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This Bundle provides various tools to rapidly develop RESTful API's with Symfony2

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README.md

RestBundle

This bundle provides various tools to rapidly develop RESTful API's & applications with Symfony2.

Its currently under development so key pieces that are planned are still missing.

For now the Bundle provides a view layer to enable output format agnostic Controllers, which includes the ability to handle redirects differently based on a service container aware Serializer service that can lazy load encoders and normalizers.

Furthermore a custom route loader can be used to when following a method naming convention to automatically provide routes for multiple actions by simply configuring the name of a controller.

It also has support for RESTful decoding of HTTP request body and Accept headers as well as a custom Exception controller that assists in using appropriate HTTP status codes.

Eventually the bundle will also provide normalizers for form and validator instances as well as provide a solution to generation end user documentation describing the REST API.

Installation

1. Add this bundle to your project as a Git submodule:

    $ git submodule add git://github.com/FriendsOfSymfony/RestBundle.git vendor/bundles/FOS/RestBundle

2. Add the FOS namespace to your autoloader:

    // app/autoload.php
    $loader->registerNamespaces(array(
        'FOS' => __DIR__.'/../vendor/bundles',
        // your other namespaces
    ));

3. Add this bundle to your application's kernel:

    // application/ApplicationKernel.php
    public function registerBundles()
    {
      return array(
          // ...
          new FOS\RestBundle\FOSRestBundle(),
          // ...
      );
    }

Examples

The LiipHelloBundle provides several examples for the RestBundle: https://github.com/liip/HelloBundle

There is also a fork of the Symfony2 Standard Edition that is configured to show the LiipHelloBundle examples: https://github.com/lsmith77/symfony-standard/tree/techtalk

Configuration

Basic configuration

The RestBundle allows adapting several classes it uses. Alternatively entire services may be adapted. In the following examples the default Json encoder class is modified and a custom serializer service is configured:

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    classes:
        json: MyProject\MyBundle\Serializer\Encoder\JsonEncoder
    services:
        serializer: my.serializer

Note the service for the RSS encoder needs to be defined in a custom bundle:

<service id="my.encoder.rss" class="MyProject\MyBundle\Serializer\Encoder\RSSEncoder" />

View support

Registering a custom encoder requires modifying your configuration options. Following is an example adding support for a custom RSS encoder while removing support for xml.

When using View::setResourceRoute() the default behavior of forcing a redirect to the route for html is disabled.

The default JSON encoder class is modified and a custom serializer service is configured.

The a default normalizer is registered with the `fos_rest.get_set_method_normalizer.

Also a default key for any form instances inside view parameters is set to form.

Finally the HTTP response status code for failed validation is set to 400:

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    formats:
        rss: my.encoder.rss
        xml: false
    force_redirects:
        html: false
    normalizers:
        - "fos_rest.get_set_method_normalizer"
    default_form_key: form
    failed_validation: HTTP_BAD_REQUEST

Listener support

To enable the Request body decoding and Request format listener simply adapt your configuration as follows:

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    format_listener: true
    body_listener: true

In the behavior of the format listener can be configured in a more granular fashion. Below you can see the defaults in case format_listener is set to true as above:

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    format_listener:
        default_priorities:
            - html
            - "*/*"
        fallback_format: html

You may also specify a default_format that the routing loader will use for the _format parameter if none is specified.

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    routing_loader:
        default_format: json

Note that setting default_priorities to a non empty array enables Accept header negotiations. Also note in case for example more complex Accept header negotiations are required, the user should either set a custom ControllerListener class or register their own "onKernelController" event.

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    classes:
        format_listener: MyProject\MyBundle\Controller\ControllerListener

Note see the section about the view support in regards to how to register/deregister encoders for specific formats as the request body decoding uses encoders for decoding.

SensioFrameworkExtraBundle support

This requires adding the SensioFrameworkExtraBundle to you vendors:

$ git submodule add git://github.com/sensio/SensioFrameworkExtraBundle.git vendor/bundles/Sensio/Bundle/FrameworkExtraBundle

Make sure to disable view annotations in the SensioFrameworkExtraBundle config, enable or disable any of the other features depending on your needs:

# app/config.yml
sensio_framework_extra:
    view:    { annotations: false }
    router:  { annotations: true }

Finally enable the SensioFrameworkExtraBundle listener in the RestBundle:

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    frameworkextra_bundle: true

JMSSerializerBundle support

Note: Temporarily please use this fork https://github.com/lsmith77/SerializerBundle/tree/use_core

This requires adding the JMSSerializerBundle to you vendors:

$ git submodule add git://github.com/schmittjoh/SerializerBundle.git vendor/bundles/JMS/SerializerBundle

Finally enable the JMSSerializerBundle support in the RestBundle:

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    serializer_bundle: true

When using JMSSerializerBundle the normalizers config option is ignored as in this case annotations should be used to register specific normalizers for a given class.

