic, since it may well happen that the referenced object goes out of scope. If the class uses this reference thereafter a surprising error may result.
  • This system tries to circumvent this problem by introducing a SubscriptionPointer which may subscribe to an object derived off the Subscribable base class. Each such subscription increases a reference count inside Subscribable.
  • If the Subscribable object, i.e. the object SubscriptionPointer points to, is destroyed with a reference count greater zero, an Exception is raised via the krims exception system. In other words the reference counting only happens in the Debug version of the library.
  • Note, that the classes are designed to be thread-safe.
  • The implementation is provided it the headers <krims/Subscribable.hh> and krims/SubscriptionPointer.hh.
  • This class provides an alternative to the smart std::shared_ptr of C++11. Especially in cases where large amounts of data (like big matrices) need to be accessed from various places in a code without being the owner of the data, this system is useful.
  • The GenMap (see below) has full support for storing arbitrary subscribable objects by reference.

Useful type properties and type transformations

  • Some utility classes aiding with SFINAE or type conversion are available via the header <krims/TypeUtils.hh>
  • RealTypeOf extracts the real type of a complex number of is the identity to a normal float
  • IsCheaplyCopyable determines whether data of this type is considered to be cheaply copyable. One can manually flag a class as cheaply copyable by deriving it off the marker interface CheaplyCopyable_i.

GenMap: A hierachical dictionary for managing data of arbitrary type.

  • The GenMap allows to store and access data of an arbitrary type with the aid of std::string lookup keys.
  • Data is automatically either stored by-value (for cheaply copyable types like floating point values, integers or strings), as a std::shared_ptr or as a SubscriptionPointer.
  • One can use std::initializer_lists to easily construct or update GenMap, e.g.
GenMap map{ {"key": 3}, {"key2" : "value2" } };
auto i = std::make_shared<int>(15);
map.update({"an integer", i});
// or equivalently:
map.update("an integer", i);
  • If one is happy to copy the data inside the map, the function update_copy is available, which effectively is a convenience function for making and storing a std::shared_ptr to the copy.
  • The data can be retrieved as a pointer or by reference. A default value can be provided for use if the key does not exist:
// Use default value 5 if key does not exist"nonexistent", 5)

// Use a default pointer to some other place
// if key does not exist
map.at_ptr("nonexistent", make_shared<int>(4));

On retrieval of the value, the type needs to specified once again. If the type does not match the original type, an error is thrown in Debug mode.

auto this_is_15 =<int>("an integer");

// Error, will abort program in Debug mode
auto error =<std::string>("an integer");
  • The GenMap has a notion for hierarchical storage as well: Keys which contain a slash / are interpreted like a UNIX path. Using the submap function, one can navigate into a subpath, which offers the same interface as the original map. This way one can selectively shadow parts of the stored data and allow different parts of the program to transparently manage parameters or references to results of computations.
  • Similar to std::map objects, a GenMap supports range- based for loops and iteration over the map as well as submaps, e.g.
// Print all keys within the map
for (auto& kv : map) {
  std::cout << kv.key() << std::endl;

// Print a subtree, where we know that all 
// entries are integer values:
for (auto& kv : map.subtree("only_ints") {
  std::cout << kv.key() << " "
      << kv.value<int>() << std::endl;

File system functions

  • A basic set of filesystem functions is included by the file krims/IteratorUtils.hh.
  • C++ interfaces for the following is available:
    • basename: Obtain the file name in a path
    • dirname: Obtain the directory which contains the file referenced by a path
    • realpath: Obtain the canonical path with all symbolic links resolved.
    • path_exists: Check whether a path exists on the filesystem.
    • splitext: Split the file extension from a path
  • This part of krims is intended as a lightweight transition library until the C++17 filesystem support of the standard library becomes widely available.

File utils

  • krims/FileUtils.hh includes a set of functions to deal with common tasks, which occurr when reading or writing data files.
  • This includes read_binary and write_binary to easily read/write a vector of integers or floating point types in binary form.
  • FindDataFile is a class to aid with locating static data files on disk. It is very flexible and allows to consider various hard-coded locations as well as paths provided by environment variables when looking for files. The precise order as well as path prefixes can be specified as needed.

Iterator utils

  • krims/IteratorUtils.hh includes classes for wrapping iterators.
  • E.g. CircularIterator implements an iterator to iterate over a range in a circular fashion. I.e. if one reaches the end of the range, the iterator detects this and wraps over to restart at the begining. The same in the other direction.
  • The functions circular_begin and circular_end are available to construct suitable CircularIterators in order to iterate over pretty much any container circularly.
  • Furthermore DereferenceIterator provides a mechanism to easily iterate over a container with pointers to some objects, yielding directly the objects instead of the pointers.

Circular buffer with maximum size

  • <krims/CircularBuffer.hh> contains the class CircularBuffer, which provides a circular buffer implementation with a maximal size. It may contain less elements, but not more. If the maximal size is 5 and one pushes a 6th element to the buffer, the first is deleted automatically.
  • CircularBuffer is very helpful to store e.g. a history of the N last steps in an iterative algorithm.

Useful helper functions to deal with tuples

  • The header <krims/TupleUtils.hh> provides a number of utility functions which ease the use of std::tuple objects.
  • The apply function allows to call a functor, lambda or std::function object using the elements of a tuple as the parameters to the call In other words
auto add_lambda = [] (double x, int y) { return x+y; };
auto tuple = std::make_tuple(3.1415,42);

double res = krims::apply(add_lambda, tuple);
// res is 45.1415

calls the lambda add_lambda with the arguments 3.1415 and 42.

  • tuple_for_each calls a functor, lambda or std::function for each element of a tuple in turn, i.e. for a tuple with 6 elements the function is called 6 times with one of the tuple elements as the argument. The function should therefore be generic in the types of the tuple elements.
  • tuple_map is similar to tuple_for_each: It applies a functor, lambda or std::function object to each tuple element and stores the returned values in a tuple, which is returned. In other words
auto add3 = [] (double x) { return x+3; };
auto tuple = std::make_tuple(3.1415,42);
auto res = krims::tuple_for_each(add3,tuple);
// res is std::tuple<double,double>{6.1415,45.0}


auto add3 = [] (double x) { return x+3; };
auto tuple = std::make_tuple(3.1415,42);
auto res = std::make_tuple(add3(std::get<0>(tuple)), add3(std::get<1>(tuple)))
// res is std::tuple<double,double>{6.1415,45.0}

are equivalent. A binary version which calls a function with 2 arguments on each pair of elements from two tuples also exists.

auto add = [] (double x, double y) { return x+y; };
auto tuple1 = std::make_tuple(3, 5.6);
auto tuple2 = std::make_tuple(1.5, 2);
auto res = krims::tuple_map(add,tuple1,tuple2);
// res is std::tuple<double,double>{4.5,7.6}
  • The code is implemented differently for the various C++ standards, making best use of the features the standard libraries as well as the language offers in these versions of the standard.
  • For C++11 only tuples with 4 elements or less are supported. From C++14 onwards there is no restriction any more.


The bucket of Krimskrams every C or C++ project needs




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