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foreach (<var> : <expr>) <statement>;
foreach (<var>, <var2>, ... ,<varN> : <expr>) <statement>;
foreach (<var> : <expr1> .. <expr2>) <statement>;
foreach (<var>, <var2>, ... ,<varN> : <expr1>..<expr2> ) <statement>;
/* MudOS compatibility only - not for new code: */
foreach (<var> in <expr>) <statement>;
foreach (<var>, <var2>, ... ,<varN> in <expr>) <statement>;
The instruction evaluates its range specification - either a
simple <expr> which can yield an array, a struct, a string, a
mapping or an integer, or an integer range <expr1> through
<expr2> - and executes <statement> once for each value in the
range. The respective value is assigned to <var> right before
<statement> is executed.
A 'break' in the <statement> will terminate the loop. A
'continue' will continue the execution from the beginning of
the loop.
Every <var> specification can declare a new local variable, whose
scope is the whole foreach() statement.
The normal form (one <expr>):
<expr> is evaluated and has to yield an array, a struct, a
string or a mapping (or reference to the former), or an
If <expr> is a array, struct, or string, the values of
<expr> (in case of the string, the integer values of the
characters) are then assigned one by one in order of
occurence to <var>, and <statement> is executed for every
If <expr> is a mapping, the keys are assigned one by one
to <var>, and the values for each key are assigned in
order to <var2>..<varN>. If there are more values than
variable, the extraneous values are ignored. Due to the
nature of mappings, a specific order of the keys can not
be guaranteed.
If <expr> evaluates to a reference to an array, mapping, or
string, the loop will assign references to the values into
the variables. This allows the loop body to change the contents
of the original data.
If <expr> evalutes to an integer, the loop will count up <var>
from 0 to <expr>-1, basically implementing a count loop.
If there are more variables than necessary, the unneeded ones
are not changed.
The ranged form (<expr1> .. <expr2>):
<expr1> and <expr2> are evaluated and must yield integers.
The loop will count up <var> from <expr1> to <expr2>, basically
implementing a counted loop.
If <expr1> is less than <expr2>, the loop will terminate at once.
If there are more than variable, the unneeded ones are not
If <expr> yields an array or struct:
- assignments to single elements or to array ranges effect
the values assigned to the variable:
a = ({1, 2, 3})
foreach(x : a) { a[1..2] = ({4, 5}); write(x+" "); }
will write ("1 4 5 ").
- operations which implicitly copy the array or struct (this
includes range assignments which change the size) don't
have an effect on the loop.
If <expr> yields a mapping, the loop will run over the indices
the mapping had at the begin of the loop. Deleted indices are silently
skipped, new indices ignored, but changes of the data of existing
indices are acknowledged.
If <expr> yields a string, the value used at the start of the loop
The additional syntax forms using "in" as keyword are meant
to make re-engineering of MudOS objects easier. Do not use them
for newly written code, as they may not be available in future.
// Call quit() in all interactive users
foreach(o : users()) o->quit();
foreach(object o : users()) o->quit();
// Print the contents of a mapping <m>
foreach(key, value : m) printf("%O:%O\n", key, value);
foreach(mixed key, mixed value : m) printf("%O:%O\n", key, value);
// Don't change the content of a string: s remains "FOOBAR".
s = "FOOBAR";
foreach(i : s) i += 32;
// Do change the content of a string: s will become "foobar".
s = "FOOBAR";
foreach(i : &s) i += 32;
// Count from 0 to 5
foreach(i : 6) printf("%d\n", i);
// Count from 1 to 6
foreach(i : 1 .. 6) printf("%d\n", i);
LDMud 3.3.44 introduced the use of references, the loop over
an integer expression, and the loop over an integer range.
LDMud 3.3.266 added support for structs.