ExceptionController support

The RestBundle view layer aware ExceptionController is enabled as follows:

# app/config.yml
framework:
    exception_controller: "FOS\RestBundle\Controller\ExceptionController::showAction"

To map Exception classes to HTTP response status codes an exception_map may be configured, where the keys match a fully qualified class name and the values are either an integer HTTP response status code or a string matching a class constant of the FOS\RestBundle\Response\Codes class:

# app/config.yml
fos_rest:
    exception:
        codes:
            "Symfony\Component\Routing\Matcher\Exception\NotFoundException": 404
            "Doctrine\ORM\OptimisticLockException": HTTP_CONFLICT
        messages:
            "Acme\HelloBundle\Exception\MyExceptionWithASafeMessage": true

Routing

The RestBundle provides custom route loaders to help in defining REST friendly routes.

Single RESTful controller routes

# app/config/routing.yml
users:
  type:     rest
  resource: Acme\HelloBundle\Controller\UsersController

This will tell Symfony2 to automatically generate proper REST routes from your UsersController action names. Notice type: rest option. It's required so that the RestBundle can find which routes are supported.

Define resource actions

class UsersController extends Controller
{
    public function getUsersAction()
    {} // `get_users`    [GET] /users

    public function newUsersAction()
    {} // `new_users`    [GET] /users/new

    public function postUsersAction()
    {} // `post_users`   [POST] /users

    public function patchUsersAction()
    {} // `patch_users`   [PATCH] /users

    public function getUserAction($slug)
    {} // `get_user`     [GET] /users/{slug}

    public function editUserAction($slug)
    {} // `edit_user`    [GET] /users/{slug}/edit

    public function putUserAction($slug)
    {} // `put_user`     [PUT] /users/{slug}

    public function patchUserAction($slug)
    {} // `patch_user`   [PATCH] /users/{slug}

    public function lockUserAction($slug)
    {} // `lock_user`    [PUT] /users/{slug}/lock

    public function banUserAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `ban_user`     [PUT] /users/{slug}/ban

    public function removeUserAction($slug)
    {} // `remove_user`  [GET] /users/{slug}/remove

    public function deleteUserAction($slug)
    {} // `delete_user`  [DELETE] /users/{slug}

    public function getUserCommentsAction($slug)
    {} // `get_user_comments`    [GET] /users/{slug}/comments

    public function newUserCommentsAction($slug)
    {} // `new_user_comments`    [GET] /users/{slug}/comments/new

    public function postUserCommentsAction($slug)
    {} // `post_user_comments`   [POST] /users/{slug}/comments

    public function getUserCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `get_user_comment`     [GET] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}

    public function editUserCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `edit_user_comment`    [GET] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}/edit

    public function putUserCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `put_user_comment`     [PUT] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}

    public function voteUserCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `vote_user_comment`    [PUT] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}/vote

    public function removeUserCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `remove_user_comment`  [GET] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}/remove

    public function deleteUserCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `delete_user_comment`  [DELETE] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}
}

That's all. All your resource (UsersController) actions will get mapped to the proper routes as shown in the comments in the above example. Here are a few things to note:

REST Actions

There are 5 actions that have special meaning in regards to REST and have the following behavior:

  • get - this action accepts GET requests to the url /resources and returns all resources for this type. Shown as UsersController::getUsersAction() above. This action also accepts GET requests to the url /resources/{id} and returns a single resource for this type. Shown as UsersController::getUserAction() above.
  • post - this action accepts POST requests to the url /resources and creates a new resource of this type. Shown as UsersController::postUsersAction() above.
  • put - this action accepts PUT requests to the url /resources/{id} and updates a single resource for this type. Shown as UsersController::putUserAction() above.
  • delete - this action accepts DELETE requests to the url /resources/{id} and deltes a single resource for this type. Shown as UsersController::deleteUserAction() above.
  • patch - this action accepts PATCH requests to the url /resources and is supposed to partially modify collection of resources (e.g. apply batch modifications to subset of resources). Shown as UsersController::patchUsersAction() above. This action also accepts PATCH requests to the url /resources/{id} and is supposed to partially modify the resource. Shown as UsersController::patchUserAction() above.

Conventional Actions

HATEOAS, or Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State, is an aspect of REST which allows clients to interact with the REST service with hypertext - most commonly through an HTML page. There are 3 Conventional Action routings that are supported by this bundle:

  • new - A hypermedia representation that acts as the engine to POST. Typically this is a form that allows the client to POST a new resource. Shown as UsersController::newUsersAction() above.
  • edit - A hypermedia representation that acts as the engine to PUT. Typically this is a form that allows the client to PUT, or update, an existing resource. Shown as UsersController::editUserAction() above.
  • remove - A hypermedia representation that acts as the engine to DELETE. Typically this is a form that allows the client to DELETE an existing resource. Commonly a confirmation form. Shown as UsersController::removeUserAction() above.

Custom PUT Actions

All actions that do not match the ones listed in the sections above will register as a PUT action. In the controller shown above, these actions are UsersController::lockUserAction() and UsersController::banUserAction(). You could just as easily create a method called UsersController::promoteUserAction() which would take a PUT request to the url /users/{slug}/promote. This allows for easy updating of aspects of a resource, without having to deal with the resource as a whole at the standard PUT endpoint.

Sub-Resource Actions

Of course it's possible and common to have sub or child resources. They are easily defined within the same controller by following the naming convention ResourceController::actionResourceSubResource() - as seen in the example above with UsersController::getUserCommentsAction(). This is a good strategy to follow when the child resource needs the parent resource's ID in order to look up itself.

Relational RESTful controllers routes

Sometimes it's better to place subresource actions in their own controller, especially when you have more than 2 subresource actions.

Resource collection

In this case, you must first specify resource relations in special rest YML or XML collection:

# src/Acme/HelloBundle/Resources/config/users_routes.yml
users:
  type:     rest
  resource: "@AcmeHello\Controller\UsersController"

comments:
  type:     rest
  parent:   users
  resource: "@AcmeHello\Controller\CommentsController"

Notice parent: users option in the second case. This option specifies that the comments resource is child of the users resource. In this case, your UsersController MUST always have a single resource get... action:

class UsersController extends Controller
{
    public function getUserAction($slug)
    {} // `get_user`   [GET] /users/{slug}

    ...
}

It's used to determine the parent collection name. Controller name itself not used in routes auto-generation process and can be any name you like.

Define child resource controller

CommentsController actions now will looks like:

class CommentsController extends Controller
{
    public function voteCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `vote_user_comment`   [PUT] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}/vote

    public function getCommentsAction($slug)
    {} // `get_user_comments`   [GET] /users/{slug}/comments

    public function getCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `get_user_comment`    [GET] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}

    public function deleteCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `delete_user_comment` [DELETE] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}

    public function newCommentsAction($slug)
    {} // `new_user_comments`   [GET] /users/{slug}/comments/new

    public function editCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `edit_user_comment`   [GET] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}/edit

    public function removeCommentAction($slug, $id)
    {} // `remove_user_comment` [GET] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}/remove
}

Notice, we got rid of the User part in action names. That is because the RestBundle routing already knows, that CommentsController::... is child resources of UsersController::getUser() resource.

Include resource collections in application routing

Last step is mapping of your collection routes into the application routing.yml:

# app/config/routing.yml
users:
  type:     rest
  resource: "@AcmeHello/Resources/config/users_routes.yml"

That's all. Note that it's important to use the type: rest param when including your application's routing file. Without it, rest routes will still work but resource collections will fail. If you get an exception that contains ...routing loader does not support given key: "parent"... then you are most likely missing the type: rest param in your application level routes include.

Routes naming

RestBundle uses REST paths to generate route name. This means, that URL:

[PUT] /users/{slug}/comments/{id}/vote

will become the route with the name:

vote_user_comment

For further examples, see comments of controllers in the code above.

Naming collisions

Sometimes, routes auto-naming will lead to route names collisions, so RestBundle route collections provides a name_prefix (name-prefix for xml and @NamePrefix for annotations) parameter:

# src/Acme/HelloBundle/Resources/config/users_routes.yml
comments:
  type:         rest
  resource:     "@AcmeHello\Controller\CommentsController"
  name_prefix:  api_

With this configuration, route name would become:

api_vote_user_comment

Say NO to name collisions!

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